Environmental management - Life cycle impact assessment - Examples of application of ISO 14042

This Technical Report provides examples to illustrate current practice in carrying out a life cycle impact assessment in accordance with ISO 14042. These are only examples of the total possible "ways" to satisfy the provisions of ISO 14042. They reflect the key elements of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of the LCA.

Management environnemental - Evaluation de l'impact du cycle de vie - Exemples d'application de l'ISO 14042

Ravnanje z okoljem - Ocenjevanje vpliva življenjskega cikla - Primeri uporabe ISO 14042

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
22-Sep-2008
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
09-Sep-2008
Due Date
14-Nov-2008
Completion Date
23-Sep-2008

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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 14047
First edition
2003-10-01
Environmental management — Life cycle
impact assessment — Examples of
application of ISO 14042
Management environnemental — Évaluation de l'impact du cycle de
vie — Exemples d'application de l'ISO 14042
Reference number
ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)
ISO 2003
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

© ISO 2003

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................................................. 1

4 Organization of examples in ISO/TR 14047........................................................................................ 3

4.1 Mandatory and optional elements....................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Scope of examples................................................................................................................................ 3

4.3 Organization of document and route map.......................................................................................... 4

5 Elements of LCIA as illustrated in the examples...............................................................................6

5.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Mandatory elements............................................................................................................................. 6

5.3 Optional elements (related to ISO 14042:2000, Clause 6)............................................................... 15

6 Examples of the mandatory elements of LCIA ................................................................................ 17

6.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 17

6.2 Example 1 — Use of two different materials for gas pipelines ...................................................... 17

6.3 Example 2 – Two acidification impact category indicators............................................................ 24

6.4 Example 3 — Impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and carbon sinks on forestry

activities............................................................................................................................................... 29

6.5 Example 4 – Assessment of endpoint category indicators............................................................ 38

6.6 Example 5 – Choice of material for a wind spoiler in car design study ........................................ 45

7 Examples of the optional elements of LCIA.....................................................................................51

7.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 51

7.2 Example 1 — Application of optional elements in ISO 14042:2000, 6.2 Calculating the

magnitude of the category indicator results relative to reference information

(normalization) .................................................................................................................................... 51

7.3 Example 2 — Application of optional elements in ISO 14042:2000, 6.2 Calculating the

magnitude of the category indicator results relative to reference information

(normalization) .................................................................................................................................... 52

7.4 Example 6 – Normalization of LCIA indicator results for the use of different refrigerator

gases in ISO 14042:2000, 6.2 Calculating the magnitude of the category indicator results

relative to reference information (normalization). ........................................................................... 54

7.5 Example 7 – Normalization in a waste management study using ISO 14042:2000, 6.2

Calculating the magnitude of the category indicator results relative to reference

information (normalization)................................................................................................................ 61

7.6 Example 1 — Application................................................................................................................... 68

7.7 Example 5 — Application of ISO 14042:2000. 6.4 Weighting.......................................................... 69

7.8 Example 8 – A technique for the determination of weighting factors using ISO 14042:2000,

6.4 Weighting....................................................................................................................................... 70

7.9 Example 1 — Application................................................................................................................... 75

7.10 Example 5 — Application of ISO 14042:2000, Clause 7 Data quality analysis ............................. 77

7.11 Example 1 — Application................................................................................................................... 78

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 85

© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

In exceptional circumstances, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that

which is normally published as an International Standard (“state of the art”, for example), it may decide by a

simple majority vote of its participating members to publish a Technical Report. A Technical Report is entirely

informative in nature and does not have to be reviewed until the data it provides are considered to be no

longer valid or useful.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/TR 14047 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 207, Environmental management,

Subcommittee SC 5, Life cycle assessment.
iv © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)
Introduction

The heightened awareness of the importance of environmental protection, and the possible environmental

significance of a product system , has increased the interest in development of methods to better understand

this significance. One of the techniques being developed for this purpose is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA).

Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is the third phase of life cycle assessment, and its purpose is to assess a

product system's life cycle inventory analysis (LCI) results to better understand its environmental significance.

It models selected environmental issues called impact categories and, through the use of category indicators

which help condense and explain the LCI results, portrays the aggregate emissions or resources used for

each impact category to reflect their potential environment impacts.

This Technical Report provides examples to illustrate the application of ISO 14042, Environmental

management – Life cycle assessment — Life cycle impact assessment. It uses several examples concerning

key areas of ISO 14042 in order to enhance the understanding of its requirements.

1) In this Technical Report the term “product system” also includes service systems.

© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved v
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)
Environmental management — Life cycle impact assessment —
Examples of application of ISO 14042
1 Scope

This Technical Report provides examples to illustrate current practice in carrying out a life cycle impact

assessment in accordance with ISO 14042. These are only examples of the total possible “ways” to satisfy the

provisions of ISO 14042. They reflect the key elements of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of

the LCA.

NOTE The examples presented in this Technical Report are not exclusive; other examples exist to illustrate the

methodological issues described.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies. Members of ISO and IEC maintain registers of currently valid

International Standards.

ISO 14040:1997, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework

ISO 14042:2000, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Life cycle impact assessment

3 Abbreviated terms

The following is a non-exhaustive list of abbreviated terms found in this Technical Report.

ADI allowable dose intake
AP acidification potential
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CML Centre of Environmental Science, Leiden University
COD chemical oxygen demand
DALY disability-affected life years
DLY disability life years
E exponent
EBIR equal benefit incremental reactivity
EDIP environmental design of industrial products
© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)
EL environmental load
ELU environmental load unit
EPS environmental priorities strategy
ETP eco-toxicity potential
FU functional unit
GWP global warming potential
IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
IPPC integrated pollution prevention and control
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
LCA life cycle assessment
LCI life cycle inventory analysis
LCIA life cycle impact assessment
MDF medium density fibreroad
MIR maximum incremental reactivity
MOIR maximum ozone incremental reactivity
NP nutrification potential
ODP ozone depletion potential
OSB oriented standard board
PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
PDF potentially disappeared fraction
PEC predicted environmental concentration
PNEC predicted no-effect concentration
POCP photochemical ozone creation potential
RIVM National Institute of Public Heath and the Environment
SE sensitive ecosystem category indicator
USES uniform system for the evaluation of substances
VOC volatile organic compound
WMO World Meteorological Organization
YLL years of life lost
2 © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)
4 Organization of examples in ISO/TR 14047
4.1 Mandatory and optional elements

The general framework of the LCIA phase is composed of several mandatory elements that convert Life Cycle

Inventory (LCI) results to indicator results. In addition, there are optional elements for normalizing, grouping or

weighting of the indicator results and data quality analysis techniques for assisting in the interpretation of the

results.
4.2 Scope of examples

The examples provided within this Technical Report illustrate and support the methodology specified in

Clauses 5, 6, 7 and 10 of ISO 14042:2000. The coverage is indicated in Table 1.
Table 1 — Elements or clauses of ISO 14042:2000 illustrated with examples
ISO 14042:2000 Example coverage in this Technical
IS0 14042 clause
reference Report

Clauses 1 to 4 Foreword, Scope, Normative references, Terms and Examples of impact categories

definitions, General description of LCIA
Clause 5 Mandatory elements Example 1, Example 2, Example 3,
Example 4, Example 5
5.1 General
5.2 Concept of category indicators
5.3 Selection of impact categories, category indicators
and characterization models
5.4 Assignment of LCI results (classification)
5.5 Calculation of category indicator results
(characterization)
Clause 6 Optional elements
6.1 General

6.2 Calculating the magnitude of the category indicator Example 1, Example 2, Example 6,

results relative to reference information Example 7
(normalization)
6.3
Grouping
6.4 Example 1
Weighting
Stem example, Example 5, Example 8
Clause 7 Data quality analysis Stem example, Example 5
Clause 8 Limitations of LCIA Not covered in ISO/TR 14047
Clause 9 Comparative assertions disclosed to the public
Clause 10 Reporting and critical review Example 1

In some key areas, more than one example is provided to illustrate the different ways in which it may be

possible to apply ISO 14042. It is important to stress this point. In many LCIA studies, more than one

approach or practice may be used which will still allow conformance with the methodology specified in

ISO 14042. There is currently no unique approach. This Technical Report may be thought of as illustrating a

number of ways that may be used in the LCIA phase as specified in ISO 14042. Table 2 gives the title of the

example and the purpose of the illustration.
© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved 3
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ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)
Table 2 — Example titles and the purpose of the illustrations
Example ISO 14042:2000
Example title Purpose of illustration
No. subclause reference

1 Use of two different materials for gas Full procedure of LCIA 5.2 to 5.5, 6.2 to 6.4,

pipelines Clause 7 and (reference to
Clause 10)

2 Two acidification impact category Consequences of using general 5.3 to 5.5, Clause 6

indicators or site-dependent models
3 Impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG) GHG emissions and carbon sinks 5.2 to 5.5
emissions and carbon sinks on forestry
activities
4 Endpoint category indicators Transforming ionizing radiation 5.2 to 5.5
assessment inventory results into impact
category indicator (YLL)

5 Choice of material for a wind spoiler in Impact modelling at endpoint level 5.2 to 5.5, 6.4, Clause 7

car design study and weighting
6 Normalization of LCIA indicator results Normalization using different 6.2
for the use of different refrigerator types of reference information
gases

7 Normalization in a waste management Use of normalization in the 6.2 and (reference to

study communication processes Clause 10)
8 A technique for the determination of The use of a panel of experts in 6.4
weighting factors such a study
4.3 Organization of document and route map

This Technical Report is organized along the lines of a process “plant”. First, Clause 5 begins with a “General

description of LCIA” and introduces the examples. A central “stem” example, Example 1, runs through the

document illustrating the key areas between Clauses 5 to 10 of ISO 14042:2000. This uses one set of LCI

data and processes it through the LCIA stages. Examples illustrating the different paths possible within the

ISO 14042 methodology run in parallel to Example 1. These examples use different source data from

Example 1. Figure 1 presents the process in a flow diagram.
NOTE Following Clause 5 the examples are organized as follows:

Examples in Clause 6 are mandatory elements running consecutively, i.e. Example 1, Illustration of 5.2 to 5.5 of

ISO 14042:2000, followed by Example 2, followed by Example 3, and so on.

Examples in Clause 7 are organized on a “topic” basis, e.g. with all examples on Illustration of 6.2 of ISO 14042:2000 on

normalization, followed by examples on Illustration of 6.3 of ISO 14042:2000 on Grouping, and so on.

The reader may adopt a number of alternative ways of using this Technical Report. These are broadly as

follows:
 follow Example 1 from start to finish;
 select an alternative example and follow the process flow;

 select a topic and read all the alternative approaches on that particular topic.

Each example is preceded by an overview to describe the key area of ISO 14042 which will be illustrated. The

body of the example follows the overview. Where an example continues through the document, it generally

has not been necessary to precede each clause with an overview.
4 © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)
Figure 1 — Organization and route map for this Technical Report
© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved 5
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ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)
5 Elements of LCIA as illustrated in the examples
5.1 General

This clause gives a general description of LCIA, explaining key elements of the procedure, and places the

examples in the context of ISO 14042:2000. The LCIA process elements are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 — Elements of the LCIA phase (ISO 14042:2000)
5.2 Mandatory elements
5.2.1 General
According to ISO 14042, the mandatory elements of LCIA are:

 selection of impact categories, category indicators and characterization models;

 assignment of LCI results (classification) to the impact categories;
 calculation of category indicator results (characterization ).
6 © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)

5.2.2 Selection of impact categories, category indicators and characterization models

5.2.2.1 General

For each impact category, a distinction can be made between LCI results, including extractions (inputs) and

emissions (outputs), category endpoints and intermediate variables in the environmental mechanism between

these two groups (sometimes called "midpoints"). This is illustrated in Figure 3.

Figure 3 — Concept of category indicators (Figure 2 from ISO 14042:2000)

When defining the impact categories, an indicator must be chosen somewhere in the environmental

mechanism. Often indicators are chosen at an intermediate level somewhere along that mechanism;

sometimes they are chosen at endpoint level. Table 3 shows examples of relevant intermediate variables and

relevant category endpoints for a number of impact categories.
© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved 7
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ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)

Table 3 — Examples of intermediate variables and category endpoints for a number of impact

categories
Choices of indicator level
Impact category
Examples of intermediate variables Examples of category endpoints

Climate change Infrared radiation, temperature, sea-level Human life expectancy, coral reefs, natural

vegetation, forests, crops, buildings
Stratospheric UV-B radiation Human skin, ocean biodiversity, crops
ozone depletion

Acidification Proton release, pH, base-cation level, Al/Ca Biodiversity of forests, wood production, fish

ratio populations, materials

Nutrification Concentration of macronutrients (nitrogen, Biodiversity of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

phosphorus)

Human toxicity Concentration of toxic substances in Aspects of human health (organ functioning,

environment, human exposure human life expectancy, number of illness days)

Ecotoxicity Concentration or bio-availability of toxic Plant and animal species populations

substances in environment

In Tables 4, 5 and 6, LCI results and indicator results are expressed using the same functional unit (the one

selected in the LCI phase, Scope).

In Table 4, examples of terms used for defining an impact category and describing the chosen

characterization model are given for six different impact categories to further illustrate the principles of Table 1

from ISO 14042:2000. Impact Categories 1 and 2 are input-related; Impact Categories 3 to 6 are output-

related.
Table 4 — Examples of definitions and description of six impact categories
Term Impact Category 1 Impact Category 2
Impact category
Depletion of fossil energy resources Depletion of mineral resources,
(excluding energy resources)

LCI results Extraction of resources of different fossil Extraction of resources, expressed as

fuels useful material
Characterization model Cumulated energy demands Static scarcity model

Category indicator Energy content of energy resources Extraction of material in the ore as a

function of estimated supply horizon of
the reserve base

Characterization factor Low calorific value per mass unit Present extraction of the material in the

ore divided by estimated supply horizon
of the reserve base
Indicator result
Total low calorific value (megajoules) Total mass of used material in the ore
divided by estimated supply horizon of
the reserve base
Category endpoints Heating, mobility Availability of resources

Environmental relevance Diverse problems known from energy Diverse problems from mineral

crises resources
8 © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)
Table 4 (continued)
Term Impact Category 3 Impact Category 4
Impact category
Climate change Stratospheric ozone depletion
LCI results
Emissions of greenhouse gases Emissions of ozone-depleting gases

Category indicator Increase of infrared radiative forcing Increase of stratospheric ozone

(W/m ) breakdown
Characterization model
The model as developed by the IPCC Table 5 — The model as developed by
defining the global warming potential of the WMO defining the ozone depletion
different greenhouse gases potential for different ozone-depleting
gases
[6], [7]
[8], [9]

Characterization factor Global Warming Potential for time horizon Ozone Depletion Potential in the steady

of 100 years (GWP100) for each state (ODP ) for each emission
steady state
greenhouse gas emission (kg CFC-11-eq./kg emission)
(kg CO eq./kg emission)
Indicator result Kilograms of CO -equivalents Kilograms of CFC-11-equivalents

Category endpoints Years of life lost (YLL), coral reefs, crops, Illness days, marine productivity, crops

buildings
Environmental relevance
Infrared radiative forcing is a proxy for Empirical and experimental linkage
eventual effects on the climate, depending between UV-B radiation levels and
on the integrated atmospheric heat damage
absorption caused by emissions and the
distribution over time of the heat absorption
Term Impact Category 5 Impact Category 6
Impact category
Nutrification Ecotoxicity
LCI results Emissions of nutrients Emissions of organic substances to air,
water and soil
Category indicator
Deposition increase divided by N/P Predicted Environmental Concentration
equivalents in biomass increase divided by Predicted No-Effect
Concentration (PNEC)

Characterization model The stoichiometric procedure as described USES 2.0 model developed at RIVM,

by [10], which identifies the equivalence describing fate, exposure and effects of

between N and P for both terrestrial and toxic substances, adapted to LCA by
aquatic systems. [11]
Characterization factor
Nutrification Potential (NP) for each Ecotoxicity Potential (ETP) for each
eutrophicating emission to air, water and emission of a toxic substance to air,
soil water and soil
(kg 1,4-dichlorobenzene eq./kg
(kg PO - eq./kg emission)
emission)
Indicator result Kilograms of 1,4-dichlorobenzene
Kilograms of PO equivalents
equivalents
Category endpoints
Biodiversity, natural vegetation, algal bloom Biodiversity

Environmental relevance The nutrification indicator represents a The PNEC represents a threshold for a

clear causal factor in the mechanism of possible effect of the substance on the
nutrification for different types of species composition of an ecosystem;

ecosystems; it is defined at a global level no spatial differentiation is considered

© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved 9
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)

In Table 4, all six examples use the category indicator at the level of intermediate parameters in the

environmental mechanism. In order to illustrate the number of possible options when defining an impact

category and choosing a characterization model, Table 5 gives examples of different category models and

category indicators within the environmental mechanism of one impact category – photochemical ozone

formation. The examples given are not the only alternatives. A similar table could be prepared for each of the

impact categories in Table 4. Five of the alternatives presented in Table 5 focus on the same category

indicator chosen early in the environmental mechanism, but compare five different characterizations models.

For the sixth alternative, the indicator is chosen close to the endpoint. The main distinguishing features are

presented in boldface type.

Table 5 — Example of terms and different characterization models for the impact category

photo-oxidant formation
Term Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3
Impact category
Photo-oxidant formation Photo-oxidant formation Photo-oxidant formation
Emissions of substances Emissions of substances Emissions of substances
LCI results
(VOC, CO) to air (VOC, CO) to air (VOC, CO) to air
UNECE Trajectory model Maximum Incremental
Reactivity (MIR) scenario;
Characterization
Trajectory model [14]
Single-cell model [15], [16]
model
[12], [13]
Quantity of tropospheric ozone Quantity of tropospheric Quantity of tropospheric
Category indicator
formed ozone formed ozone formed
Photochemical Ozone Photochemical Ozone Kg ozone formed for each
Creation Potential (POCP) for Creation Potential (POCP) emission of VOC or CO to
each emission of VOC or CO for each emission of VOC air
Characterization
to air or CO to air
factor
(kg ethylene eq./kg emission) (kg ethylene eq./kg (kg ozone/kg emission)
emission)
Indicator result Kg ethylene equivalents Kg ethylene equivalents Kg ozone
Category endpoints Illness days, crops Illness days, crops Illness days, crops
Ozone formation estimated Ozone formation estimated Highest rise in ozone levels
with relatively high background with low background NO per added amount of
Environmental standard VOC mixture, very
high NO concentration, high
relevance
concentration is inhibiting
ozone creation
10 © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)
Table 5 (continued)
Term Alternative 4 Alternative 5 Alternative 6
Photo-oxidant formation Photo-oxidant formation Photo-oxidant formation,
Impact category
impacts on vegetation
Emissions of substances Emissions of substances Emissions of substances
LCI results
(VOC, CO) to air (VOC, CO) to air (NO , VOC, CO) to air
Maximum Ozone Equal Benefit Incremental RAINS adapted to LCA
Incremental Reactivity Reactivity (EBIR) scenario; Option for spatial
(MOIR) scenario; Single-cell Single-cell model differentiation within
Characterization
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP ISO/TR 14047:2008
01-november-2008

Ravnanje z okoljem - Ocenjevanje vpliva življenjskega cikla - Primeri uporabe ISO

14042

Environmental management - Life cycle impact assessment - Examples of application of

ISO 14042
Management environnemental - Evaluation de l'impact du cycle de vie - Exemples
d'application de l'ISO 14042
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/TR 14047:2003
ICS:
13.020.10 Ravnanje z okoljem Environmental management
13.020.60 Življenjski ciklusi izdelkov Product life-cycles
SIST-TP ISO/TR 14047:2008 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TP ISO/TR 14047:2008
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TP ISO/TR 14047:2008
TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 14047
First edition
2003-10-01
Environmental management — Life cycle
impact assessment — Examples of
application of ISO 14042
Management environnemental — Évaluation de l'impact du cycle de
vie — Exemples d'application de l'ISO 14042
Reference number
ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)
ISO 2003
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TP ISO/TR 14047:2008
ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

© ISO 2003

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST-TP ISO/TR 14047:2008
ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................................................. 1

4 Organization of examples in ISO/TR 14047........................................................................................ 3

4.1 Mandatory and optional elements....................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Scope of examples................................................................................................................................ 3

4.3 Organization of document and route map.......................................................................................... 4

5 Elements of LCIA as illustrated in the examples...............................................................................6

5.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Mandatory elements............................................................................................................................. 6

5.3 Optional elements (related to ISO 14042:2000, Clause 6)............................................................... 15

6 Examples of the mandatory elements of LCIA ................................................................................ 17

6.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 17

6.2 Example 1 — Use of two different materials for gas pipelines ...................................................... 17

6.3 Example 2 – Two acidification impact category indicators............................................................ 24

6.4 Example 3 — Impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and carbon sinks on forestry

activities............................................................................................................................................... 29

6.5 Example 4 – Assessment of endpoint category indicators............................................................ 38

6.6 Example 5 – Choice of material for a wind spoiler in car design study ........................................ 45

7 Examples of the optional elements of LCIA.....................................................................................51

7.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 51

7.2 Example 1 — Application of optional elements in ISO 14042:2000, 6.2 Calculating the

magnitude of the category indicator results relative to reference information

(normalization) .................................................................................................................................... 51

7.3 Example 2 — Application of optional elements in ISO 14042:2000, 6.2 Calculating the

magnitude of the category indicator results relative to reference information

(normalization) .................................................................................................................................... 52

7.4 Example 6 – Normalization of LCIA indicator results for the use of different refrigerator

gases in ISO 14042:2000, 6.2 Calculating the magnitude of the category indicator results

relative to reference information (normalization). ........................................................................... 54

7.5 Example 7 – Normalization in a waste management study using ISO 14042:2000, 6.2

Calculating the magnitude of the category indicator results relative to reference

information (normalization)................................................................................................................ 61

7.6 Example 1 — Application................................................................................................................... 68

7.7 Example 5 — Application of ISO 14042:2000. 6.4 Weighting.......................................................... 69

7.8 Example 8 – A technique for the determination of weighting factors using ISO 14042:2000,

6.4 Weighting....................................................................................................................................... 70

7.9 Example 1 — Application................................................................................................................... 75

7.10 Example 5 — Application of ISO 14042:2000, Clause 7 Data quality analysis ............................. 77

7.11 Example 1 — Application................................................................................................................... 78

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 85

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

In exceptional circumstances, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that

which is normally published as an International Standard (“state of the art”, for example), it may decide by a

simple majority vote of its participating members to publish a Technical Report. A Technical Report is entirely

informative in nature and does not have to be reviewed until the data it provides are considered to be no

longer valid or useful.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/TR 14047 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 207, Environmental management,

Subcommittee SC 5, Life cycle assessment.
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Introduction

The heightened awareness of the importance of environmental protection, and the possible environmental

significance of a product system , has increased the interest in development of methods to better understand

this significance. One of the techniques being developed for this purpose is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA).

Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is the third phase of life cycle assessment, and its purpose is to assess a

product system's life cycle inventory analysis (LCI) results to better understand its environmental significance.

It models selected environmental issues called impact categories and, through the use of category indicators

which help condense and explain the LCI results, portrays the aggregate emissions or resources used for

each impact category to reflect their potential environment impacts.

This Technical Report provides examples to illustrate the application of ISO 14042, Environmental

management – Life cycle assessment — Life cycle impact assessment. It uses several examples concerning

key areas of ISO 14042 in order to enhance the understanding of its requirements.

1) In this Technical Report the term “product system” also includes service systems.

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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 14047:2003(E)
Environmental management — Life cycle impact assessment —
Examples of application of ISO 14042
1 Scope

This Technical Report provides examples to illustrate current practice in carrying out a life cycle impact

assessment in accordance with ISO 14042. These are only examples of the total possible “ways” to satisfy the

provisions of ISO 14042. They reflect the key elements of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of

the LCA.

NOTE The examples presented in this Technical Report are not exclusive; other examples exist to illustrate the

methodological issues described.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies. Members of ISO and IEC maintain registers of currently valid

International Standards.

ISO 14040:1997, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework

ISO 14042:2000, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Life cycle impact assessment

3 Abbreviated terms

The following is a non-exhaustive list of abbreviated terms found in this Technical Report.

ADI allowable dose intake
AP acidification potential
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CML Centre of Environmental Science, Leiden University
COD chemical oxygen demand
DALY disability-affected life years
DLY disability life years
E exponent
EBIR equal benefit incremental reactivity
EDIP environmental design of industrial products
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EL environmental load
ELU environmental load unit
EPS environmental priorities strategy
ETP eco-toxicity potential
FU functional unit
GWP global warming potential
IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
IPPC integrated pollution prevention and control
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
LCA life cycle assessment
LCI life cycle inventory analysis
LCIA life cycle impact assessment
MDF medium density fibreroad
MIR maximum incremental reactivity
MOIR maximum ozone incremental reactivity
NP nutrification potential
ODP ozone depletion potential
OSB oriented standard board
PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
PDF potentially disappeared fraction
PEC predicted environmental concentration
PNEC predicted no-effect concentration
POCP photochemical ozone creation potential
RIVM National Institute of Public Heath and the Environment
SE sensitive ecosystem category indicator
USES uniform system for the evaluation of substances
VOC volatile organic compound
WMO World Meteorological Organization
YLL years of life lost
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4 Organization of examples in ISO/TR 14047
4.1 Mandatory and optional elements

The general framework of the LCIA phase is composed of several mandatory elements that convert Life Cycle

Inventory (LCI) results to indicator results. In addition, there are optional elements for normalizing, grouping or

weighting of the indicator results and data quality analysis techniques for assisting in the interpretation of the

results.
4.2 Scope of examples

The examples provided within this Technical Report illustrate and support the methodology specified in

Clauses 5, 6, 7 and 10 of ISO 14042:2000. The coverage is indicated in Table 1.
Table 1 — Elements or clauses of ISO 14042:2000 illustrated with examples
ISO 14042:2000 Example coverage in this Technical
IS0 14042 clause
reference Report

Clauses 1 to 4 Foreword, Scope, Normative references, Terms and Examples of impact categories

definitions, General description of LCIA
Clause 5 Mandatory elements Example 1, Example 2, Example 3,
Example 4, Example 5
5.1 General
5.2 Concept of category indicators
5.3 Selection of impact categories, category indicators
and characterization models
5.4 Assignment of LCI results (classification)
5.5 Calculation of category indicator results
(characterization)
Clause 6 Optional elements
6.1 General

6.2 Calculating the magnitude of the category indicator Example 1, Example 2, Example 6,

results relative to reference information Example 7
(normalization)
6.3
Grouping
6.4 Example 1
Weighting
Stem example, Example 5, Example 8
Clause 7 Data quality analysis Stem example, Example 5
Clause 8 Limitations of LCIA Not covered in ISO/TR 14047
Clause 9 Comparative assertions disclosed to the public
Clause 10 Reporting and critical review Example 1

In some key areas, more than one example is provided to illustrate the different ways in which it may be

possible to apply ISO 14042. It is important to stress this point. In many LCIA studies, more than one

approach or practice may be used which will still allow conformance with the methodology specified in

ISO 14042. There is currently no unique approach. This Technical Report may be thought of as illustrating a

number of ways that may be used in the LCIA phase as specified in ISO 14042. Table 2 gives the title of the

example and the purpose of the illustration.
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Table 2 — Example titles and the purpose of the illustrations
Example ISO 14042:2000
Example title Purpose of illustration
No. subclause reference

1 Use of two different materials for gas Full procedure of LCIA 5.2 to 5.5, 6.2 to 6.4,

pipelines Clause 7 and (reference to
Clause 10)

2 Two acidification impact category Consequences of using general 5.3 to 5.5, Clause 6

indicators or site-dependent models
3 Impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG) GHG emissions and carbon sinks 5.2 to 5.5
emissions and carbon sinks on forestry
activities
4 Endpoint category indicators Transforming ionizing radiation 5.2 to 5.5
assessment inventory results into impact
category indicator (YLL)

5 Choice of material for a wind spoiler in Impact modelling at endpoint level 5.2 to 5.5, 6.4, Clause 7

car design study and weighting
6 Normalization of LCIA indicator results Normalization using different 6.2
for the use of different refrigerator types of reference information
gases

7 Normalization in a waste management Use of normalization in the 6.2 and (reference to

study communication processes Clause 10)
8 A technique for the determination of The use of a panel of experts in 6.4
weighting factors such a study
4.3 Organization of document and route map

This Technical Report is organized along the lines of a process “plant”. First, Clause 5 begins with a “General

description of LCIA” and introduces the examples. A central “stem” example, Example 1, runs through the

document illustrating the key areas between Clauses 5 to 10 of ISO 14042:2000. This uses one set of LCI

data and processes it through the LCIA stages. Examples illustrating the different paths possible within the

ISO 14042 methodology run in parallel to Example 1. These examples use different source data from

Example 1. Figure 1 presents the process in a flow diagram.
NOTE Following Clause 5 the examples are organized as follows:

Examples in Clause 6 are mandatory elements running consecutively, i.e. Example 1, Illustration of 5.2 to 5.5 of

ISO 14042:2000, followed by Example 2, followed by Example 3, and so on.

Examples in Clause 7 are organized on a “topic” basis, e.g. with all examples on Illustration of 6.2 of ISO 14042:2000 on

normalization, followed by examples on Illustration of 6.3 of ISO 14042:2000 on Grouping, and so on.

The reader may adopt a number of alternative ways of using this Technical Report. These are broadly as

follows:
 follow Example 1 from start to finish;
 select an alternative example and follow the process flow;

 select a topic and read all the alternative approaches on that particular topic.

Each example is preceded by an overview to describe the key area of ISO 14042 which will be illustrated. The

body of the example follows the overview. Where an example continues through the document, it generally

has not been necessary to precede each clause with an overview.
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Figure 1 — Organization and route map for this Technical Report
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5 Elements of LCIA as illustrated in the examples
5.1 General

This clause gives a general description of LCIA, explaining key elements of the procedure, and places the

examples in the context of ISO 14042:2000. The LCIA process elements are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 — Elements of the LCIA phase (ISO 14042:2000)
5.2 Mandatory elements
5.2.1 General
According to ISO 14042, the mandatory elements of LCIA are:

 selection of impact categories, category indicators and characterization models;

 assignment of LCI results (classification) to the impact categories;
 calculation of category indicator results (characterization ).
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5.2.2 Selection of impact categories, category indicators and characterization models

5.2.2.1 General

For each impact category, a distinction can be made between LCI results, including extractions (inputs) and

emissions (outputs), category endpoints and intermediate variables in the environmental mechanism between

these two groups (sometimes called "midpoints"). This is illustrated in Figure 3.

Figure 3 — Concept of category indicators (Figure 2 from ISO 14042:2000)

When defining the impact categories, an indicator must be chosen somewhere in the environmental

mechanism. Often indicators are chosen at an intermediate level somewhere along that mechanism;

sometimes they are chosen at endpoint level. Table 3 shows examples of relevant intermediate variables and

relevant category endpoints for a number of impact categories.
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Table 3 — Examples of intermediate variables and category endpoints for a number of impact

categories
Choices of indicator level
Impact category
Examples of intermediate variables Examples of category endpoints

Climate change Infrared radiation, temperature, sea-level Human life expectancy, coral reefs, natural

vegetation, forests, crops, buildings
Stratospheric UV-B radiation Human skin, ocean biodiversity, crops
ozone depletion

Acidification Proton release, pH, base-cation level, Al/Ca Biodiversity of forests, wood production, fish

ratio populations, materials

Nutrification Concentration of macronutrients (nitrogen, Biodiversity of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

phosphorus)

Human toxicity Concentration of toxic substances in Aspects of human health (organ functioning,

environment, human exposure human life expectancy, number of illness days)

Ecotoxicity Concentration or bio-availability of toxic Plant and animal species populations

substances in environment

In Tables 4, 5 and 6, LCI results and indicator results are expressed using the same functional unit (the one

selected in the LCI phase, Scope).

In Table 4, examples of terms used for defining an impact category and describing the chosen

characterization model are given for six different impact categories to further illustrate the principles of Table 1

from ISO 14042:2000. Impact Categories 1 and 2 are input-related; Impact Categories 3 to 6 are output-

related.
Table 4 — Examples of definitions and description of six impact categories
Term Impact Category 1 Impact Category 2
Impact category
Depletion of fossil energy resources Depletion of mineral resources,
(excluding energy resources)

LCI results Extraction of resources of different fossil Extraction of resources, expressed as

fuels useful material
Characterization model Cumulated energy demands Static scarcity model

Category indicator Energy content of energy resources Extraction of material in the ore as a

function of estimated supply horizon of
the reserve base

Characterization factor Low calorific value per mass unit Present extraction of the material in the

ore divided by estimated supply horizon
of the reserve base
Indicator result
Total low calorific value (megajoules) Total mass of used material in the ore
divided by estimated supply horizon of
the reserve base
Category endpoints Heating, mobility Availability of resources

Environmental relevance Diverse problems known from energy Diverse problems from mineral

crises resources
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Table 4 (continued)
Term Impact Category 3 Impact Category 4
Impact category
Climate change Stratospheric ozone depletion
LCI results
Emissions of greenhouse gases Emissions of ozone-depleting gases

Category indicator Increase of infrared radiative forcing Increase of stratospheric ozone

(W/m ) breakdown
Characterization model
The model as developed by the IPCC Table 5 — The model as developed by
defining the global warming potential of the WMO defining the ozone depletion
different greenhouse gases potential for different ozone-depleting
gases
[6], [7]
[8], [9]

Characterization factor Global Warming Potential for time horizon Ozone Depletion Potential in the steady

of 100 years (GWP100) for each state (ODP ) for each emission
steady state
greenhouse gas emission (kg CFC-11-eq./kg emission)
(kg CO eq./kg emission)
Indicator result Kilograms of CO -equivalents Kilograms of CFC-11-equivalents

Category endpoints Years of life lost (YLL), coral reefs, crops, Illness days, marine productivity, crops

buildings
Environmental relevance
Infrared radiative forcing is a proxy for Empirical and experimental linkage
eventual effects on the climate, depending between UV-B radiation levels and
on the integrated atmospheric heat damage
absorption caused by emissions and the
distribution over time of the heat absorption
Term Impact Category 5 Impact Category 6
Impact category
Nutrification Ecotoxicity
LCI results Emissions of nutrients Emissions of organic substances to air,
water and soil
Category indicator
Deposition increase divided by N/P Predicted Environmental Concentration
equivalents in biomass increase divided by Predicted No-Effect
Concentration (PNEC)

Characterization model The stoichiometric procedure as described USES 2.0 model developed at RIVM,

by [10], which identifies the equivalence describing fate, exposure and effects of

between N and P for both terrestrial and toxic substances, adapted to LCA by
aquatic systems. [11]
Characterization factor
Nutrification Potential (NP) for each Ecotoxicity Potential (ETP) for each
eutrophicating emission to air, water and emission of a toxic substance to air,
soil water and soil
(kg 1,4-dichlorobenzene eq./kg
(kg PO - eq./kg emission)
emission)
Indicator result Kilograms of 1,4-dichlorobenzene
Kilograms of PO equivalents
equivalents
Category endpoints
Biodiversity, natural vegetation, algal bloom Biodiversity

Environmental relevance The nutrification indicator represents a The PNEC represents a threshold for a

clear causal factor in the mechanism of possible effect of the substance on the
nutrification for different types of species composition of an ecosystem;

ecosystems; it is defined at a global level no spatial differentiation is considered

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In Table 4, all six examples use the category indicator at the level of intermediate parameters in the

environmental mechanism. In order to illustrate the number of possible options when defining an impact

category and choosing a characterization model, Table 5 gives examples of different category models and

category indicators within the environmental mechanism of one impact category – photochemical ozone

formation. The examples given are not the only alternatives. A similar table could be prepared for each of the

impact categories in Table 4. Five of the alternatives presented in Table 5 focus on the same category

indicator chosen early in the environmental mechanism, but compare five different characterizations models.

For the sixth alternative, the indicator is chosen close to the endpoint. The main distinguishing features are

presented in boldface type.

Table 5 — Example of terms and different characterization models for the impact category

photo-oxidant formation
Term Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3
Impact category
Photo-oxidant formation Photo-oxidant formation Photo-oxidant formation
Emissions of substances Emissions of substances Emissions of substances
LCI results
(VOC, CO) to air (VOC, CO) to air (VOC, CO) to air
UNECE Trajectory model Maximum Incremental
Reactivity (MIR) scenario;
Characterization
Trajectory model [14]
Single-cell model [15], [16]
model
[12], [13]
Quantity of tropospheric ozone Quantity of tropospheric Quantity of tropospheric
Category indicator
formed ozone formed ozone formed
Photochemical Ozone Photochemical Ozone Kg ozone formed for each
Creation Potential (POCP) for Creation Potential (POCP) emiss
...

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