Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing - Part 9: Field vane test (FVT and FVT-F) (ISO 22476 9:2020)

The standard comprises requirements for ground investigations by means of the field vane test (FVT) as part of the geotechnical investigations.

Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Felduntersuchungen - Teil 9: Flügelscherversuche (FVT und FVT F) (ISO 22476 9:2020)

Dieses Dokument behandelt die Anforderungen an die Ausrüstung, Durchführung und Aufzeichnung von Flügelscherversuchen für die Messung der maximalen und gestörten Flügelscherfestigkeit zusammen mit der Empfindlichkeit feinkörniger Böden. Darüber hinaus kann das Verhalten nach der maximalen Scherfestigkeit ausgewertet werden. Beschrieben werden zwei Arten von Flügelscherversuchen: der normale Flügelscherversuch (FVT, en: field vane test) und der schnelle Flügelscherversuch (FVT-F, en: fast field vane test).
Die Unsicherheiten der Versuchsergebnisse für den Flügel sind in Anhang D beschrieben.
ANMERKUNG 1   Dieses Dokument erfüllt die Anforderungen an Flügelscherversuche als Teil der geotechnischen Erkundung und Untersuchung nach EN 1997 1 und EN 1997 2.
ANMERKUNG 2   Dieses Dokument gilt für Onshore- und Nearshore-Flügelscherversuche.

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais en place - Partie 9: Essai au scissomètre de chantier (ISO 22476 9:2020)

Le présent document traite des exigences en matière d'équipement, d'exécution et de compte-rendu des essais sur le terrain pour la mesure de la résistance au cisaillement maximale et résiduelle du sol, ainsi que de la sensibilité des sols à grains fins. En outre, le comportement de la résistance au cisaillement après le pic peut être évalué. Deux types d'essais au scissomètre de chantier sont décrits: l'essai scissométrique ordinaire (FVT) et l'essai scissométrique rapide (FVT-F).
Les incertitudes du résultat de l'essai au scissomètre de chantier sont décrites à l'Annexe D.
NOTE 1        Le présent document répond aux exigences relatives aux essais scissométriques dans le cadre de l'étude et des essais géotechniques conformément aux normes EN 1997-1 et EN 1997-2.
NOTE 2        Le présent document porte sur les essais scissométriques à terre et à proximité du littoral.

Geotehnično preiskovanje in preskušanje - Preskušanje na terenu - 9. del: Preskus s terensko krilno sondo (FVT in FVT-F) (ISO 22476-9:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Aug-2019
Publication Date
15-Nov-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
02-Oct-2020
Due Date
07-Dec-2020
Completion Date
16-Nov-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 22476-9:2020
01-december-2020

Geotehnično preiskovanje in preskušanje - Preskušanje na terenu - 9. del: Preskus

s terensko krilno sondo (FVT in FVT-F) (ISO 22476-9:2020)

Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing - Part 9: Field vane test (FVT and

FVT-F) (ISO 22476 9:2020)
Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Felduntersuchungen - Teil 9:
Flügelscherversuche (FVT und FVT F) (ISO 22476 9:2020)
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais en place - Partie 9: Essai au
scissomètre de chantier (ISO 22476 9:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 22476-9:2020
ICS:
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
SIST EN ISO 22476-9:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 22476-9:2020
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SIST EN ISO 22476-9:2020
EN ISO 22476-9
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 93.020
English Version
Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing - Part
9: Field vane test (FVT and FVT-F) (ISO 22476 9:2020)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais en Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung -

place - Partie 9: Essai au scissomètre de chantier (ISO Felduntersuchungen - Teil 9: Flügelscherversuche (FVT

22476 9:2020) und FVT F) (ISO 22476 9:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 15 September 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 22476-9:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 22476-9:2020
EN ISO 22476-9:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 22476-9:2020
EN ISO 22476-9:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 22476-9:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 182

"Geotechnics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 341 “Geotechnical Investigation and

Testing” the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2021, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 22476-9:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 22476-9:2020 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 22476-9:2020
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SIST EN ISO 22476-9:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22476-9
First edition
2020-09
Geotechnical investigation and
testing — Field testing —
Part 9:
Field vane test (FVT and FVT-F)
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Essais en place —
Partie 9: Essai au scissomètre de chantier
Reference number
ISO 22476-9:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 22476-9:2020
ISO 22476-9:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 22476-9:2020
ISO 22476-9:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4 Equipment and configurations .............................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.1 Test equipment ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.1.1 Vane and vane shaft ....................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.1.2 Friction reducer ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.1.3 Slip coupling ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.1.4 Extension rods, protective casings, protection shoe ......................................................................... 7

4.1.5 Rotation unit ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.1.6 Equipment for measuring rotation and torque ..................................................................................... 8

4.2 Test configurations .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5 Selection of equipment and test configuration ..................................................................................................................10

5.1 Selection of equipment .................................................................................................................................................................10

5.2 Selection of test configuration ................................................................................................................................................11

6 Test procedure .....................................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.1 Equipment checks and calibrations ...................................................................................................................................12

6.2 Position and inclination of thrust machine .................................................................................................................12

6.3 Test depths ..............................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.4 Internal friction torque reading prior to testing .....................................................................................................12

6.5 Methods for reaching the level for insertion of the vane .................................................................................12

6.6 Insertion of the vane .......................................................................................................................................................................14

6.7 External friction torque reading ...........................................................................................................................................15

6.8 Vane shear test .....................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.9 Internal friction torque reading after the test ......... ..................................................................................................16

7 Test results ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................16

8 Reporting ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.2 Reporting of test results ...............................................................................................................................................................17

8.2.1 General information ...................................................................................................................................................17

8.2.2 Location of the test .................. ......................................................................................................................... ...........18

8.2.3 Test equipment ...............................................................................................................................................................18

8.2.4 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................18

8.2.5 Test results .........................................................................................................................................................................19

8.3 Presentation of test plots ............................................................................................................................................................19

Annex A (informative) Test phases ......................................................................................................................................................................20

Annex B (informative) Example of field report for field vane test ......................................................................................21

Annex C (normative) Maintenance, checks and calibration ......................................................................................................23

Annex D (informative) Uncertainties in field vane testing .........................................................................................................26

Annex E (normative) General interpretation and explanation for tapered and rectangular

vanes with H/D ratios differing from 2 ......................................................................................................................................28

Annex F (informative) Interpretation and explanation for a rectangular vane with rounded

corners .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................31

Annex G (informative) Calculation of test depth corrected for inclination ...............................................................33

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 22476-9:2020
ISO 22476-9:2020(E)

Annex H (informative) Example of estimation of post-peak behaviour .......................................................................34

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................35

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 22476-9:2020
ISO 22476-9:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 182, Geotechnics, in collaboration with

the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 341, Geotechnical

Investigation and Testing, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and

CEN (Vienna Agreement).
A list of all parts in the ISO 22476 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 22476-9:2020
ISO 22476-9:2020(E)
Introduction

The field vane test is used to determine the vane shear strength of soils in the undrained condition,

by insertion of a rectangular vane into fine-grained soil and rotating it. During the rotation, the

torque and rotation can be measured, depending on the test configuration. From the measured torque

and the dimensions of the vane, the peak shear strength, an indication of post-peak behaviour, and

the remoulded shear strength can be derived by a limit equilibrium analysis. Soil sensitivity can be

ascertained if peak and remoulded shear strengths have been determined.

The tests are carried out in boreholes, in trial pits and with pushed-in equipment. The torque and

rotation are measured either above the ground surface using extension rods, or directly above the vane.

The field vane test is mainly applicable to saturated fine-grained soil. The vane shear strength

determined by the test is commonly corrected before geotechnical analysis, using factors based on

local experience.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 22476-9:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22476-9:2020(E)
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Field testing —
Part 9:
Field vane test (FVT and FVT-F)
1 Scope

This document deals with the equipment requirements, execution and reporting of field vane tests

for the measurement of peak and remoulded vane shear strength together with the sensitivity of fine-

grained soils. In addition, post-peak shear strength behaviour can be evaluated. Two types of field vane

test are described: the ordinary field vane test (FVT) and the fast field vane test (FVT-F).

The uncertainties of the vane test result are described in Annex D.

NOTE 1 This document fulfils the requirements for field vane tests as part of the geotechnical investigation

and testing according to EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2.
NOTE 2 This document covers onshore and nearshore field vane testing.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 10012, Measurement management systems — Requirements for measurement processes and measuring

equipment
3 Terms, definitions and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
cased extension rod

extension rod that is sleeved inside of protective casings (3.1.11) during vane (3.1.23) testing

3.1.2
cased borehole

borehole that is cased to prevent collapse and minimize friction between the extension rods and soil

3.1.3
centralizer
equipment to keep the extension rods straight and prevent buckling
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 22476-9:2020
ISO 22476-9:2020(E)
3.1.4
data acquisition system
measuring system, which converts physical quantities to digital format

Note 1 to entry: The system typically includes sensors, signal conditioning, an analogue-to-digital converter and

recording unit.
3.1.5
downhole test
test configuration whereby the torque is measured close to the vane (3.1.23)

Note 1 to entry: The rotation (3.1.14) can be measured close to the vane or above the ground surface.

3.1.6
external friction torque

torque due to friction outside the measuring equipment during rotation (3.1.14) excluding torque

caused by shearing of soil

Note 1 to entry: External friction is mainly caused by friction acting on extension rods, and it can be estimated

with a slip coupling (3.1.16) immediately before engagement of the vane (3.1.23).

3.1.7
friction reducer

ring inserted between the vane (3.1.23) and the extension rods to reduce friction along uncased

extension rods (3.1.20)
3.1.8
insertion length

distance from the ground surface or base of (bore)hole or trial pit to mid-height of the vane (3.1.23),

measured along the axis of the extension rods
3.1.9
internal friction torque

torque due to friction inside the measuring equipment during rotation (3.1.14) when there is no torque

acting on the vane (3.1.23) and no friction acting on the extension rods
3.1.10
protection shoe
equipment to protect the vane (3.1.23) while pushing into the soil

Note 1 to entry: It assists with the insertion of the vane without drilling. Usually, the tip of the protection shoe

consists of four plate slots allowing the vane plates (3.1.24) to retract inside of the protective casing (3.1.11).

3.1.11
protective casing

tube that isolates the extension rods from the soil and gives support against buckling

3.1.12
protrusion length

distance between the bottom of the protective casing/shoe and the mid-height of the vane (3.1.23)

when pushed to the test depth (3.1.17), measured along the axis of the rods
3.1.13
push-in equipment
equipment to push the vane (3.1.23) into the soil without predrilling.
3.1.14
rotation
change of angle by the circular movement of the vane (3.1.23) around its axis

Note 1 to entry: Apparent rotation is the rotation recorded by the rotation measurement equipment.

2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 22476-9:2020
ISO 22476-9:2020(E)
3.1.15
rotation rate
rate of angular rotation (3.1.14) of the vane (3.1.23)
3.1.16
slip coupling

mechanism that allows the extension rods to rotate freely while the vane (3.1.23) remains stationary

Note 1 to entry: The function of slip coupling is to separate the rod friction from vane torque resistance. A slip

coupling mechanism shall provide free rotation with minimal friction.
3.1.17
test depth

vertical distance from the ground surface, reference level or datum to the mid-height of the vane (3.1.23)

Note 1 to entry: According to Annex G, the insertion length (3.1.8) can be corrected with inclinometer

measurements to correspond to the corrected test depth. Otherwise, the test depth is based on the sum of the

lengths of the extension rods from reference level or datum owing to the uncertainty of inclination.

3.1.18
test location
plan position of a test or series of tests
3.1.19
time to failure

time from the beginning of application of torque to the vane (3.1.23) until the maximum torque is reached

3.1.20
uncased extension rod

extension rod that is not protected by protective casing allowing friction to develop between the

extension rods and the soil
3.1.21
uncased vane
vane (3.1.23) pushed into the ground without protection
3.1.22
uphole test
test configuration whereby the torque is measured above the ground surface

Note 1 to entry: The rotation (3.1.14) is applied and measurements registered above the ground surface.

3.1.23
vane
device formed by four vane plates (3.1.24) fixed at 90° to each other
3.1.24
vane plate
thin and flat rectangular plate

Note 1 to entry: Most vanes (3.1.23) have a (nearly) rectangular shape. For practical reasons, vanes without

protection shoes (3.1.10) often have slightly tapered lower ends of the vane plates or with rounded corners. Some

equipment using uncased extension rods (3.1.20) and a slip coupling (3.1.16) to separate the rod friction from the

torque on the vane are designed with slightly tapered, sharpened, pointed or conical, vane plates in order to

disengage the slip coupling during the pushing stroke.
3.1.25
vane shaft

cylindrical element of the vane (3.1.23) to which the vane plates (3.1.24) are fixed

Note 1 to entry: The vane shaft may be connected directly to the force or torque measurement equipment in a

downhole test (3.1.5) or connected to it via extension rods in an uphole test (3.1.22).

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 22476-9:2020
ISO 22476-9:2020(E)
3.1.26
waiting time

time between reaching the test depth (3.1.17) and beginning of application of the torque to the vane

3.1.27
zero shift

difference between the internal friction torque (3.1.9) readings of the measuring equipment prior to and

after completion of the test
3.1.28
sensitivity
ratio between the undisturbed and remoulded undrained shear strengths
3.2 Symbols
Symbol Name Description Unit
A Lateral shear surface area of the bottom cone mm
cone,bott
A Lateral shear surface area of the top cone mm
cone,top
A Lateral shear surface area of the cylinder mm
cylinder
α Measured total angle between the vertical axis and the axis of °
the vane
β Measured angle between the vertical axis and the projection of the °
axis of the field vane on a fixed vertical plane
β Measured angle between the vertical axis and the projection of the °
axis of the field vane on a vertical plane that is perpendicular to
the plane of angle β
C Protective casing Defined by term 3.1.11

c Undrained shear Shear resistance of fine-grained soils in the undrained condition kPa

strength
c Field vane Peak shear strength of soil, derived from the maximum torque kPa
strength measured by field vane test

c Fast field vane Peak shear strength of soil, derived from the maximum torque kPa

fv-f
strength measured by fast field vane test

c Post-peak field Post-peak shear strength of soil, selected after desired rotation kPa

vane strength after field vane strength

c Remoulded field Shear strength, as measured by field vane test, after remoulding kPa

vane strength the soil

D Downhole meas- Equipment for measuring torque and rotation are located close to

uring equipment the vane
D* Downhole meas- Equipment for measuring torque is located close to the vane,
uring equipment but equipment for measuring rotation is located above the
ground surface
D Diameter of the vane mm
d Diameter of vane shaft immediately behind vane mm
D Diameter of lower end of protective casing mm
D Diameter of protection shoe mm
F Friction reducer Defined by term 3.1.7
H Height of the vane mm
H The height of the vertical side of the tapered vane excluding mm
the height influence of tapering(s).
i Angle of the taper at vane top °
i Angle of the taper at vane bottom °
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 22476-9:2020
ISO 22476-9:2020(E)
Symbol Name Description Unit
R Rotation unit Rotation unit can be located close to the vane or above the
ground surface
R Area ratio Cross-sectional area ratio of vane and vane shaft compared to —
circular shear surface
r Radius of the rounded corner of the vane plate mm
r Lever arm of the lateral surface of the bottom cone of shear surface mm
cone,bott
r Lever arm of the lateral surface of the top cone mm
cone,top
r Lever arm of the lateral surface of the cylinder mm
cylinder
S Slip coupling Defined by term 3.1.16
Field vane The ratio between the field vane and remoulded field vane —
sensitivity strengths
s Thickness of the vane plates mm
T Torque Torque measured during vane rotation, corrected for external Nm
friction torque reading
T Component of torque required to shear the bottom cone of the Nm
cone,bott
shear surface
T Component of torque required to shear the top cone of the shear Nm
cone,top
surface
T Component of torque required to shear a quarter circular shear Nm
corner
surface
T Component of torque required to shear the side surface
...

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