High-voltage switchgear and controlgear -- Part 101: Synthetic testing

This part of IEC 62271 mainly applies to a.c. circuit-breakers within the scope of IEC 62271- 100. It provides the general rules for testing a.c. circuit-breakers, for making and breaking capacities over the range of test duties described in 6.102 to 6.111 of IEC 62271-100, by synthetic methods. It has been proven that synthetic testing is an economical and technically correct way to test high-voltage a.c. circuit-breakers according to the requirements of IEC 62271-100 and that it is equivalent to direct testing. The methods and techniques described are those in general use. The purpose of this standard is to establish criteria for synthetic testing and for the proper evaluation of results. Such criteria will establish the validity of the test method without imposing restraints on innovation of test circuitry.

Hochspannungs-Schaltgeräte und -Schaltanlagen -- Teil 101: Synthetische Prüfung

Appareillage à haute tension -- Partie 101: Essais synthétiques

Visokonapetostne stikalne in krmilne naprave 101. del: Sintetično preskušanje (IEC 62271-101:2006)

Ta del IEC 6227 večinoma velja za prekinjevalce izmeničnega toku v okviru IEC 62271-100. Zagotavlja splošna pravila za preskušanje prekinjevalcev izmeničnega toka, za zmogljivost proizvajanja in prekinitve v razponu preskusnih funkcij, ki so opisane od točke 6.102 do 6.111 IEC 62271-100, s sintetičnimi metodami. Dokazano je bilo, da je sintetično preskušanje ekonomičen in tehnično pravilen način preskušanja visoko napetostnih prekinjevalcev izmeničnega toka v skladu z zahtevami IEC 62271-100 ter da je enakovredno neposrednemu preskušanju. Opisane metode in tehnike so tiste, ki so v splošni rabi. Namen tega standarda je vzpostaviti merila za sintetično preskušanje in za primerno ovrednotenje rezultatov. Takšna merila vzpostavljajo veljavnost preskusne metode brez omejitev glede inovativnosti preskusnega vezja.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
30-Nov-2006
Withdrawal Date
01-Jun-2016
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
02-Jun-2016
Due Date
25-Jun-2016
Completion Date
02-Jun-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 62271-101:2006
01-december-2006
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 60427:2000
9LVRNRQDSHWRVWQHVWLNDOQHLQNUPLOQHQDSUDYHGHO6LQWHWLþQRSUHVNXãDQMH
,(&

High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 101: Synthetic testing (IEC 62271-

101:2006)

Hochspannungs-Schaltgeräte und -Schaltanlagen - Teil 101: Synthetische Prüfung (IEC

62271-101:2006)

Appareillage a haute tension - Partie 101: Essais synthétiques (CEI 62271-101:2006)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 62271-101:2006
ICS:
29.130.10 Visokonapetostne stikalne in High voltage switchgear and
krmilne naprave controlgear
SIST EN 62271-101:2006 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 62271-101:2006
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 62271-101:2006
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 62271-101
NORME EUROPÉENNE
July 2006
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 29.130.10 Supersedes EN 60427:2000
English version
High-voltage switchgear and controlgear
Part 101: Synthetic testing
(IEC 62271-101:2006)
Appareillage à haute tension Hochspannungs-Schaltgeräte
Partie 101: Essais synthétiques und -Schaltanlagen
(CEI 62271-101:2006) Teil 101: Synthetische Prüfung
(IEC 62271-101:2006)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2006-07-01. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, the Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2006 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 62271-101:2006 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 62271-101:2006
EN 62271-101:2006 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 17A/753/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 62271-101, prepared by SC 17A,

High-voltage switchgear and controlgear, of IEC TC 17, Switchgear and controlgear, was submitted to the

IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by CENELEC as EN 62271-101 on 2006-07-01.

This European Standard supersedes EN 60427:2000.

This standard shall be read in conjunction with EN 62271-100:2001. The numbering of the subclauses of

Clause 6 is the same as in EN 62271-100. However, not all subclauses of EN 62271-100 are addressed;

merely those where synthetic testing has introduced changes.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2007-04-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2009-07-01
Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62271-101:2006 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.
__________
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 62271-101:2006
- 3 - EN 62271-101:2006
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC/TS 61633 1995 High-voltage alternating current circuit-- -
breakers - Guide for short-circuit and
switching test procedures for metal-enclosed
and dead tank circuit-breakers
IEC 62271-100 2001 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear EN 62271-100 2001
Part 100: High-voltage alternating-current
circuit-breakers
IEC/TR 62271-308 2002 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - -
Part 308: Guide for asymmetrical short-circuit
breaking test duty T100a
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 62271-101:2006
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 62271-101:2006
NORME CEI
INTERNATIONALE
IEC
62271-101
INTERNATIONAL
Première édition
STANDARD
First edition
2006-05
Appareillage à haute tension –
Partie 101:
Essais synthétiques
High-voltage switchgear and controlgear –
Part 101:
Synthetic testing
 IEC 2006 Droits de reproduction réservés  Copyright - all rights reserved

Aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any

utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including

électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie et les photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'éditeur. the publisher.

International Electrotechnical Commission, 3, rue de Varembé, PO Box 131, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland

Telephone: +41 22 919 02 11 Telefax: +41 22 919 03 00 E-mail: inmail@iec.ch Web: www.iec.ch

CODE PRIX
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МеждународнаяЭлектротехническаяКомиссия
Pour prix, voir catalogue en vigueur
For price, see current catalogue
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 62271-101:2006
62271-101  IEC:2006 – 3 –
CONTENTS

FOREWORD.........................................................................................................................11

1 Scope.............................................................................................................................15

2 Normative references .....................................................................................................15

3 Terms and definitions .....................................................................................................15

4 Synthetic testing techniques and methods for short-circuit breaking tests.......................19

4.1 Basic principles and general requirements for synthetic breaking test

methods ................................................................................................................19

4.2 Synthetic test circuits and related specific requirements for breaking tests ............25

4.3 Three-phase synthetic test methods ......................................................................31

5 Synthetic testing techniques and methods for short-circuit making tests .........................35

5.1 Basic principles and general requirements for synthetic making test methods .......35

5.2 Synthetic test circuit and related specific requirements for making tests ................37

6 Specific requirements for synthetic tests for making and breaking performance

related to the requirements of 6.102 through 6.111 of IEC 62271-100 ...........................39

Annex A (informative) Current distortion ..............................................................................79

Annex B (informative) Current injection methods................................................................111

Annex C (informative) Voltage injection methods ...............................................................121

Annex D (informative) Duplicate circuit (transformer or Skeats circuit) ...............................127

Annex E (normative) Information to be given and results to be recorded for synthetic tests .. 133

Annex F (informative) Special procedures for testing circuit-breakers having parallel

breaking resistors ...............................................................................................................135

Annex G (informative) Synthetic methods for capacitive-current switching .........................141

Annex H (informative) Re-ignition methods to prolong arcing ............................................165

Annex I (normative) Reduction in di/dt and TRV for test duty T100a ..................................173

Annex J (informative) Three-phase synthetic test circuits...................................................201

Annex K (normative) Test procedure using a three-phase current circuit and one

voltage circuit .....................................................................................................................217

Annex L (normative) Splitting of test duties in test series taking into account the

associated TRV for each pole-to-clear ................................................................................255

Annex M (normative) Tolerances on test quantities for type tests.......................................275

Bibliography........................................................................................................................281

Figure 1 – Interrupting process – Basic time intervals ...........................................................63

Figure 2 – Example of recovery voltage ................................................................................65

Figure 3 – Equivalent surge impedance of the voltage circuit for the current injection

method .................................................................................................................................67

Figure 4 – Making process – Basic time intervals..................................................................69

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 62271-101:2006
62271-101  IEC:2006 – 5 –

Figure 5 – Typical synthetic make circuit for single-phase tests ............................................71

Figure 6 – Typical synthetic make circuit for three-phase tests (k = 1,5)............................73

Figure 7 – Comparison of arcing time settings during three-phase direct tests (left)

and three-phase synthetic (right) for T100s with k = 1,5 ....................................................75

Figure 8 – Comparison of arcing time settings during three-phase direct tests (left)

and three-phase synthetic (right) for T100a with k = 1,5....................................................77

Figure A.1 – Direct circuit, simplified diagram .......................................................................93

Figure A.2 – Prospective short-circuit current .......................................................................93

Figure A.3 – Distortion current ..............................................................................................93

Figure A.4 – Distortion current ..............................................................................................95

Figure A.5 – Simplified circuit diagram..................................................................................97

Figure A.6 – Current and arc voltage characteristics for symmetrical current ........................99

Figure A.7 – Current and arc voltage characteristics for asymmetrical current ....................101

Figure A.8 – Reduction of amplitude and duration of final current loop of arcing .................103

Figure A.9 – Reduction of amplitude and duration of final current loop of arcing .................105

Figure A.10 – Reduction of amplitude and duration of final current loop of arcing ...............107

Figure A.11 – Reduction of amplitude and duration of final current loop of arcing ...............109

Figure B.1 – Typical current injection circuit with voltage circuit in parallel with the test

circuit-breaker.....................................................................................................................115

Figure B.2 – Injection timing for current injection scheme with circuit B.1............................115

Figure B.3 – Typical current injection circuit with voltage circuit in parallel with the

auxiliary circuit-breaker.......................................................................................................117

Figure B.4 – Injection timing for current injection scheme with circuit B.3............................117

Figure B.5 – Examples of the determination of the interval of significant change of arc

voltage from the oscillograms .............................................................................................119

Figure C.1 – Typical voltage injection circuit diagram with voltage circuit in parallel

with the auxiliary circuit-breaker (simplified diagram) ..........................................................123

Figure C.2 – TRV waveshapes in a voltage injection circuit with the voltage circuit in

parallel with the auxiliary circuit-breaker .............................................................................125

Figure D.1 – Transformer or Skeats circuit..........................................................................129

Figure D.2 – Triggered transformer or Skeats circuit ...........................................................131

Figure G.1 – Capacitive current circuits (parallel mode) ......................................................147

Figure G.2 – Current injection circuit...................................................................................149

Figure G.3 – LC oscillating circuit .......................................................................................151

Figure G.4 – Inductive current circuit in parallel with LC oscillating circuit...........................153

Figure G.5 – Current injection circuit, normal recovery voltage applied to both

terminals of the circuit-breaker............................................................................................155

Figure G.6 – Synthetic test circuit (series circuit), normal recovery voltage applied to

both sides of the test circuit breaker ...................................................................................157

Figure G.7 – Current injection circuit, recovery voltage applied to both sides of the

circuit-breaker.....................................................................................................................159

Figure G.8 – Making test circuit ..........................................................................................161

Figure G.9 – Inrush making current test circuit....................................................................163

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 62271-101:2006
62271-101  IEC:2006 – 7 –

Figure H.1 – Typical re-ignition circuit diagram for prolonging arc-duration .........................167

Figure H.2 – Combined Skeats and current injection circuits...............................................169

Figure H.3 – Typical waveforms obtained during an asymmetrical test using the circuit

in Figure H.2.......................................................................................................................171

Figure J.1a – Three-phase synthetic combined circuit.........................................................205

Figure J.1b – Waveshapes of currents, phase-to-ground and phase-to phase voltages

during a three-phase synthetic test (T100s; k = 1,5 ) performed according to the

three-phase synthetic combined circuit ...............................................................................207

Figure J.2a – Three-phase synthetic circuit with injection in all phases for k = 1,5 ..........209

Figure J.2b – Waveshapes of currents and phase-to-ground voltages during a three-

phase synthetic test (T100s; k =1,5) performed according to the three-phase

synthetic circuit with injection in all phases .........................................................................211

Figure J.3a – Three-phase synthetic circuit for terminal fault tests with k = 1,3

(current injection method) ...................................................................................................213

Figure J.3b – Waveshapes of currents, phase-to-ground and phase-to-phase voltages

during a three-phase synthetic test (T100s; k =1,3 ) performed according to the

three-phase synthetic circuit shown in Figure J.3a ..............................................................213

Figure J.3c – TRV voltages waveshapes of the test circuit described in Figure J.3a............215

Figure K.1 – Example of a three-phase current circuit with single-phase synthetic injection .. 237

Figure K.2 – Representation of the testing conditions of Table K.1a....................................239

Figure K.3 – Representation of the testing conditions of Table K.1b....................................241

Figure K.4 – Representation of the testing conditions of Table K.2a....................................243

Figure K.5 – Representation of the testing conditions of Table K.2b....................................245

Figure K.6 – Representation of the testing conditions of Table K.3a....................................247

Figure K.7 – Representation of the testing conditions of Table K.3b....................................249

Figure K.8 – Representation of the testing conditions of Table K.4a....................................251

Figure K.9 – Representation of the testing conditions of Table K.4b....................................253

Figure L.1 – Graphical representation of the test shown in Table L.1 ..................................267

Figure L.2 – Graphical representation of the test shown in Table L.2 ..................................269

Table 1 – Test circuits for test duties T100s and T100a ........................................................31

Table 2 – Test duties T10, T30, T60 and T100s ....................................................................33

Table 2a – First-pole-to-clear factor: 1,5 – Test parameters during three-phase

interruption ...........................................................................................................................33

Table 2b – First-pole-to-clear factor: 1,3 – Test parameters during three-phase

interruption ...........................................................................................................................33

Table 3 – Synthetic test methods for test duties T10, T30, T60, T100s, T100a, SP,

DEF, OP and SLF .................................................................................................................59

Table I.1a – Last current loop parameters for 50 Hz operation in relation to short-circuit

test duty T100a τ = 45 ms...................................................................................................175

Table I.1b – Last current loop parameters for 50 Hz operation in relation to short-circuit

test duty T100a τ = 60 ms...................................................................................................177

Table I.1c – Last current loop parameters for 50 Hz operation in relation to short-circuit

test duty T100a τ = 75 ms...................................................................................................179

Table I.1d – Last current loop parameters for 50 Hz operation in relation to short-circuit

test duty T100a τ = 120 ms.................................................................................................181

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 62271-101:2006
62271-101  IEC:2006 – 9 –

Table I.2a – Last current loop parameters for 60 Hz operation in relation to short-circuit

test duty T100a τ = 45 ms...................................................................................................183

Table I.2b – Last current loop parameters for 60 Hz operation in relation to short-circuit

test duty T100a τ = 60 ms...................................................................................................185

Table I.2c – Last current loop parameters for 60 Hz operation in relation to short-circuit

test duty T100a τ = 75 ms...................................................................................................187

Table I.2d – Last current loop parameters for 60 Hz operation in relation to short-circuit

test duty T100a τ = 120 ms.................................................................................................189

Table I.3a – Last loop di/dt reduction for 50 Hz under three-phase conditions with the

first pole to clear in phase A and the required asymmetry in phase C..................................191

Table I.3b – Last loop di/dt reduction for 60 Hz under three- phase conditions with the

first pole to clear in phase A and the required asymmetry in phase C..................................193

Table I.4a – Corrected TRV values for k = 1,3 and f = 50 Hz..........................................195

pp r

Table I.4b – Corrected TRV values for k = 1,3 and f = 60 Hz..........................................197

pp r

Table I.4c – Corrected TRV values for k = 1,5 and f = 50 Hz..........................................199

pp r

Table I.4d – Corrected TRV values for k = 1,5 and f = 60 Hz..........................................199

pp r

Table K.1a – Demonstration of arcing times for a first-pole-to-clear factor of 1,5.................219

Table K.1b – Alternative demonstration of arcing times for a first-pole-to-clear factor

of 1,5 ..................................................................................................................................221

Table K.2a – Demonstration of arcing times for a first-pole-to-clear factor of 1,3................223

Table K.2b – Alternative demonstration of arcing times for a first-pole-to-clear factor

of 1,3 ..................................................................................................................................225

Table K.3a – Demonstration of arcing times for a first-pole-to-clear factor of 1,5................229

Table K.3b – Alternative demonstration of arcing times for a first-pole-to-clear factor

of 1,5 ..................................................................................................................................231

Table K.4a – Demonstration of arcing times for a first-pole-to-clear factor of 1,3.................233

Table K.4b – Alternative demonstration of arcing times for a first-pole-to-clear factor

of 1,3 ..................................................................................................................................235

Table L.1 – Test procedure for a first-pole-to-clear factor of 1,5..........................................257

Table L.2a – Alternative demonstration of arcing times for a first-pole-to-clear factor

of 1,3 ..................................................................................................................................259

Table L.2b – Simplified test procedure for a first-pole-to-clear factor of 1,3.........................261

Table L.3 – Test procedure for asymmetrical currents in the case of a first-pole-to-

clear factor of 1,5................................................................................................................263

Table L.4 – Test procedure for asymmetrical currents in the case of a first-pole-to-

clear factor of 1,3................................................................................................................265

Table L.5 – Required arcing windows in ° for different asymmetrical conditions, f =

50 Hz..................................................................................................................................271

Table L.6 – Required arcing windows in ° for different asymmetrical conditions, f =

60 Hz..................................................................................................................................273

Table M.1 – Tolerances on test quantities for type tests......................................................277

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 62271-101:2006
62271-101  IEC:2006 – 11 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
___________
HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR –
Part 101: Synthetic testing
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

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in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62271-101 has been prepared by subcommittee 17A: High-voltage

switchgear and controlgear, of IEC technical committee 17: Switchgear and controlgear.

This first edition cancels and replaces the third edition of IEC 60427 published in 2000. This

first edition constitutes a technical revision.

The text of this standard is based on the third edition of IEC 60427 and the following

documents:
FDIS Report on voting
17A/753/FDIS 17A/755/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 62271-101:2006
62271-101  IEC:2006 – 13 –

This publication shall be read in conjunction with IEC 62271-100. The numbering of the

subclauses of Clause 6 is the same as in IEC 62271-100. However, not all subclauses of IEC

62271-100 are addressed; merely those where synthetic testing has introduced changes.

The IEC 62271-100 series consists of the following parts, under the general title High-voltage

switchgear and controlgear:
Part 100: High-voltage alternating-current circuit-breakers
Part 101: Synthetic testing
Part 102: Alternating current disconnectors and earthing switches
Part 104: Alternating current switches for rated voltages of 52 kV and above
Part 105:
...

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