Radionuclide imaging devices - Characteristics and test conditions - Part 1: Positron emission tomographs (IEC 61675-1:2013)

This part of IEC 61675 specifies terminology and test methods for declaring the
characteristics of POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHS. POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHS detect the
ANNIHILATION RADIATION of positron emitting RADIONUCLIDEs by COINCIDENCE DETECTION.
No test has been specified to characterize the uniformity of reconstructed images, because all
methods known so far will mostly reflect the noise in the image.

Bildgebende Systeme in der Nuklearmedizin - Merkmale und Prüfbedingungen - Teil 1: Positronen-Emissions-Tomographen

Dispositifs d'imagerie par radionucléides - Caractéristiques et conditions d'essai - Partie 1: Tomographes à émission de positrons (IEC 61675-1:2013)

La CEI 61675-1:2013 spécifie la terminologie et les méthodes d'essai relatives à la description des caractéristiques des tomographes à émission de positrons. Les tomographes à émission de positrons détectent le rayonnement d'annihilation des radionucléides émettant des positrons par la détection en coïncidence. Aucun essai n'a été spécifié afin de caractériser l'uniformité des images reconstituées, puisque toutes les méthodes connues jusqu'à présent reflètent principalement le bruit de l'image. Cette deuxième édition remplace la première édition de la IEC 61675-1, parue en 1998. Elle constitue une révision technique. Les exigences concernant les aspects techniques ci-dessous ont été modifiées: - résolution spatiale; - mesure de la sensibilité; - fraction de diffusion; - performance du taux de comptage; - et qualité d'image. Mots clé: imagerie, médicale

Naprave za slikanje z radionuklidi - Karakteristike in preskusni pogoji - 1. del: Pozitronska emisijska tomografija (IEC 61675-1:2013)

Ta del standarda IEC 61675 določa terminologijo in preskusne metode za navedbo lastnosti POZITRONSKE EMISIJSKE TOMOGRAFIJE. POZITRONSKA EMISIJSKA TOMOGRAFIJA zaznava ANIHILACIJSKO SEVANJE RADIONUKLIDOV, ki oddajajo pozitrone, z ZAZNAVANJEM KOINCIDENC. Za označevanje enotnosti rekonstruiranih slik ni bil določen noben preskus, ker vse do zdaj znane metode v večini primerov izražajo šum na sliki.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
22-Aug-2016
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
18-Aug-2016
Due Date
23-Oct-2016
Completion Date
23-Aug-2016

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Naprave za slikanje z radionuklidi - Karakteristike in preskusni pogoji - 1. del: Pozitronska emisijska tomografija (IEC 61675-1:2013)Dispositifs d'imagerie par radionucléides - Caractéristiques et conditions d'essai - Partie 1: Tomographes à émission de positrons (IEC 61675-1:2013)Radionuclide imaging devices - Characteristics and test conditions - Part 1: Positron emission tomographs (IEC 61675-1:2013)11.040.50Radiografska opremaRadiographic equipmentICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 61675-1:2014SIST EN 61675-1:2016en01-oktober-2016SIST EN 61675-1:2016SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 61675-1:1998/A1:2008SIST EN 61675-1:19981DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 61675-1:2016
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 61675-1
June 2014 ICS 11.040.50
Supersedes
EN 61675-1:1998
English Version

Radionuclide imaging devices - Characteristics and test conditions - Part 1: Positron emission tomographs (IEC 61675-1:2013)

Dispositifs d'imagerie par radionucléides - Caractéristiques et conditions d'essai - Partie 1: Tomographes à émission de positrons (CEI 61675-1:2013)

Bildgebende Systeme in der Nuklearmedizin - Merkmale und Prüfbedingungen - Teil 1: Positronen-Emissions-Tomographen (IEC 61675-1:2013) This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2013-10-30. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions. CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization

Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2014 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 61675-1:2014 E SIST EN 61675-1:2016
EN 61675-1:2014 - 2 -

Foreword The text of document 62C/550/CDV, future edition 2 of IEC 61675-1, prepared by IEC/SC 62C, "Equipment for radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and radiation dosimetry", of IEC TC 62, "Electrical equipment in medical practice " was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as EN 61675-1:2014. The following dates are fixed: • latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2014-12-13 • latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the document have to be withdrawn (dow) 2016-10-30

This document supersedes EN 61675-1:1998. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Endorsement notice The text of the International Standard IEC 61675-1:2013 was approved by CENELEC as a European Standard without any modification. SIST EN 61675-1:2016

- 3 - EN 61675-1:2014 Annex ZA

(normative) Normative references to international publications with their corresponding European publications The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE

When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD applies.

Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC/TR 60788 2004 Medical electrical equipment - Glossary of defined terms - -
SIST EN 61675-1:2016
SIST EN 61675-1:2016

IEC 61675-1 Edition 2.0 2013-09 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD NORME INTERNATIONALE Radionuclide imaging devices – Characteristics and test conditions –

Part 1: Positron emission tomographs

Dispositifs d'imagerie par radionucléides – Caractéristiques et conditions d'essai –

Partie 1: Tomographes à émission de positrons

INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION COMMISSION ELECTROTECHNIQUE INTERNATIONALE W ICS 11.040.50 PRICE CODE CODE PRIX ISBN 978-2-8322-1119-9

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale ®

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé. SIST EN 61675-1:2016

– 2 – 61675-1 © IEC:2013 CONTENTS FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6 1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7 2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7 3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7 4 Test methods ................................................................................................................. 13 4.1 General ............................................................................................................ 13 4.2 SPATIAL RESOLUTION ......................................................................................... 13 4.2.1 General .......................................................................................... 13 4.2.3 Method ........................................................................................... 14 4.2.4 Analysis .......................................................................................... 15 4.2.5 Report ............................................................................................ 17 4.3 Tomographic sensitivity.................................................................................... 18 4.3.1 General .......................................................................................... 18 4.3.2 Purpose .......................................................................................... 18 4.3.3 Method ........................................................................................... 18 4.3.4 Analysis .......................................................................................... 19 4.3.5 Report ............................................................................................ 20 4.4 Uniformity ........................................................................................................ 20 4.5 Scatter measurement ....................................................................................... 20 4.5.1 General .......................................................................................... 20 4.5.2 Purpose .......................................................................................... 20 4.5.3 Method ........................................................................................... 20 4.5.4 Analysis .......................................................................................... 21 4.5.5 Report ............................................................................................ 22 4.6 PET COUNT RATE PERFORMANCE ........................................................................ 23 4.6.1 General .......................................................................................... 23 4.6.2 Purpose .......................................................................................... 23 4.6.3 Method ........................................................................................... 23 4.6.4 Analysis .......................................................................................... 24 4.6.5 Report ............................................................................................ 26 4.7 Image quality and quantification accuracy of source ACTIVITY concentrations ................................................................................................. 26 4.7.1 General .......................................................................................... 26 4.7.2 Purpose .......................................................................................... 26 4.7.3 Method ........................................................................................... 27 4.7.4 Data analysis .................................................................................. 31 4.7.5 Report ............................................................................................ 34 5 ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTS ............................................................................................ 35 5.1 General ............................................................................................................ 35 5.2 Design parameters ........................................................................................... 35 5.3 Configuration of the tomograph ........................................................................ 36 5.4 SPATIAL RESOLUTION ......................................................................................... 36 5.5 Sensitivity ........................................................................................................ 36 5.6 SCATTER FRACTION ............................................................................................ 36 5.7 COUNT RATE performance ................................................................................. 36 SIST EN 61675-1:2016

61675-1 © IEC:2013 – 3 – 5.8 Image quality and quantification accuracy of source ACTIVITY concentrations ................................................................................................. 36 Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 37 Index of defined terms .......................................................................................................... 38

Figure 1 – Evaluation of FWHM ............................................................................................ 16 Figure 2 – Evaluation of EQUIVALENT WIDTH (EW) .................................................................... 17 Figure 3 – Scatter phantom configuration and position on the imaging bed ........................... 19 Figure 4 – Evaluation of SCATTER FRACTION ........................................................................... 22 Figure 5 – Cross-section of body phantom ............................................................................ 27 Figure 6 – Phantom insert with hollow spheres ..................................................................... 28 Figure 7 – Image quality phantom and scatter

phantom position for whole body scan acquisition ............................................................................................................................ 29 Figure 8 – Placement of ROIs in the phantom background .................................................... 32

SIST EN 61675-1:2016
– 4 – 61675-1 © IEC:2013 INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION ____________
RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING DEVICES –
CHARACTERISTICS AND TEST CONDITIONS –
Part 1: Positron emission tomographs

FOREWORD 1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations. 2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any misinterpretation by any end user. 4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter. 5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any services carried out by independent certification bodies. 6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication. 7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is indispensable for the correct application of this publication. 9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. International Standard IEC 61675-1 has been prepared by subcommittee 62C: Equipment for radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and radiation dosimetry, of IEC technical committee 62: Electrical equipment in medical practice. This second edition replaces the first edition of IEC 61675-1, published in 1998. This edition constitutes a technical revision. Requirements have been changed regarding the following technical aspects: – SPATIAL RESOLUTION; – sensitivity measurement; – SCATTER FRACTION; – COUNT RATE performance; – image quality. SIST EN 61675-1:2016

61675-1 © IEC:2013 – 5 – The text of this standard is based on the following documents: CDV Report on voting 62C/550/CDV 62C/561/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on voting indicated in the above table. This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. In this standard, the following print types are used: – Requirements and definitions: roman type. – Test specifications: italic type. – Informative material appearing outside of tables, such as notes, examples and references: in smaller type. Normative text of tables is also in a smaller type. – TERMS DEFINED IN CLAUSE 3 OF IEC 60601-1, IN THIS PARTICULAR STANDARD OR AS NOTED: SMALL CAPITALS. References to clauses within this standard are preceded by the term “clause” followed by the clause number. References to subclauses within this particular standard are by number only. In this standard, the conjunctive “or” is used as an “inclusive or” so a statement is true if any combination of the conditions is true. The verbal forms used in this standard conform to usage described in Annex H of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. For the purposes of this standard, the auxiliary verb: – “shall” means that compliance with a requirement or a test is mandatory for compliance with this standard; – “should” means that compliance with a requirement or a test is recommended but is not mandatory for compliance with this standard; – “may” is used to describe a permissible way to achieve compliance with a requirement or test. The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed, • withdrawn, • replaced by a revised edition, or • amended.
SIST EN 61675-1:2016

– 6 – 61675-1 © IEC:2013 INTRODUCTION Further developments of POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHS allow most of the tomographs to be operated in fully 3D acquisition mode. To comply with this trend, this standard describes test conditions in accordance with this acquisition characteristic. In addition, today a POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPH often includes X-RAY EQUIPMENT for COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT). For this standard PET-CT hybrid devices are considered to be state of the art, dedicated POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHS not including the X-ray component being special cases only. The test methods specified in this part of IEC 61675 have been selected to reflect as much as possible the clinical use of POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHS. It is intended that the tests be carried out by MANUFACTURERS, thereby enabling them to declare the characteristics of POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHS in the ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTS. This standard does not indicate which tests will be performed by the MANUFACTURER on an individual tomograph. SIST EN 61675-1:2016

61675-1 © IEC:2013 – 7 – RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING DEVICES –
CHARACTERISTICS AND TEST CONDITIONS –
Part 1: Positron emission tomographs

1 Scope This part of IEC 61675 specifies terminology and test methods for declaring the characteristics of POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHS. POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHS detect the ANNIHILATION RADIATION of positron emitting RADIONUCLIDEs by COINCIDENCE DETECTION. No test has been specified to characterize the uniformity of reconstructed images, because all methods known so far will mostly reflect the noise in the image. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. IEC 60788:2004, Medical electrical equipment – Glossary of defined terms 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60788:2004 and the following apply. 3.1

tomography radiography of one or more layers within an object [SOURCE: IEC 60788:2004, rm-41-15] 3.1.1

transverse tomography TOMOGRAPHY that slices a three-dimensional object into a stack of OBJECT SLICES which are considered as being two-dimensional and independent from each other and at which the IMAGE PLANES are perpendicular to the SYSTEM AXIS 3.1.2

emission computed tomography ECT imaging method for the representation of the spatial distribution of incorporated RADIONUCLIDES in selected two-dimensional slices through the object 3.1.2.1 projection transformation of a three-dimensional object into its two-dimensional image or of a two-dimensional object into its one-dimensional image, by integrating the physical property which determines the image along the direction of the PROJECTION BEAM SIST EN 61675-1:2016

– 8 – 61675-1 © IEC:2013 Note 1 to entry: This process is mathematically described by line integrals in the direction of PROJECTION (along the LINE OF RESPONSE) and called radon-transform. 3.1.2.2 projection beam beam that determines the smallest possible volume in which the physical property which determines the image is integrated during the measurement process Note 1 to entry: Its shape is limited by SPATIAL RESOLUTION in all three dimensions. Note 2 to entry: The PROJECTION BEAM mostly has the shape of a long thin cylinder or cone. In POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY, it is the sensitive volume between two detector elements operated in coincidence. 3.1.2.3 projection angle angle at which the PROJECTION is measured or acquired 3.1.2.4 sinogram two-dimensional display of all one-dimensional PROJECTIONs of an OBJECT SLICE, as a function of the PROJECTION ANGLE Note 1 to entry: The PROJECTION ANGLE is displayed on the ordinate, the linear projection coordinate is displayed on the abscissa. 3.1.2.5 object slice physical property that correspondes to a slice in the object and that determines the measured information and which is displayed in the tomographic image 3.1.2.6 image plane a plane assigned to a plane in the OBJECT SLICE Note 1 to entry: Usually the IMAGE PLANE is the midplane of the corresponding OBJECT SLICE. 3.1.2.7 system axis axis of symmetry, characterized by geometrical and physical properties of the arrangement of the system Note 1 to entry: For a circular POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPH, the SYSTEM AXIS is the axis through the centre of the detector ring. For tomographs with rotating detectors it is the axis of rotation. 3.1.2.8 tomographic volume juxtaposition of all volume elements which contribute to the measured PROJECTIONs for all PROJECTION ANGLES 3.1.2.8.1 transverse field of view dimensions of a slice through the TOMOGRAPHIC VOLUME, perpendicular to the SYSTEM AXIS Note 1 to entry: For a circular TRANSVERSE FIELD OF VIEW, it is described by its diameter. Note 2 to entry: For non-cylindrical TOMOGRAPHIC VOLUMES the TRANSVERSE FIELD OF VIEW may depend on the axial position of the slice. 3.1.2.8.2 axial field of view AFOV field which is characterized by dimensions of a slice through the TOMOGRAPHIC VOLUME, parallel to and including the SYSTEM AXIS SIST EN 61675-1:2016

61675-1 © IEC:2013 – 9 – Note 1 to entry: In practice, it is specified only by its axial dimension, given by the distance between the centre of the outmost defined IMAGE PLANEs plus the average of the measured AXIAL RESOLUTION. 3.1.2.8.3 total field of view field which is characterized by dimensions (three-dimensional) of the TOMOGRAPHIC VOLUME 3.1.3

positron emission tomography PET EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY utilizing the ANNIHILATION RADIATION of positron emitting RADIONUCLIDES by COINCIDENCE DETECTION 3.1.3.1 positron emission tomograph tomographic device, which detects the ANNIHILATION RADIATION of positron emitting RADIONUCLIDES by COINCIDENCE DETECTION 3.1.3.2 annihilation radiation ionizing radiation that is produced when a particle and its antiparticle interact and cease to exist 3.1.3.3 coincidence detection method which checks whether two opposing detectors have detected one photon each simultaneously Note 1 to entry: By this method the two photons are concatenated into one event. Note 2 to entry: The COINCIDENCE DETECTION between two opposing detector elements serves as an electronic collimation to define the corresponding PROJECTION BEAM or LINE OF RESPONSE (LOR), respectively. 3.1.3.4 coincidence window time interval during which two detected photons are considered as being simultaneous 3.1.3.5 line of response LOR axis of the PROJECTION BEAM Note 1 to entry: In PET, it is the line connecting the centres of two opposing detector elements operated in coincidence. 3.1.3.6 total coincidences sum of all coincidences detected 3.1.3.6.1 true coincidence result of COINCIDENCE DETECTION of two gamma events originating from the same positron annihilation 3.1.3.6.2 scattered true coincidence TRUE COINCIDENCE where at least one participating photon was scattered before the COINCIDENCE DETECTION SIST EN 61675-1:2016

– 10 – 61675-1 © IEC:2013 3.1.3.6.3

unscattered true coincidence difference between TRUE COINCIDENCES and SCATTERED TRUE COINCIDENCES 3.1.3.6.4 random coincidence result of a COINCIDENCE DETECTION in which participating photons do not originate from the same positron annihilation. 3.1.3.7 singles rate COUNT RATE measured without COINCIDENCE DETECTION, but with energy discrimination 3.1.4

two-dimensional reconstruction image reconstruction at which data are rebinned prior to reconstruction into SINOGRAMS, which are the PROJECTION data of transverse slices which are considered as being independent of each other and being perpendicular to the SYSTEM AXIS 3.1.5

three-dimensional reconstruction image reconstruction at which the LINES OF RESPONSE are not restricted to being perpendicular to the SYSTEM AXIS so that a LINE OF RESPONSE may pass several transverse slices 3.2

image matrix matrix in which each element corresponds to the measured or calculated physical property of the object at the location described by the coordinates of this MATRIX ELEMENT 3.2.1

matrix element smallest unit of an IMAGE MATRIX, which is assigned in location and size to a certain volume element of the object (VOXEL) 3.2.1.1 pixel MATRIX ELEMENT in a two-dimensional IMAGE MATRIX 3.2.1.2 trixel MATRIX ELEMENT in a three-dimensional IMAGE MATRIX 3.2.2

voxel volume element in the object which is assigned to a MATRIX ELEMENT in a two- or three-dimensional IMAGE MATRIX Note 1 to entry: The dimensions of the VOXEL are determined by the dimensions of the corresponding MATRIX ELEMENT via the appropriate scale factors and by the systems SPATIAL RESOLUTION in all three dimensions. 3.3

point spread function PSF scintigraphic image of a POINT SOURCE SIST EN 61675-1:2016

61675-1 © IEC:2013 – 11 – 3.3.1

physical point spread function two-dimensional POINT SPREAD FUNCTION in planes perpendicular to the PROJECTION BEAM at specified distances from the detector Note 1 to entry: The PHYSICAL POINT SPREAD FUNCTION characterizes the purely physical (intrinsic) imaging performance of the tomographic device and is independent of for example sampling, image reconstruction and image processing. A PROJECTION BEAM is characterized by the entirety of all PHYSICAL POINT SPREAD FUNCTIONs as a function of distance along its axis. 3.3.2

axial point spread function profile passing through the peak of the PHYSICAL POINT SPREAD FUNCTION in a plane parallel to the sYSTEM AXIS 3.3.3

transverse point spread function reconstructed two-dimensional POINT SPREAD FUNCTION in a tomographic IMAGE PLANE Note 1 to entry: In TOMOGRAPHY, the TRANSVERSE POINT SPREAD FUNCTION can also be obtained from a LINE SOURCE located parallel to the SYSTEM AXIS. 3.4

spatial resolution ability to concentrate the count density distribution in the image of a POINT SOURCE to a point 3.4.1

transverse resolution SPATIAL RESOLUTION in a reconstructed plane perpendicular to the SYSTEM AXIS 3.4.1.1 radial resolution TRANSVERSE RESOLUTION along a line passing through the position of the source and the SYSTEM AXIS 3.4.1.2 tangential resolution TRANSVERSE RESOLUTION in the direction orthogonal to the direction of RADIAL RESOLUTION 3.4.2

axial resolution SPATIAL RESOLUTION along a line parallel to the SYSTEM AXIS Note 1 to entry: AXIAL RESOLUTION only applies for tomographs with sufficiently fine axial sampling fulfilling the sampling theorem. 3.4.3

equivalent width

EW width of the rectangle that has the same area and the same height as the response function 3.4.4

full width at half maximum FWHM for a bell shaped curve, distance parallel to the abscissa axis between the points where the ordinate has half of its maximum value [SOURCE: IEC 60788:2004, rm-73-02 SIST EN 61675-1:2016

– 12 – 61675-1 © IEC:2013 3.5

recovery coefficient measured (image) ACTIVITY concentration of an active volume divided by the true ACTIVITY concentration of that volume, neglecting ACTIVITY calibration factors Note 1 to entry: For the actual measurement, the true ACTIVITY concentration is replaced by the measured ACTIVITY concentration in a large volume. 3.6

slice sensitivity ratio of COUNT RATE as measured on the SINOGRAM to the ACTIVITY concentration in the phantom Note 1 to entry: In PET, the measured counts are numerically corrected for scatter by subtracting the SCATTER FRACTION. 3.7

volume sensitivity sum of the individual SLICE SENSITIVITIES 3.8

count rate characteristic function giving the relationship between observed COUNT RATE and TRUE COUNT RATE [SOURCE: IEC 60788:2004, rm-34-21 3.8.1

count loss difference between measured COUNT RATE and TRUE COUNT RATE, which is caused by the finite RESOLVING TIME of the instru

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