Protective clothing for firefighters - Physiological impact - Part 1: Measurement of coupled heat and moisture transfer with the sweating torso (ISO 18640-1:2018)

This European Standard specifies the Sweating Torso as a method to
measure the coupled heat and mass transfer through protective clothing
in fire fighters’ specific conditions.
NOTE The Sweating Torso is developed to perform highly reproducible
laboratory tests for heat and mass transfer on clothing systems under
controlled conditions which are closely correlated to real conditions. The
Sweating Torso is a cylinder with the same size as a human trunk. The
layers of the measurement cylinder are made of compact Teflon,
polyethylene and aluminium. Due to this combination of materials,
transient processes can be modelled. Thus, changes in the skin and core
temperature can be simulated. The Sweating Torso contains a total of 54
independently-controlled sweating nozzles. In order to avoid any axial
heat loss, the cylinder has a heated guard at each end. The cylinder and
the thermal guards are heated electrically using heating foils. The
Sweating Torso can be run either with constant surface temperature or
with constant heating. The whole Sweating Torso is placed on a
precision scale to assess the evaporated and condensed amount of
water.

Schutzkleidung für die Feuerwehr - Physiologische Wärmebelastung - Teil 1: Messung von gekoppelter Wärme und Stoffaustausch mit dem schwitzenden Torso (ISO 18640-1:2018)

Dieses Dokument enthält ein Prüfverfahren zur Bewertung der physiologischen Auswirkungen von Schutzkleidungs-Stoff-Aufbauten und möglichen Schutzkleidungsensembles im Rahmen einer Reihe simulierter Aktivitäten (Phasen) unter festgelegten Umgebungsbedingungen. Dieses Standardprüfverfahren charakterisiert die wesentlichen Eigenschaften von Geweben einer repräsentativen Bekleidung oder eines Bekleidungsensembles für die thermophysiologische Bewertung:
- der trockenen thermischen Isolierung;
- der Kühleigenschaften während durchschnittlicher Stoffwechselaktivitäten und Feuchtigkeits-management (Wärmeübertragung im trockenen und nassen Zustand);
- des Trocknungsverhaltens.
Standard-Messungen werden auf Stoffproben durchgeführt, die die Kleidungsstücke oder Schutzkleidungs-kombinationen darstellen. Optional kann zusätzlich zum Standardprüfverfahren das gleiche Prüfprotokoll angewandt werden, um komplexere Schutzkleidungsensembles mit Unterwäsche, Luftschichten und bestimmten Designmerkmalen zu charakterisieren1). Darüber hinaus sind Messungen an fertigen Kleidungsstücken möglich.
Dieses Prüfverfahren dient der Messung und Beschreibung des Verhaltens von Gewebezusammenstellungen einer Bekleidung oder von Bekleidungsensembles, die auf eine Reihe simulierter Aktivitäten unter kontrollierten Laborbedingungen reagieren, wobei die Ergebnisse hieraus zur Optimierung der Kombination von Kleidungsstücken und Materialauswahl verwendet werden. Überdies dient dieses Dokument zusammen mit ISO 18640-2 der Beschreibung der thermophysiologischen Auswirkungen von Schutzkleidung, aber nicht des Risikos des Wärmestaus unter tatsächlichen Brandbedingungen. Die Ergebnisse dieser Prüfung können als Bestandteile einer Risikobewertung hinsichtlich thermischer Belastungen herangezogen werden.

Vêtements de protection pour sapeurs-pompiers - Impact physiologique - Partie 1: Mesurage du transfert de masse et de la chaleur couplé de chaleur et d'humidité à l'aide du torse transpirant (ISO 18640-1:2018)

Le présent document fournit une méthode d'essai permettant d'évaluer l'effet physiologique d'ensembles d'étoffes de protection et d'ensembles vestimentaires potentiellement protecteurs au cours d'une série d'activités simulées (phases) dans des conditions ambiantes définies. Cette méthode d'essai normalisée caractérise les propriétés essentielles des assemblages d'étoffes d'un vêtement ou d'un ensemble de vêtements représentatifs pour l'évaluation thermo-physiologique:
— isolation thermique à sec;
— propriétés de refroidissement pendant une activité métabolique moyenne et de gestion de l'humidité (transfert de chaleur à sec et à l'état humide);
— comportement au séchage.
Des mesures par défaut sont réalisées sur des échantillons d'étoffe représentant le vêtement ou la combinaison de vêtements protecteurs. À titre facultatif et en plus de la méthode d'essai normalisée, le même protocole d'essai peut être appliqué pour caractériser des ensembles de vêtements de protection plus complexes, comprenant des sous-vêtements, des couches d'air et certaines caractéristiques de conception[1]. Des mesures sont en outre réalisables sur des vêtements prêts à porter.
La présente méthode d'essai est destinée à être utilisée pour mesurer et décrire le comportement des assemblages d'étoffes d'un vêtement ou d'un ensemble de vêtements en réponse à une série d'activités simulée dans des conditions maîtrisées en laboratoire, les résultats étant utilisés pour optimiser les combinaisons de vêtements et le choix des matériaux. De plus, le présent document, conjointement avec l'ISO 18640‑2, est destiné à être utilisé pour décrire l'effet thermo-physiologique des vêtements de protection, mais pas le risque de contrainte thermique dans des conditions réelles d'incendie. Les résultats de cet essai peuvent être utilisés comme éléments d'une appréciation du risque en fonction de la charge thermo-physiologique.
[1] Une étude réalisée par Empa (Laboratoires fédéraux de la Suisse pour les matériaux, la science et la technologie) a montré une bonne corrélation entre les résultats des essais menés sur un torse normalisé (sans sous-vêtements ni couches d?air sur les étoffes) et les essais d?étoffes avec sous-vêtements, les essais d?étoffes avec sous-vêtements et couches d?air et les essais de vêtements prêts à porter (avec sous-vêtements et avec ou sans couches d'air) de la même composition de matériau. En raison des valeurs ajoutées d?isolation thermique des couches supplémentaires, une comparaison directe des résultats entre les différentes configurations de mesurage est cependant impossible.

Varovalna obleka za gasilce - Fiziološki vpliv - 1. del: Merjenje skupnega prenosa toplote in mase s torzom za potenje (ISO 18640-1:2018)

Ta evropski standard določa torzo za potenje kot metodo za merjenje skupnega prenosa toplote in mase skozi varovalno obleko v specifičnih pogojih dela gasilcev. OPOMBA: torzo za potenje je bil zasnovan za izvajanje laboratorijskih preskusov z visoko stopnjo ponovljivosti za prenos toplote in mase na oblačila v nadzorovanih pogojih, ki so zelo podobni dejanskim pogojem. Torzo za potenje je valj, ki je enake velikosti kot človeški trup. Plasti merilnega valja so izdelan iz kompaktnega teflona, polietilena in aluminija. Takšna kombinacija materialov omogoča izdelavo modela za procese prehajanja. Na ta način je mogoče posnemati spremembe v temperaturi kože in bazalni temperaturi. Torzo za potenje skupaj vsebuje 54 šob za potenje z neodvisnim upravljanjem. Valj je na obeh koncih opremljen z ogrevanim varovalom, ki preprečuje aksialno izgubo toplote. Za ogrevanje valja in toplotnih varoval se uporabljajo električne grelne folije. Torzo za potenje lahko deluje s stalno temperaturo površine ali s stalnim ogrevanjem. Celoten torzo za potenje je postavljen na natančno tehtnico, s katero je mogoče oceniti količino izhlapele in kondenzirane vode.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Sep-2016
Publication Date
11-Jun-2018
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
17-May-2018
Due Date
22-Jul-2018
Completion Date
12-Jun-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 18640-1:2018
01-julij-2018

Varovalna obleka za gasilce - Fiziološki vpliv - 1. del: Merjenje skupnega prenosa

toplote in mase s torzom za potenje (ISO 18640-1:2018)

Protective clothing for firefighters - Physiological impact - Part 1: Measurement of

coupled heat and moisture transfer with the sweating torso (ISO 18640-1:2018)

Schutzkleidung für die Feuerwehr - Physiologische Wärmebelastung - Teil 1: Messung

von gekoppelter Wärme und Stoffaustausch mit dem schwitzenden Torso (ISO 18640-
1:2018)
Vêtements de protection pour sapeurs-pompiers - Impact physiologique - Partie 1:

Mesurage du transfert de masse et de la chaleur couplé de chaleur et d'humidité à l'aide

du torse transpirant (ISO 18640-1:2018)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 18640-1:2018
ICS:
13.220.10 Gašenje požara Fire-fighting
13.340.10 Varovalna obleka Protective clothing
SIST EN ISO 18640-1:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 18640-1:2018
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SIST EN ISO 18640-1:2018
EN ISO 18640-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
May 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.340.10
English Version
Protective clothing for firefighters - Physiological impact -
Part 1: Measurement of coupled heat and moisture
transfer with the sweating torso (ISO 18640-1:2018)

Vêtements de protection pour sapeurs-pompiers - Schutzkleidung für die Feuerwehr - Physiologische

Impact physiologique - Partie 1: Mesurage du transfert Wärmebelastung - Teil 1: Messung von gekoppelter

de masse et de la chaleur couplé de chaleur et Wärme und Stoffaustausch mit dem schwitzenden

d'humidité à l'aide du torse transpirant (ISO 18640- Torso (ISO 18640-1:2018)
1:2018)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 2 January 2018.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 18640-1:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 18640-1:2018
EN ISO 18640-1:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 18640-1:2018
EN ISO 18640-1:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 18640-1:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 94

"Personal safety - Personal protective equipment" in collaboration with Technical Committee

CEN/TC 162 “Protective clothing including hand and arm protection and lifejackets” the secretariat of

which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by November 2018, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by November 2018.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 18640-1:2018 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 18640-1:2018 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 18640-1:2018
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SIST EN ISO 18640-1:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18640-1
First edition
2018-05
Protective clothing for firefighters —
Physiological impact —
Part 1:
Measurement of coupled heat and
moisture transfer with the sweating
torso
Vêtements de protection pour sapeurs-pompiers — Impact
physiologique —
Partie 1: Mesurage du transfert de masse et de la chaleur couplé de
chaleur et d'humidité à l'aide du torse transpirant
Reference number
ISO 18640-1:2018(E)
ISO 2018
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SIST EN ISO 18640-1:2018
ISO 18640-1:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18640-1:2018
ISO 18640-1:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Sweating torso ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1.2 Heated cylinder ................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.1.3 Thermal guard sections ............................................................................................................................................. 6

5.1.4 Heating and temperature control ...................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.5 Temperature measurement .................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.6 Simulation of perspiration ...................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.7 Wicking layer ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.8 Balance torso weight .................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Computer, control system and data acquisition ......................................................................................................... 7

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2.2 Computer and measurement software ......................................................................................................... 7

5.2.3 Control system ................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2.4 Data acquisition ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.2.5 Measurement control options .............................................................................................................................. 7

5.3 Climatic chamber .................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.2 Climatic chamber sensors ........................................................................................................................................ 8

5.4 Fan system .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.5 Sweat water supply ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.5.1 Gravimetric sweat water control system .................................................................................................... 9

5.6 Simulation of air layers .................................................................................................................................................................10

6 Sampling and test specimens ...............................................................................................................................................................11

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.1.1 Size of samples................................................................................................................................................................11

6.1.2 Type of test specimen ...............................................................................................................................................11

6.1.3 Garment/ensemble specification ...................................................................................................................11

6.2 Number of test specimens ..........................................................................................................................................................11

7 Specimen preparation .................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.1 Pre-treatment ........................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.2 Conditioning ...........................................................................................................................................................................................12

8 Measurement procedure ...........................................................................................................................................................................12

8.1 Test preparation ..................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.1.1 Preparation of climatic chamber ....................................................................................................................12

8.1.2 Wind speed ........................................................................................................................................................................12

8.2 Specimen testing ................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.2.2 Dressing the torso ........................................................................................................................................................14

8.2.3 Recording specimen identification and test observations ........................................................14

8.2.4 Starting the test ..............................................................................................................................................................14

8.2.5 Calculated values ..........................................................................................................................................................15

9 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

9.2 Specimen identification ................................................................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 18640-1:2018
ISO 18640-1:2018(E)

9.3 Experiment conditions ..................................................................................................................................................................18

9.4 Calculated results...............................................................................................................................................................................18

10 Maintenance and calibration ................................................................................................................................................................19

10.1 Maintenance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................19

10.1.1 Sweat water tank ..........................................................................................................................................................19

10.1.2 Valve checks ......................................................................................................................................................................19

10.2 Calibration ...............................................................................................................................................................................................19

10.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

10.2.2 Correction value for thermal resistance, R ........................................................................

ct0 (torso) 19

10.2.3 Wicking layer ...................................................................................................................................................................19

10.2.4 torso temperature sensors ...................................................................................................................................20

10.2.5 torso heating power ...................................................................................................................................................20

10.2.6 torso sweat rate .............................................................................................................................................................20

10.2.7 Environmental conditions ....................................................................................................................................20

10.3 Experiments with a standard fabric (optional) .......................................................................................................20

Annex A (informative) torso size and materials definition ........................................................................................................21

Annex B (informative) Calibration .......................................................................................................................................................................25

Annex C (informative) Example of data evaluation ............................................................................................................................27

Annex D (informative) Sample check list ......................................................................................................................................................31

Annex E (informative) Validation of the measurement device ...............................................................................................32

Annex F (informative) Example Matlab code ............................................................................................................................................33

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................37

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18640-1:2018
ISO 18640-1:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 94, Personal safety, Subcommittee SC 14,

Firefighters PPE.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18640 series can be found on the ISO website.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 18640-1:2018
ISO 18640-1:2018(E)
Introduction

The main functions of protective clothing are protection against hazards and maintenance of health and

comfort for the wearer. Furthermore, protective clothing against heat and flame prevents the wearer

from health risks or even life threatening heat stress in extreme environmental conditions. Today’s

standards provide requirements for the protective properties of protective clothing against heat and

flame. However, the higher the protective properties of such clothing, the less the heat originating

from the human body is dissipated. Firefighters reach metabolic rates above 500 W/m during their

[5][6] [7]

work . Thereof 75-85 % is released as heat , which has to be dissipated from the human body

by thermo-regulative processes to avoid an increase in body core temperature. If heat dissipation is

not restricted, the human body is able to maintain its temperature in the range of 36,5 °C to 37,5 °C

[8]

(normothermia) . However, in harsh environmental conditions and/or in situations of restricted heat

dissipation due to protective clothing the human body is not able to maintain body core temperature

within normothermia and suffers from heat stress. The working performance is gradually reduced and

[16]

any further increases in body core temperature can become life threatening . To reduce the risk of

heat stress during high intensity physical activities, protective clothing should additionally be assessed

with regard to its impact on human thermoregulation and heat stress.

Different approaches exist for the assessment of thermo-physiological impact. On the one hand,

established standard parameters such as water vapour resistance, R , and thermal insulation, R , of

et ct

fabric samples are considered with regard to thermo-regulative impact. However, these parameters do

not fully reflect the real impact of protective clothing; for example, moisture management properties

and the combined effect of heat and moisture transfer are not considered. On the other hand, human

subject trials reveal real thermo-physiological responses for a specific environmental condition

and protective clothing ensemble. However, the outcome of this methodology does not only refer to

the intrinsic properties of material samples but are influenced also by the design of the clothing and

trapped air layers within the clothing. Furthermore, human subject trials are very time consuming and

expensive, constricted by ethical guidelines and provide findings related to the collective of participants

included. Thus, reproducibility between laboratories might be limited. The use of thermal manikins

overcomes the limitations for human subject trials. As for human subject trials, full body manikins

provide findings on ready-made protective garments including design and fit. Hence, the attribution to

intrinsic material properties remains difficult.

A methodology referring to intrinsic clothing properties and taking into account combined heat and

[9][10]

moisture transfer is the Sweating torso . Sweating torso device is an upright standing heated

[11]

cylinder, representing the surface of a human trunk, with the ability for perspiration . The clothing

sample is investigated by wrapping specimens around the sweating torso. Three phases are run to

measure dry thermal insulation, dry and wet heat transfer and drying properties. Findings from the

Sweating torso have been validated with standard methodologies, such as sweating guarded hotplate,

[11]

and were shown to be highly reproducible . Furthermore, validation studies have been conducted

to relate human thermos-physiological measurements to Sweating torso findings under realistic

environmental conditions and activities for firefighters. Based on this knowledge, guidelines are

provided for intrinsic textile properties based on thermo-physiological responses. In addition to the

standard procedure described above, the impact of more complex protective clothing systems including

underwear, air gaps and/or design features is investigated optionally applying the same experimental

protocol described in this document.
vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18640-1:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18640-1:2018(E)
Protective clothing for firefighters — Physiological
impact —
Part 1:
Measurement of coupled heat and moisture transfer with
the sweating torso
1 Scope

This document provides a test method for evaluating the physiological impact of protective fabric

ensembles and potentially protective clothing ensembles in a series of simulated activities (phases)

under defined ambient conditions. This standard test method characterizes the essential properties

of fabric assemblies of a representative garment or clothing ensemble for thermo-physiological

assessment:
— dry thermal insulation;

— cooling properties during average metabolic activity and moisture management (dry and wet heat

transfer);
— drying behaviour.

Default measurements are done on fabric samples representing the garment or protective clothing

combination. Optionally and in addition to the standard test method, the same testing protocol can be

applied to characterise more complex protective clothing ensembles including underwear, air layer and

certain design features . In addition, measurements on readymade garments are possible.

This test method is intended to be used to measure and describe the behaviour of fabric assemblies of a

garment or clothing ensemble in response to a simulated series of activities under controlled laboratory

conditions, with the results used to optimize garment combinations and material selection. Furthermore,

this document together ISO 18640-2, is intended to be used to describe the thermo-physiological impact

of protective clothing but not the risk for heat stress under actual fire conditions. The results of this test

can be used as elements of a risk assessment with respect to thermo-physiological load.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3696, Water for analytical laboratory use — Specification and test methods
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

1) A study conducted by Empa (Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Switzerland)

showed good correlation between results of standard torso tests (without underwear and air layers on fabrics) to

tests on fabrics with underwear, tests on fabrics with underwear and air layers and test on readymade garments (with

underwear and with or without air layers) o
...

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