Railway applications - Crashworthiness requirements for rail vehicles

This European Standard applies to new designs of locomotives and passenger carrying rolling stock as defined in categories C-I to C-IV of Clause 4 taking into consideration the recommendations given in Annex E on the application of the standard (migration rule). It is intended to protect vehicle occupants, through the preservation of structural integrity, and does not extend to other railway employees and customers who are not in vehicles, or to third parties. The specified requirements relate to the technical and operational conditions of use that prevail in the CEN member countries. The design of new vehicles for use in passenger trains is based on operations with compatible rolling stock that also meet this standard. It is recognised that operational requirements will require new crashworthy and existing non-crashworthy vehicles to exist in the same train unit but such combinations of vehicles are not required to comply with this European Standard.
The requirements apply to the vehicle body, and to those mechanical elements directly associated with it that may be used to absorb energy in a collision, such as couplers, buffing systems etc. They do not cover the safety features of doors, windows, system components or interior features except for specific issues relating to the preservation of survival space.
The requirements do not cover all possible accident scenarios but provide a level of crashworthiness that will reduce the consequences of an accident, when the active safety measures have been inadequate. The requirement is to provide a level of protection by addressing the most common types of collision that cause injuries and fatalities.
The applicable design collision scenarios, and suitable parameters for normal European operations, are given in Clause 5. Annex A gives additional information regarding the derivation of the scenarios and describes situations when they may need to be modified and the processes that should then be followed.

Bahnanwendungen - Anforderungen für die Kollisionssicherheit von Schienenfahrzeugen

Applications ferroviaires - Exigences de sécurité contre collision pour véhicules ferroviaires

Le présent document spécifie les exigences de l’aptitude à la collision applicables aux nouvelles conceptions de :
   locomotives ;
   véhicules avec cabine de conduite en exploitation dans des trains de passagers et de marchandises ;
   véhicules ferroviaires destinés au transport de passagers en exploitation dans des trains de passagers (tels que tramways, métros, trains de grande ligne).
Le présent document identifie les méthodes courantes de sécurité passive qui peuvent être adaptées pour convenir aux exigences particulières de chaque véhicule.
Le présent document spécifie les caractéristiques des modèles d'obstacles de référence pour les scénarios de collision de conception.
Le présent document spécifie également les exigences et les méthodes permettant de démontrer que les objectifs de sécurité passive sont atteints par comparaison avec les conceptions éprouvées actuelles, par simulation numérique, par des essais de composants ou des essais en grandeur réelle, ou une combinaison de toutes ces méthodes.

Železniške naprave - Zahteve za zagotavljanje varnosti železniških vozil pri trčenju

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Jan-2017
Publication Date
22-Apr-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
16-Apr-2020
Due Date
21-Jun-2020
Completion Date
23-Apr-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 15227:2020
01-junij-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 15227:2008+A1:2010

Železniške naprave - Zahteve za zagotavljanje varnosti železniških vozil pri trčenju

Railway applications - Crashworthiness requirements for rail vehicles

Bahnanwendungen - Anforderungen für die Kollisionssicherheit von Schienenfahrzeugen

Applications ferroviaires - Exigences de sécurité contre collision pour véhicules

ferroviaires
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 15227:2020
ICS:
45.060.01 Železniška vozila na splošno Railway rolling stock in
general
SIST EN 15227:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 15227:2020
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SIST EN 15227:2020
EN 15227
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 45.060.01 Supersedes EN 15227:2008+A1:2010
English Version
Railway applications - Crashworthiness requirements for
rail vehicles

Applications ferroviaires - Exigences de sécurité contre Bahnanwendungen - Anforderungen für die

collision pour véhicules ferroviaires Kollisionssicherheit von Schienenfahrzeugen

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 10 February 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 15227:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 15227:2020
EN 15227:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 5

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 8

4 Crashworthiness design of rail vehicle structures ........................................................................... 10

4.1 General principles ........................................................................................................................................ 10

4.2 Crashworthiness design objectives ....................................................................................................... 11

4.3 Rail vehicle crashworthiness assessment process ........................................................................... 11

5 Crashworthiness assessment requirements ...................................................................................... 11

5.1 Crashworthiness design categories of rail vehicles ......................................................................... 11

5.2 Train assessment methods ....................................................................................................................... 12

5.2.1 Complete train set method ....................................................................................................................... 12

5.2.2 Reference train method ............................................................................................................................. 13

5.2.3 Summary of train assessment methods ............................................................................................... 13

5.3 Design collision scenarios ......................................................................................................................... 13

5.4 Assessment of design collision scenarios ............................................................................................ 14

5.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

5.4.2 Design collision scenario for category C-I ........................................................................................... 15

5.4.3 Design collision scenario for category C-II .......................................................................................... 15

5.4.4 Design collision scenario for category C-III ........................................................................................ 15

5.4.5 Design collision scenario for category C-IV ........................................................................................ 16

5.4.6 Summary of design collision scenarios ................................................................................................ 16

6 Structural passive safety design requirements ................................................................................. 18

6.1 Assessment requirements for design collision scenarios ............................................................. 18

6.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 18

6.1.2 Explanatory notes (informative) ............................................................................................................ 18

6.2 Overriding ....................................................................................................................................................... 19

6.2.1 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................ 19

6.2.2 Explanatory notes (informative) ............................................................................................................ 19

6.3 Survival space, intrusion and egress ..................................................................................................... 20

6.3.1 General requirements ................................................................................................................................ 20

6.3.2 Survival space requirements for passenger areas ........................................................................... 20

6.3.3 Driver’s cab survival space requirements........................................................................................... 21

6.3.4 Explanatory notes (informative) ............................................................................................................ 21

6.3.5 Definition of driver’s seat survival space envelopes ....................................................................... 22

6.4 Deceleration limit/collision pulse ......................................................................................................... 25

6.4.1 Requirement .................................................................................................................................................. 25

6.4.2 Explanatory notes (informative) ............................................................................................................ 26

6.5 Obstacle deflector ........................................................................................................................................ 26

6.5.1 Requirement .................................................................................................................................................. 26

6.5.2 Explanatory notes (informative) ............................................................................................................ 29

6.6 Lifeguards ....................................................................................................................................................... 30

6.6.1 Requirement .................................................................................................................................................. 30

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EN 15227:2020 (E)

6.6.2 Explanatory notes (informative) ............................................................................................................ 30

7 Validation of crashworthiness ................................................................................................................. 30

7.1 Validation programme ............................................................................................................................... 30

7.2 Combined validation programme .......................................................................................................... 31

7.2.1 Step 1: Test of energy absorbing devices and crumple zones ...................................................... 31

7.2.2 Step 2: Test Calibration of the numerical model ............................................................................... 31

7.2.3 Step 3: Numerical simulation of the design collision scenarios .................................................. 31

7.3 Reduced validation programme ............................................................................................................. 32

7.4 Conformity assessment .............................................................................................................................. 32

Annex A (informative) Parameters of design collision scenarios ............................................................ 33

A.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 33

A.2 Determining the design collision scenarios for collision risks which differ from the

normal European operations ................................................................................................................... 34

A.2.1 Design collision scenarios ......................................................................................................................... 34

A.2.2 Risk analysis ................................................................................................................................................... 34

A.2.3 Factors to be considered in the risk assessment .............................................................................. 35

A.2.4 Collisions following derailment .............................................................................................................. 35

A.2.5 Bibliography of relevant accident information ................................................................................. 36

Annex B (normative) Requirements of a validation programme ............................................................ 37

B.1 Test specifications ....................................................................................................................................... 37

B.1.1 Test programme ........................................................................................................................................... 37

B.1.2 Acceptance criteria for calibration/validation tests ....................................................................... 37

B.2 Numerical simulations ............................................................................................................................... 38

B.2.1 Numerical model validation ..................................................................................................................... 38

B.2.2 Simulation modelling .................................................................................................................................. 38

Annex C (normative) Reference obstacle definitions ................................................................................... 40

C.1 80 t wagon with side buffers .................................................................................................................... 40

C.2 80 t wagon with heavy duty coupler...................................................................................................... 41

C.3 129 t regional train ...................................................................................................................................... 43

C.4 Level crossing 15 t deformable obstacle .............................................................................................. 44

C.5 Urban road traffic 3 t rigid corner collision obstacle ...................................................................... 46

C.6 Urban road traffic 7,5 t obstacle ............................................................................................................. 47

Annex D (normative) Reference train definitions ......................................................................................... 50

D.1 Reference trains for locomotive, power head, driving trailer and coach design .................. 50

D.2 Locomotive design ....................................................................................................................................... 50

D.3 Power head and driving trailer design ................................................................................................. 50

D.4 Coach design ................................................................................................................................................... 51

D.5 Coach design limited to specific leading vehicles ............................................................................. 52

Annex E (informative) Migration rule for this European Standard ........................................................ 54

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SIST EN 15227:2020
EN 15227:2020 (E)

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential

Requirements of EU Directive 2016/797/EU aimed to be covered ........................................... 55

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 57

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SIST EN 15227:2020
EN 15227:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 15227:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 “Railway

applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2020, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by October 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 15227:2008+A1:2010.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN/CENELEC/ETSI by the European

Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU

Directive 2016/797/EU.

For relationship with EU Directive 2016/797/EU, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part

of this document.

Additionally to a general editorial reordering of clauses and text the technical changes with respect to

the previous edition are listed below:
a) applicable vehicle types (1);

b) modified definitions and examples for crashworthiness design categories (5.1);

c) definition of train sets to be assessed (5.2);
d) assessment of train set which is only operated in one direction (5.2);

e) mandatory requirement of initial vertical offset for design collision scenario 1 for all

crashworthiness design categories (5.4.1);

f) new definition of collision mass in accordance with EN 15663 mass definitions (5.4.1);

g) new requirements for locomotives with heavy duty couplers (5.4.2 and C.2);

h) mandatory requirement for locomotives with centre cabs to fulfil design collision scenario 3 (5.4);

i) additional design collision scenario for crashworthiness design category C-IV (5.4.5 and C.6);

j) new requirement for support condition of side windows at vehicle ends (6.3.1);

k) exclusion of gangways from survival space (6.3.2);

l) mandatory requirement that the survival space for the driver shall be inside the cab (6.3.1);

m) modified definition for driver’s seat survival space envelopes (6.3.5);
n) elimination of deceleration limits for design collision scenario 3 (6.4.1);
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SIST EN 15227:2020
EN 15227:2020 (E)

o) modified deceleration limits and modified deceleration assessment method for design collision

scenarios 1 and 2 (6.4.1);

p) modified requirement for obstacle deflectors with respect to gauge limits (6.5.1);

q) new requirements for lifeguards (6.6);

r) new requirement for tests of structures or components mounted at intermediate ends (B.1.1)

s) modified obstacle geometry for design collision scenario 3 for crashworthiness design category C-

III (C.3);
t) modified reference train for coach design (D.4);

u) new train definition for coach design limited to specific leading vehicles (D.5).

v) alignment of terms and definitions to prEN 17343:2019.

If a vehicle has been successfully assessed using the previous edition of this standard, and the

technical changes of the new edition of EN 15227 do not affect this assessment, the vehicle can be

regarded to conform to the new standard. Otherwise, if the vehicle needs to be reassessed, it is

sufficient to assess only the modified technical requirements and new requirements.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 15227:2020
EN 15227:2020 (E)
Introduction

The objective of the passive safety requirements described in this European Standard is to reduce the

consequences of collision accidents. The measures considered in this European Standard provide the

means of protection when all possibilities of preventing an accident have failed. It provides a

framework for determining the crash conditions that rail vehicle bodies can be designed to withstand,

based on the most common collisions and associated risks.

This European Standard adds to the basic strength requirement defined in EN 12663-1:2010+A1:2014

by setting additional requirements for structural passive safety in order to increase occupant safety in

case of collisions.

In the event of a collision, application of this European standard provides protection for the occupants

of new designs of crashworthy vehicles through the preservation of structural integrity, reducing the

risk of overriding and limiting decelerations. This protection does not extend to interactions between

the occupants and the vehicle interior or to occupants of other rail vehicles, to other railway

employees and customers who are not in vehicles, or to third parties.
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SIST EN 15227:2020
EN 15227:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This document specifies crashworthiness requirements applicable to new designs of:

— locomotives,
— driving vehicles operating in passenger and freight trains;

— passenger rail vehicles operating in passenger trains (such as trams, metros, mainline trains).

This document identifies common methods of providing passive safety that can be adapted to suit

individual vehicle requirements.

This document specifies the characteristics of reference obstacle models for use with the design

collision scenarios.

This document also specifies the requirements and methods for demonstrating that the passive safety

objectives have been achieved by comparison with existing proven designs, numerical simulation,

component or full-size tests, or a combination of all these methods.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

EN 12663-1:2010+A1:2014, Railway applications - Structural requirements of railway vehicle bodies -

Part 1: Locomotives and passenger rolling stock (and alternative method for freight wagons)

EN 15663:2017+A1:2018, Railway applications - Vehicle reference masses
prEN 17343:2019, Railway applications — General terms and definitions
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in prEN 17343:2019 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
active safety

systems and measures which take actions that aim to prevent a collision occurring

3.2
collision mass
effective vehicle mass used for collision simulations
3.3
collision speed

velocity difference between trains or train and obstacle at the start of the collision

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SIST EN 15227:2020
EN 15227:2020 (E)
3.4
crashworthiness

ability to mitigate the consequences of a collision in a controlled manner and reduce the risk of injury

to the occupants
3.5
crumple zone

part of the vehicle body (usually at the vehicle ends) which is designed to deform in a controlled

manner and absorb energy
3.6
design collision scenario
collision scenario that is applicable for design and assessment
3.7
energy-absorbing device

device which is attached to the vehicle structure, designed to deform in a controlled manner and

absorb energy
EXAMPLE Energy-absorbing coupler
3.8
full-size test

test where the specimen is made using full-size components from the vehicle being assessed

3.9
heavy duty coupler
centre couplers conforming to the Willison or Janney principles
EXAMPLES SA3 coupler (Willison), AAR coupler (Janney)
Note 1 to entry: AAR: Association of American Railroads
3.10
leading end
end of a vehicle which in normal service can be the front of a train
3.11
level crossing speed
applicable rail vehicle speed at level crossing
3.12
lifeguard

structural element positioned in front of a wheel with the objective of preventing small obstacles from

passing between the wheel and the rail
3.13
normal European operating conditions

operating conditions comparable to those described by the documents listed in the bibliography

3.14
obstacle deflector

device mounted on the leading ends of vehicles to limit the consequences of striking an obstruction on

the track
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SIST EN 15227:2020
EN 15227:2020 (E)
3.15
passive safety

structural design characteristics intended to reduce the consequences of a collision

3.16
survival space

space to be preserved for passengers and staff inside a rail vehicle for the design collision scenarios

3.17
reference train

train configuration that is used for the assessment and validation of locomotives, power heads, driving

trailers and coaches that do not form part of a train set
4 Crashworthiness design of rail vehicle structures
4.1 General principles

The risk of train collisions is primarily controlled by active safety systems and/or operational

procedures. Where these systems are inadequate due to particular circumstances or due to external

events, structural crashworthiness provides a set of passive safety measures that will reduce the

consequences of an accident.

The objective is to provide a level of protection consistent with the most common collisions and

associated risks through the application of the design collision scenarios specified in this document. It

is not practical to design vehicle structures to protect the occupants against all possible accidents or to

consider all possible vehicle combinations.

Normal European operating conditions are assumed. The design of new vehicles for use in passenger

trains assumes operations with compatible rolling stock that also meet this European standard. It is

recognized that operational requirements may require new crashworthy and existing non-

crashworthy vehicles to exist in the same train but such combinations of vehicles are not required to

comply with this European Standard.

The applicable design collision scenarios, and suitable parameters for normal European operations are

given in 5.3.

Annex A gives additional information regarding the derivation of the design collision scenarios and

describes situations when they may need to be modified and the processes that should then be

followed.

If the operational conditions are such that a design collision scenario cannot occur, or there is evidence

that the probability of it occurring or the associated risk is so low as to be broadly acceptable, there is

no need to consider this design collision scenario in the vehicle design. These conditions should be set

out in the vehicle specification.

NOTE Train control systems which segregate different types of traffic on the same system or modes of

traffic that are segregated by infrastructure (e.g. no level crossings) can satisfy this requirement.

If the system has characteristics that result in significant collision risks that are not addressed by the

design collision scenarios considered in this European standard, they should also be considered in the

form of additional design collision scenarios, which should form part of the vehicle specification.

The requirements apply to the vehicle body, and to those mechanical elements directly associated with

it that may be used to absorb energy in a collision, such as couplers, drawgear and buffing systems.

The requirements do not cover the safety features of doors, windows, system components or interior

features except for specific issues relating to the preservation of survival space.

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EN 15227:2020 (E)

Not all vehicles in a train have to incorporate energy absorption, provided that passenger train

configurations formed entirely of new vehicle designs comply as a whole with this European Standard.

4.2 Crashworthiness design objectives

To provide protection for the occupants of rail vehicles in the event of a collision, the requirements

take into account the following objectives:
— absorption of collision energy in a controlled manner;
— reduction of the risk of overriding;
— maintenance of survival space and structural integrity of occupied areas;
— limiting deceleration;

— reduction of the risk of derailment and the consequences of hitting a track obstruction.

Specific requirements and assessment criteria to demonstrate that these objectives are satisfied are

set out in Clauses 5, 6 and 7 (see 4.3).

As a by-product of providing occupant protection, the level of damage to the vehicle body is likely to be

reduced in accidents. If more restrictive limits are intended to be placed on damage resulting from any

of the design collision scenarios set out in Clause 5, these should be part of the vehicle specification

and do not form part of the safety requirements set out in this European Standard.

4.3 Rail vehicle crashworthiness assessment process

For a new rail vehicle, the stages of the crashworthiness assessment process shall be:

— allocation of a crashworthiness design category (see 5.1);

— determination of the relevant train assessment methods (see 5.2 and Annex D) and determination

of the applicable design collision scenarios (see 5.3 and 5.4). If non-standard design collision

...

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