Vitreous and porcelain enamels - Terminology - Part 1: Terms and definitions (ISO 19496-1:2017)

This European Standard defines a number of terms relating to vitreous and porcelain enamels and their technology. This list is not complete and only comprises those terms for which the definition is considered necessary for correct and adequate understanding in order to clarify these processes.
It should be understood that the interpretations given are those corresponding to the practical usage in this field and that they do not necessarily coincide with those used in other fields.
For purposes of clarification, the term Vitreous Enamel, used throughout this European Standard, is synonymous with Porcelain Enamel, the term favoured in the United States and some other countries.

Emails und Emaillierungen - Terminologie - Teil 1: Begriffe (ISO 19496-1:2017)

Diese Europäische Norm definiert eine Reihe von Begriffen, die Emails und Emaillierungen sowie zugehörige Technologien betreffen. Die Auflistung der Begriffe ist nicht vollständig und umfasst nur die Begriffe, deren Definition für ein richtiges und ausreichendes Verständnis als notwendig erachtet wird, um die betreffenden Prozesse zu erläutern.
Es sollte berücksichtigt werden, dass die angeführten Erläuterungen praxisnah für das Gebiet der Emails und Emaillierungen sind und dass sie nicht zwangsläufig denen entsprechen, die auf anderen Gebieten verwendet werden.
Zur besseren Übersichtlichkeit steht der englischsprachige Begriff „vitreous enamel“, der in dem (englisch-sprachigen) Dokument durchgängig verwendet wird, gleichbedeutend für den in den Vereinigten Staaten und einigen anderen Ländern bevorzugt verwendeten Begriff „porcelain enamel“.

Emaux vitrifiés - Terminologie - Partie 1: Termes et définitions (ISO 19496-1:2017)

ISO 19496-1:2017 définit un certain nombre de termes relatifs aux émaux vitrifiés et à leur technologie. La liste n'est pas exhaustive et ne comprend que les termes dont la définition est considérée comme nécessaire à la bonne compréhension, afin de clarifier ces processus.
Les interprétations données sont celles qui correspondent à l'usage pratique dans ce domaine, et qu'elles ne coïncident pas nécessairement avec celles d'autres domaines.
À titre de clarification, le terme anglais «vitreous enamel», utilisé dans tout le présent document, est synonyme du terme anglais «porcelain enamel», qui est le terme usité aux États-Unis et dans certains pays.

Steklasti in keramični emajli - Terminologija - 1. del: Izrazi in definicije (ISO 19496-1:2017)

Ta evropski standard določa številne izraze, ki se nanašajo na steklaste in keramične emajle ter njihovo tehnologijo. Seznam ni popoln in vsebuje samo tiste izraze, pri katerih je definicija potrebna za pravilno in ustrezno razumevanje za pojasnitev teh procesov.
Razumeli naj bi, da podane interpretacije ustrezajo praktični uporabi na tem področju in ni nujno, da se ujemajo z drugimi področji.
Za namene pojasnitve je izraz »steklast emajl«, ki se uporablja v tem evropskem standardu, sinonim izraza »keramični emajl«, ki se uporablja v ZDA in nekaterih drugih državah.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
21-Apr-2016
Publication Date
17-May-2017
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
25-Apr-2017
Due Date
30-Jun-2017
Completion Date
18-May-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
01-junij-2017
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6WHNODVWLLQNHUDPLþQLHPDMOL7HUPLQRORJLMDGHO,]UD]LLQGHILQLFLMH ,62



Vitreous and porcelain enamels - Terminology - Part 1: Terms and definitions (ISO

19496-1:2017)
Emails und Emaillierungen - Terminologie - Teil 1: Begriffe (ISO 19496-1:2017)

Emaux vitrifiés - Terminologie - Partie 1: Termes et définitions (ISO 19496-1:2017)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 19496-1:2017
ICS:
01.040.25 Izdelavna tehnika (Slovarji) Manufacturing engineering
(Vocabularies)
25.220.50 Emajlne prevleke Enamels
SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
EN ISO 19496-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 01.040.25; 25.220.50 Supersedes EN 15826:2009
English Version
Vitreous and porcelain enamels - Terminology - Part 1:
Terms and definitions (ISO 19496-1:2017)

Emaux vitrifiés - Terminologie - Partie 1: Termes et Emails und Emaillierungen - Terminologie - Teil 1:

définitions (ISO 19496-1:2017) Begriffe (ISO 19496-1:2017)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 March 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 19496-1:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
EN ISO 19496-1:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
EN ISO 19496-1:2017 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 19496-1:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 107

“Metallic and other inorganic coatings” in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 262

“Metallic and other inorganic coatings, including for corrosion protection and corrosion testing of

metals and alloys” the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2017, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
This document supersedes EN 15826:2009.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 19496-1:2017 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 19496-1:2017 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19496-1
First edition
2017-03
Vitreous and porcelain enamels —
Terminology —
Part 1:
Terms and definitions
Emaux vitrifiés — Terminologie —
Partie 1: Termes et définitions
Reference number
ISO 19496-1:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
ISO 19496-1:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
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Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
ISO 19496-1:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Annex A (normative) Cross reference index of alternative terms.......................................................................................26

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
ISO 19496-1:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: w w w . i s o .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 107, Metallic and other inorganic coatings.

A list of all parts in the ISO 19496 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19496-1:2017(E)
Vitreous and porcelain enamels — Terminology —
Part 1:
Terms and definitions
1 Scope

This document defines a number of terms relating to vitreous and porcelain enamels and their

technology. This list is not complete and only comprises those terms for which the definition is

considered necessary for correct and adequate understanding in order to clarify these processes.

The interpretations given are those corresponding to the practical usage in this field and they do not

necessarily coincide with those used in other fields.

For purposes of clarification, the term “vitreous enamel”, used throughout this document, is

synonymous with “porcelain enamel”, the term favoured in the United States and some other countries.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp

NOTE Annex A lists alternative terms and cross refers to primary terms used below.

3.1
abrasive blasting

process for cleaning (3.44) or finishing by means of an abrasive directed at high velocity against the

work piece
3.2
abrasion resistance
degree of resistance of vitreous enamel (3.255) to be abraded by solid materials
3.3
acid resistance

degree of resistance of vitreous enamel (3.255) to attack by acidic corrosive chemicals

3.4
adherence
adhesion

degree of bonding between the fused vitreous enamel (3.255) and the

metallic substrate
3.5
adherence of powder

ability of a vitreous enamel powder to remain attached by static attraction to a grounded substrate

(3.242) before firing (3.111)
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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
ISO 19496-1:2017(E)
3.6
ageing

change in properties of vitreous enamel slips, powders, reagents, or steel with the lapse of time

3.7
air seal
air curtain

flow of pressurized air across the entrance and exit of a continuous furnace (3.53) that prevents heat

escaping from the furnace but allows ware to pass through
3.8
alkali degreasing

removal of oil, grease, lubricants, and loose debris from the surface of the metallic substrate by

immersion or spraying with an aqueous alkali degreaser in preparation for vitreous enamelling (3.256)

3.9
alkali resistance

degree of resistance of vitreous enamel (3.255) to attack by alkaline corrosive mediums

3.10
aluminium enamel

vitreous enamel (3.255) specifically formulated for application on aluminium substrates

3.11
anneal
annealing

thermal treatment of metals generally made by controlled heating and subsequent cooling

Note 1 to entry: Raw castings are heated in the range from 650 °C to 950 °C to relieve stresses and strains, burn

off grease and in some cases to change the structure of the iron and in so doing improve the castings condition

prior to coating with vitreous enamel.
3.12
anti-scale compound

agent that is applied to furnace tooling and other items to protect them from scaling (3.210) during

firing (3.111)
3.13
back emission
back ionization

defect often with the appearance of localized, very heavy orange peel (3.160),

due to excessive charge build-up in the powder film resulting in electrical breakdown of air (i.e. back

emission)

Note 1 to entry: The effect of the self-limiting characteristics of the electrostatic powder during application.

3.14
ball mill

ceramic or ceramic-lined rotating cylinder in which vitreous enamel materials are either wet or dry

ground, generally using alumina, porcelain or steatite balls as grinding media
3.15
batch smelter
discontinuous smelter

smelter which is charged, fired, and discharged according to a predetermined periodic cycle

3.16
bead

defect resulting from accumulation of vitreous enamel (3.255) usually at the point where the enamel

drains off the ware in dipping (3.78) (3.79)
2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
ISO 19496-1:2017(E)
3.17
beading
rim enamelling
application of ridge of vitreous enamel (3.255) along the edge or rim of ware
3.18
beading enamel
rim enamel
vitreous enamel (3.255) specifically formulated for beading (3.17)
3.19
biocide

anti-bacterial agent used to inhibit fermentation of organic mill additions (3.150) such as gums

3.20
bisque
dry unfired vitreous enamel coating
3.21
black specks
defect that appears as black particles at the surface of vitreous enamel coating
Note 1 to entry: See boiling (3.26) and carbon boil (3.34).

Note 2 to entry: This can be the result of reaction with the substrate or with contamination on the substrate

surface.
3.22
blank

sized piece of untreated metal sheet that will be used in forming the finished article

3.23
blasting

process whereby solid metallic, mineral, synthetic resin, vegetable particles or water are projected at

high velocity against a work piece for the purpose of cleaning (3.44), abrading or shot peening the surface

3.24
blister

defect that appears as a localized bubble under the surface of the fired vitreous enamel (3.255)

3.25
bloom
visual exudation or efflorescence on the vitreous enamel surface
Note 1 to entry: See scumming (3.212).
3.26
boiling

defect resembling areas of ground-coat (3.135) pull-through, blisters (3.24) and pinholes (3.169), visible

after first cover-coat fire
Note 1 to entry: See carbon boil (3.34) and black specks (3.21).

Note 2 to entry: This can be the result of excessive ground-coat activity during cover-coat fire, as the ground-coat

boils up through the cover-coat it may be accompanied by a release of gases.
3.27
bolt-hole brush

specially-designed round brush used to remove vitreous enamel bisque from in and around small

openings in the ware
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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
ISO 19496-1:2017(E)
3.28
box furnace
furnace in which ware is fired according to a predetermined periodic cycle
3.29
break out
defect characterized by areas of blisters (3.24) having well-defined boundaries
3.30
bubble structure
size and spatial distribution of voids within the fired vitreous enamel layer
3.31
burn-off

defect that appears as a localized area of rough oxides erupting through the enamel coating

Note 1 to entry: This can be caused by too thin an application of enamel, allowing excessive oxidation of the metal

substrate during firing, leading to super saturation of the enamel coating with metal oxides.

3.32
burning bar
burning point
burning tool
tool used to suspend or support ware during firing operations
3.33
button test
fusion button test

control test to determine the relative fusibility of vitreous enamel frit or powder

Note 1 to entry: See fusion flow test (3.126).
Note 2 to entry: The completed test specimen resembles a button.
3.34
carbon boil

defect resembling areas of blisters (3.24), pinholes (3.169), or black specks (3.21), visible in fired vitreous

enamel (3.255)
Note 1 to entry: See boiling (3.26) and black specks (3.21).

Note 2 to entry: Result of the oxidation of carbides and free carbon at or near the surface of the steel substrate

during firing, resulting in evolution of gasses.
3.35
cascading

defect that starts with a few particles of powder detaching themselves after

application and as they cascade down the ware they gather more and more powder leaving a trail of

thinner and thinner coating

Note 1 to entry: Excess powder, inadequate powder adhesion and vibration contribute to this defect.

3.36
cast iron enamel

vitreous enamel (3.255) specifically formulated for application on cast iron substrate

3.37
cermet
ceramic-metal coating

mixture of one or more ceramic materials in combination with a metallic phase applied to a metallic

substrate
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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
ISO 19496-1:2017(E)
3.38
chalkboard enamel
blackboard enamel
special type of matt vitreous enamel used to provide a writing surface for chalk
3.39
chalky surface

surface defect where the vitreous enamel surface has lost its gloss (3.131) and taken on a powdery

appearance
Note 1 to entry: See scumming (3.212).
3.40
chemical resistance
degree of resistance of vitreous enamel (3.255) to attack by corrosive chemicals
3.41
chipping

defect characterized by fracturing and detachment of irregular enamel particles from the vitreous

enamel surface
3.42
cleanability

relative ease with which soils or stains can be removed from a fused vitreous enamel surface

3.43
cleaner

pre-treatment solution, usually alkaline, used to remove oil, grease, lubricants, and loose debris from

the surface of metal substrate in preparation for vitreous enamelling (3.256)
3.44
cleaning
degreasing

removal of foreign materials, such as abraded metallic particles from pressing or blasting (3.23), grease,

oil, oxides, scale (3.209), rust, swarf, etc., from the surface
Note 1 to entry: See vapour degreasing (3.252).
3.45
clear frit
transparent frit

vitreous enamelling (3.256) frit that remains essentially transparent or non-opaque when fused

3.46
coefficient of expansion

rate at which a material will expand under the influence of increasing temperature

3.47
cold-rolled steel

low-carbon, cold-reduced and annealed sheet steel, not necessarily enamelling quality

3.48
colour matching

comparison of two or more samples of products that are notionally the same colour

3.49
colouring oxide

calcined mixture of inorganic material used as a mill addition (3.150) to impart colour to a vitreous

enamel (3.255)
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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
ISO 19496-1:2017(E)
3.50
coloured frit

vitreous enamel frit containing a colorant in order to produce a strong colour in the fired vitreous

enamel (3.255)
3.51
consistency

rheological properties of a vitreous enamel slip that control its draining (3.87), flowing, and spraying

behaviour
3.52
continuity of coating

degree to which a vitreous enamel (3.255) is free from defects such as bare spots, boiling (3.26), blisters

(3.24), or copperheads (3.58), etc., that could reduce its protective and/or its aesthetic properties

Note 1 to entry: See discontinuity (3.82).
3.53
continuous furnace

furnace through which ware is fed continuously and from which the fired product is discharged

continuously
3.54
continuous smelter
smelter from which the molten product is discharged continuously
3.55
conventional enamelling

application of vitreous enamel ground coat(s) and cover coat(s), each one followed by a firing operation

3.56
cooling zone

exit part of a continuous furnace (3.53) in which the ware is allowed to cool after firing (3.111)

3.57
copper enamels

vitreous enamels (3.255) specifically formulated for application on copper substrate

3.58
copperheads

defect resembling small freckle or pimple-like reddish brown spots occurring in ground-coats (3.135),

or direct-on enamels (3.255) on iron substrates, in principle in an isolated round burn-off (3.31)

3.59
cover coat enamel

vitreous enamel (3.255) with specific chemical, physical and/or aesthetic properties applied as either

intermediate or final coat
3.60
covering power
degree to which a vitreous enamel coating obscures the underlying surface
3.61
crack
cracking

defect caused by laminar interruptions in the fused coating running vertical to the surface

Note 1 to entry: Cracking can also occur at different angles.

Note 2 to entry: The causes are mainly the result of mechanical or thermal tensile stresses within the enamel

coating.
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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
ISO 19496-1:2017(E)
3.62
crawling
curling

incomplete formation of the enamel layer on the substrate (3.242) with the appearance of agglomerates

or irregularly spaced islands in the vitreous enamel (3.255) during firing (3.111)

3.63
crazing
defect resembling a network of fine cracks (3.61) in the vitreous enamel coating
3.64
cross-bend test

determination of the resistance of bisque (3.20) or fused vitreous enamel coating to cracking (3.61) by

progressively distorting the coated panels by bending
3.65
cup spray gun
cup-gun
spray gun (3.235) with a fluid container as an integral part
3.66
cupping

pouring of vitreous enamel slip over areas of a component during draining (3.87) to improve coverage

in certain areas
3.67
curtains

defect with the appearance of a draped pattern of darkened areas that sometimes blisters (3.24)

Note 1 to entry: Curtains occur mainly in ground-coats and direct-on enamels but may also be seen in cover coats.

3.68
decal
transfer

design or wording printed on paper with ceramic ink (3.211) and transferred to a fired enamel surface

and then refired to form an integral part of the vitreous enamel coating
3.69
decarburized steel
zero carbon steel
special type of steel sheet of extremely low carbon content

Note 1 to entry: This type of steel is suitable for direct-on white cover-coat application after acid pickle and

nickel flash.

Note 2 to entry: Decarburized steel does not undergo a permanent phase change during firing hence it is sag

resistant and is therefore suitable for large panels, etc.
3.70
de-beading
removal of excess vitreous enamel slip from the edge of dipped ware
3.71
decking
multiple layer loading of ware for drying and/or firing (3.111)
3.72
de-enamelling
removal of fired vitreous enamel (3.255) from the metallic substrate
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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
ISO 19496-1:2017(E)
3.73
de-setting agent
electrolytes that reduce the viscosity (3.254) of the vitreous enamel slip
3.74
delayed fish-scale

small half-moon shaped defects occurring in the vitreous enamelled surface which are not immediately

apparent on cooling
Note 1 to entry: See fish-scale (3.116).
3.75
de-vitrification
change from the vitrified state to the crystalline state

Note 1 to entry: Some vitreous enamels will de-vitrify to produce dull lustre and opacity.

3.76
dimple
defect resembling a shallow depression in the vitreous enamel surface
3.77
dip weight
pick-up
plate weight

amount of vitreous enamel (3.255) retained on a test plate after dipping (3.78) (3.79), flow coating

(3.119) or by slushing (3.226)

Note 1 to entry: This is specified as either dry weight or wet weight retained per unit area on a test plate.

3.78
dipping
swilling

application of vitreous enamel (3.255) by immersing the component in a bath of vitreous

enamel slip and subsequent removal of excess enamel by draining (3.87)
3.79
dipping

application of vitreous enamel (3.255) in dry process enamelling (3.90) by briefly

immersing the red hot component in powdered frit
3.80
direct fired furnace
open flame furnace

Note 1 to entry: The products of combustion come into contact with the ware during firing.

3.81
direct-on-enamelling

vitreous enamel coating, applied directly onto the metallic substrate and functioning as either a ground

coat or as a finish coat
3.82
discontinuity
weakness within the vitreous enamel coating that is detected by spark testing
3.83
double draining

evidence of further flow having occurred after the apparent end of draining (3.87)

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ISO 19496-1:2017(E)
3.84
double-face ware
ware that has a finish coating on both surfaces
3.85
drain line
defect resembling a streak of thicker or thinner enamel (3.255)

Note 1 to entry: Drain lines result from the flow of excess enamel after dipping.

3.86
drain time

time required for vitreous enamel slip applied by dipping (3.78) (3.79), slushing (3.226), or flow coating

(3.119) to complete its movement across the surfaces of a coated part
3.87
draining

removal of excess vitreous enamel slip from the ware after dipping (3.78) (3.79), slushing (3.226) or flow

coating (3.119)
3.88
dredge

sieve used to apply powdered vitreous enamel frit to hot ware in dry process enamelling (3.90)

3.89
dry milling
dry grinding
milling/grinding of vitreous enamel materials in the absence of liquid
3.90
dry process enamelling

process whereby cast iron components are heated to a temperature above the maturing temperature of

the vitreous enamel (3.255), then coated with vitreous enamel powder by hot dusting (3.139)/dredging

(3.139) or dipping (3.78) (3.79) and subsequently fired
3.91
dry spray
appearance of a rough sandy texture on spray coated ware

Note 1 to entry: Dry spray is the result of not wetting out the wet sprayed surface.

3.92
dry weight
weight of the vitreous enamel bisque per unit area
Note 1 to entry: See dip weight (3.77).
3.93
drying crack

defect characterized as a fissure in the bisque (3.20), visible after firing (3.111)

3.94
dulling
lustreless finish to the vitreous enamelled surface
3.95
dust coat
relatively thin, sprayed coating of vitreous enamel slip
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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
ISO 19496-1:2017(E)
3.96
easy-to-clean enamel
ETC enamel

vitreous enamel (3.255) specifically formulated to allow the easy removal of food soil deposits from

its surface
Note 1 to entry: ETC enamel needs to be neither pyrolytic nor catalytic.
3.97
edging

process of removing vitreous enamel bisque from the edge of a piece of ware to expose the underlying

vitreous enamel (3.255)

Note 1 to entry: Edging is also used to describe the spraying of special slip onto the edge of the ware.

3.98
edging brush

stiff bristled brush with a metal guide, used for removal of vitreous enamel bisque from edges of ware

before the firing operation
3.99
eggshell

fused vitreous enamel surface exhibiting a smooth, matt texture, reminiscent of an egg shell

Note 1 to entry: In sanitary ware, it is a defect.
3.100
electrophoretic deposition

deposition of vitreous enamel particles onto a work-piece from an enamel slip under the influence of an

applied direct current voltage
3.101
electrostatic dry powder application

process in which the component is coated by electrostatically charged vitreous enamel powder

3.102
electrostatic wet application

process in which the component is coated by electrostatically charged vitreous enamel slip

3.103
enamelling aluminium

aluminium suitable for use as a metallic substrate for vitreous enamelling (3.256)

3.104
enamelling cast iron

cast iron suitable for use as a metallic substrate for vitreous enamelling (3.256)

3.105
enamelling iron

cold reduced low carbon steel, specifically produced as a metallic substrate for vitreous enamelling (3.256)

3.106
etched

loss of gloss (3.131) and/or roughening of the surface as a result of chemical attack

3.107
Faraday cage effect

defect resulting from poor penetration by charged enamel particles into

concave areas leading to thin spray and potentially to burn-off (3.31)
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SIST EN ISO 19496-1:2017
ISO 19496-1:2017(E)
3.108
film strength
relative resistance of the vitreous enamel bisque to mechanical damage
Note 1 to entry: See cross-bend test (3.64).
3.109
fineness test

control test used to measure the degree to which a vitreous enamel frit has been milled in either the

wet or dry form, usually expressed in grams residue retained on a particular mesh sieve from a given

sample size
3.110
fire tool marks
burning tool marks
fire marks
pin marks
point marks

defect characterized by very small indentations similar in appearance to shallow pinholes (3.169)

Note 1 to entry: Fire tool marks may also appear on the surface opposite to the point of contact with the

supporting tool.
3.111
firing

controlled heat treatment of vitreous enamelled ware in a furnace, in order to fuse and develop the

coating’s desired properties
3.112
firing range

time-temperature interval in which a vitreous enamel (3.255) or ceramic coating is satisfactorily fused

3.113
firing temperature
maturing temperature

temperature at which vitreous enamel (3.255) must be held for a selected time to achieve

...

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