Geotechnical investigation and testing - Testing of geotechnical structures - Part 1: Testing of piles: static compression load testing (ISO 22477-1:2018)

This Standard establishes the specifications for the execution of static pile load tests in which a single pile is subjected to an axial static load in compression in order to define its load-displacement behaviour.
The provisions of EN 22477-1 apply to vertical piles as well as raking piles.
All types of piles are covered by this standard.
The tests considered in this Standard are limited to maintained load tests.
EN 22477-1 shall be used in conjunction with EN 1997-1. Numerical values of partial factors for limit states and of correlation factors to derive characteristic values from static pile load tests to be taken into account in design are provided in EN 1997-1. Guidance on analysis of the load testing results is given in the informative Annex D.
This Standard provides specifications for:
  a) Investigation tests, whereby the pile is loaded up to failure or close to failure ;  
b) Control tests, whereby the pile is loaded up to a specified load in excess of the SLS design action.

Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Prüfung von geotechnischen Bauwerken und Bauwerksteilen - Teil 1: Pfahlprobebelastungen durch statische axiale Druckbelastungen (ISO 22477-1:2018)

Dieses Dokument enthält Festlegungen für die Durchführung von axialen statischen Pfahlprobebelastungen auf Druck an Einzelpfählen um deren Last Setzungs Verhalten zu bestimmen.
Dieses Dokument ist sowohl für vertikale als auch für geneigte Pfähle anwendbar.
Dieses Dokument ist für alle Pfahlarten anwendbar. Die hier enthaltenen Festlegungen gelten nur für lastgesteuerte Probebelastungen. Weggesteuerte Pfahlprobebelastungen  und zyklischen Probebelastungen werden durch dieses Dokument nicht abgedeckt.
ANMERKUNG   Dieses Dokument ist in Verbindung mit EN 1997 1 anzuwenden. EN 1997 1 enthält Zahlenwerte für die Teilsicherheitsbeiwerte für Grenzzustände und Korrelationsfaktoren, aus denen die für die Bemessung maßgebenden charakteristischen Werte aus den statischen Pfahlprobebelastungen abgeleitet werden.
Dieses Dokument enthält Festlegungen für die Ausführung statischer Pfahlprobebelastungen zur:
a)    Überprüfung, ob das Pfahltragverhalten mit der Bemessung übereinstimmt;
b)   Messung des Pfahlwiderstands.

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais de structures géotechniques - Partie 1: Essais de pieux: essai de chargement statique en compression (ISO 22477-1:2018)

La présente norme établit les spécifications relatives à l'exécution des essais de pieux sous charge statique, au cours desquels un pieu unique est soumis à une charge de compression axiale statique afin de définir son comportement charge-déplacement.
Ce document s'applique aussi bien aux pieux verticaux qu'aux pieux inclinés.
La présente norme couvre tous les types de pieux. Les essais envisagés dans cette norme sont limités aux essais de chargement par paliers. Les essais de chargement de pieux à vitesse de pénétration constante et les essais de chargement cyclique ne sont pas couverts par la présente norme.
NOTE       Cette norme est à utiliser conjointement avec l'EN 1997‑1. La norme EN 1997‑1 fournit les valeurs numériques des facteurs partiels pour les états limites et des facteurs de corrélation servant à obtenir les valeurs caractéristiques à partir d'essais de chargement statique et devant être prises en compte dans la conception.
La présente norme fournit des spécifications pour l'exécution de l'essai de chargement axial statique de pieu pour:
a)    vérifier qu'un pieu se comporte comme prévu;
b)    mesurer la résistance d'un pieu.

Geotehnično preiskovanje in preskušanje - Preskušanje geotehničnih konstrukcij - 1. del: Preskušanje nosilnih pilotov s statično osno stiskalno obremenitvijo (ISO 22477-1:2018)

Ta standard podaja specifikacije za izvedbo preskusov pilotov s statično obremenitvijo, pri čemer je posamezen pilot izpostavljen statični osni obremenitvi pri stiskanju, da se lahko določi njegovo vedenje ob premiku bremena. Določbe iz standarda EN 22477-1 se uporabljajo za navpične in nagnjene pilote. Ta standard obravnava vse vrste pilotov. Preskusi v tem standardu so omejeni na preskuse z vzdrževano obremenitvijo. Standard EN 22477-1 je treba uporabljati v povezavi s standardom EN 1997-1. Številske vrednosti delnih faktorjev za mejna stanja in faktorjev korelacije za izpeljavo karakterističnih vrednosti iz preskusov pilotov s statično obremenitvijo, ki jih je treba upoštevati pri izdelavi, so navedene v standardu EN 1997-1. Smernice za analizo rezultatov preskusov z obremenitvijo so podane v informativnem dodatku D. Ta standard podaja specifikacije za:   a) preiskovalne preskuse, pri čemer je pilot obremenjen do okvare ali skoraj do okvare;    b) kontrolne preskuse, pri čemer je pilot obremenjen do določenega bremena, ki presega mejno stanje uporabnosti (SLS).

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Sep-2017
Publication Date
12-Feb-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
15-Jan-2019
Due Date
22-Mar-2019
Completion Date
13-Feb-2019

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Geotechnical investigation and testing - Testing of geotechnical structures - Part 1:

Testing of piles: static compression load testing (ISO 22477-1:2018)
Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Prüfung von geotechnischen Bauwerken
und Bauwerksteilen - Teil 1: Pfahlprobebelastungen durch statische axiale
Druckbelastungen (ISO 22477-1:2018)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais de structures géotechniques - Partie

1: Essais de pieux: essai de chargement statique en compression (ISO 22477-1:2018)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 22477-1:2018
ICS:
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
SIST EN ISO 22477-1:2019 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 22477-1:2019
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SIST EN ISO 22477-1:2019
EN ISO 22477-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 93.020
English Version
Geotechnical investigation and testing - Testing of
geotechnical structures - Part 1: Testing of piles: static
compression load testing (ISO 22477-1:2018)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais de Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Prüfung

structures géotechniques - Partie 1: Essais de pieux: von geotechnischen Bauwerken und Bauwerksteilen -

essai de chargement statique en compression (ISO Teil 1: Pfahlprobebelastungen durch statische axiale

22477-1:2018) Druckbelastungen (ISO 22477-1:2018)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 10 November 2018.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 22477-1:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 22477-1:2019
EN ISO 22477-1:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 22477-1:2019
EN ISO 22477-1:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 22477-1:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 182

"Geotechnics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 341 “Geotechnical Investigation and

Testing” the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2019, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 22477-1:2018 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 22477-1:2018 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 22477-1:2019
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SIST EN ISO 22477-1:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22477-1
First edition
2018-11
Geotechnical investigation and
testing — Testing of geotechnical
structures —
Part 1:
Testing of piles: static compression
load testing
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Essais des structures
géotechniques —
Partie 1: Essais de pieux: essai de chargement statique en
compression
Reference number
ISO 22477-1:2018(E)
ISO 2018
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SIST EN ISO 22477-1:2019
ISO 22477-1:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 22477-1:2019
ISO 22477-1:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Reaction device ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Force input .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3.2 Specifications of force input ................................................................................................................................... 5

4.4 Measurement of pile head displacements ....................................................................................................................... 5

4.5 Measurement of pile load .............................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.6 Pile instrumentation .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5 Test procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.1 Test preparation ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1.1 Protections ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.1.2 Construction of a test pile ........................................................................................................................................ 8

5.1.3 Test date .................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.1.4 Preparation of the pile cap ...................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Loading procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.2 Load step sequence and duration of load steps for one cycle procedure ....................... 9

5.2.3 Load step sequence and duration of load steps for multiple cycle procedure ........10

5.2.4 Maximum test load F .............................................................................................................................................11

5.2.5 Measuring intervals ....................................................................................................................................................11

6 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.2 General information ........................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Data report ..............................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.4 Interpretative report .......................................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Critical creep load in compression ........................................................................................................21

Annex B (informative) Bi-directional load testing ..............................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 22477-1:2019
ISO 22477-1:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical

Commitee CEN/TC 341, Geotechnical Investigation and Testing, in collaboration with ISO Technical

Committee ISO/TC 182, Geotechnics, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation

between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).
A list of all parts in the ISO 22477 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 22477-1:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22477-1:2018(E)
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Testing of
geotechnical structures —
Part 1:
Testing of piles: static compression load testing
1 Scope

This document establishes the specifications for the execution of static pile load tests in which a single

pile is subjected to an axial static load in compression in order to define its load-displacement behaviour.

This document is applicable to vertical piles as well as raking piles.

All types of piles are covered by this document. The tests considered in this document are limited

to maintained load tests. Pile load tests with constant penetration rate and cyclic load tests are not

covered by this document.

NOTE This document is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1997-1. EN 1997-1 provides numerical

values of partial factors for limit states and of correlation factors to derive characteristic values from static pile

load tests to be taken into account in design.

This document provides specifications for the execution of static axial pile load tests:

a) checking that a pile will behave as designed;
b) measuring the resistance of a pile.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 7500-1, Metallic materials — Calibration and verification of static uniaxial testing machines — Part 1:

Tension/compression testing machines — Calibration and verification of the force-measuring system

EN 1990, Eurocode 0: Basis of structural design
EN 1997-1, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design — Part 1: General rules

EN 1997-2, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design — Part 2: Ground investigation and testing

3 Terms, definitions and symbols

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 1990, EN 1997-1, EN 1997-2

and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 22477-1:2019
ISO 22477-1:2018(E)
3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1
pile load
load applied to the head of the pile during the test

Note 1 to entry: For tests with embedded jack, the load is applied at another level, see Annex B.

3.1.2
load increment
increment of load added or removed during the test
3.1.3
pile diameter
equivalent pile diameter
diameter of the pile
4 A

Note 1 to entry: For a noncircular pile with cross section A, the equivalent pile diameter equals .

3.1.4
working pile
pile for the foundation of a structure
3.1.5
test pile

pile to which loads are applied to determine the resistance-displacement characteristics of the pile and

the surrounding ground
3.1.6
measured compressive resistance
c,m

measured value of the compressive resistance at the ultimate limit state, in one or several pile load

(3.1.1) tests
Note 1 to entry: The recommended failure criterion is defined in EN 1997-1.
3.1.7
creep rate

ratio of the increase in pile head displacement and the decimal logarithm of time during a specified

time interval
3.2 Symbols
A pile cross section
D equivalent pile base diameter
F critical creep load in compression
c,cr
F measured value of F in one or several pile load tests
c,cr,m c,cr
F characteristic axial compression load
c,k
F predefined maximum load applied during the test
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 22477-1:2019
ISO 22477-1:2018(E)
N axial force
q unit shaft friction
q measured value of q
s,m s
q mobilised shaft friction
s,mob
R pile base resistance
R measured value of R in one or several pile load tests
b,m b
R mobilised base resistance
b,mob

R compressive resistance of the ground against a pile, at the ultimate limit state

R pile shaft resistance
R measured value of R in one or several pile load tests
s,m s
R mobilised shaft resistance
s,mob
s axial displacement of pile at any depth z
s axial displacement of pile base
s axial displacement of pile head
t time
z depth
4 Equipment
4.1 General

The selection of the equipment shall take into account the aim of the test, the ground conditions and the

expected displacement of the pile under the maximum test load.
4.2 Reaction device
The reaction device for pile compressive loads can be:
— dead load (kentledge);
— tension piles or anchors;
— an existing structure over the test pile.

NOTE The reaction device can be the test pile itself where the load is applied at depth by one or more

hydraulic jacks which are cast into the pile for bi-directional pile loading (see Annex B).

Dead load should not be used for tests of raking piles, unless particular measures are carefully

considered with respect to the stability and displacements of the kentledge system.

The influence of the reaction system on the test pile shall be minimized. Unless otherwise agreed,

minimum required distances are shown in Figure 1 a) to e). For Figure 1 a) to d), the maximum value

shall be applied. If the length of reaction piles is greater than the length of the test pile, provisions given

in Figure 1 c) shall be applied.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 22477-1:2019
ISO 22477-1:2018(E)
a) b) c)
d) e)
Figure 1 — Reaction system

For static pile load tests on micropiles, these distances may be reduced. However, the minimum clear

distance shall be 1,5 m.

The reaction system shall be designed to resist the maximum test load F in accordance with the

relevant standards.
4 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22477-1:2018(E)

To avoid uplift or instability of the kentledge, the dead load should be centred and in excess of the

maximum test load F by at least 10 %.

Working piles may be used as reaction piles, provided that their structural resistance is sufficient

and there is no detrimental effect on their ability to perform as part of the structure. The uplift of the

working piles shall be monitored during the test.

Reaction piles and anchors should be arranged symmetrically around the test pile. In cases of non-

symmetrical reaction systems measures shall be taken to avoid detrimental rotation and/or translation

of the reaction system.
4.3 Force input
4.3.1 General
One or more hydraulic jacks should be used to apply the load on the test pile.

If several hydraulic jacks are used to apply the test load, they shall be arranged symmetrically, of the

same model and be supplied by a common supply from one hydraulic unit. Each hydraulic jack shall be

provided with a shut-off valve and an additional pressure gauge.
A spherical seating shall be incorporated above the hydraulic jack.

If a single jack is used, it shall be arranged centrally on the pile cap in order to ensure the pile is loaded

axially without eccentricity.
A rigid plate shall be placed on the pile head or cap to distribute the load.
4.3.2 Specifications of force input

The achievable force of the jack(s) shall exceed F . The stroke of the jack(s) shall exceed the expected

deformations (pile head displacement and those of the reaction system under load).

It shall be possible to decrease or increase the load smoothly without any shocks or vibrations and to

maintain the load at any required value.

To satisfy the required accuracies, an automatic and continuous electric or hydraulic control and

regulation of the jack force may be used. Alternatively, a hand pump with accurate measurement of

pressure or load and permanent regulation may be considered.

The accuracy of the force regulator shall be better than 0,5 % of F or 10 kN, whichever is greater.

4.4 Measurement of pile head displacements

The displacements of the pile head shall be measured either by dial gauges or transducers, supported

from reference beams.
Reference beams should be supported independently from the test pile.

The clear distance between the supporting ends of the reference beams and the test pile and reaction

piles or the nearest edge of the kentledge support should be at least 2,5 m or 2,5D, whichever is greater.

One end of each reference beam should be free to slide.

The position of the reference beams shall be checked by a secondary control measuring system, such as

levelling methods or other measurement methods. The position of the pile head should be also checked

by this secondary control system.

The axial pile head displacement shall be measured with at least three displacement transducers or

dial gauges. They shall be arranged symmetrically (see Figure 2) and parallel to the axis of the pile. The

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 22477-1:2018(E)

friction between the pile head and the sensors should be minimized by using suitable devices such as

glass plates fixed beneath the sensors.

NOTE If the pile diameter is too small, the installation of a wider plate enables the use of three transducers.

Key
1 displacement transducers or dial gauges
Figure 2 — Location of displacement transducers or dial gauges

The overall accuracy of the measured pile head displacement shall be better than 0,1 mm or 0,2 % of

the measured value, whichever is greater. Therefore, dial gauges or transducers shall enable readings

to be made to a resolution of at least 0,01 mm and any optical system of 0,1 mm.

The dial gauges or transducers should also have a sufficient measuring range, in order to avoid

readjustment during testing.

Unless otherwise agreed, the secondary control measuring system shall enable readings to an accuracy

of at least 0,1 mm.

Any optical levelling measurements shall be controlled by reference to one or more fixed reference points.

The transversal displacement of the test pile under axial load should be checked by two dial gauges

or transducers with the same accuracy as above, positioned in orthogonal directions and fixed on

reference beams. Alternatively, the secondary control system may be used. These measurements shall

be made during load tests on raking or slender piles.

To safeguard against failure of the supports, the corner points of a kentledge, reaction piles or anchor

heads should be included in the levelling checks.
4.5 Measurement of pile load

The load shall be measured at the head of the pile. Load measurement shall be obtained from a

load cell (load cells) or from the pressure of the jack or jack system, by means of suitable calibrated

pressure gauges.

NOTE 1 For tests with embedded jack, the load is measured at another level (see Annex B).

NOTE 2 Additional guidance could be found in the national foreword to this document.

The load measurement devices shall be calibrated against a suitable master device following ISO 7500-1,

giving full traceability to National Standard.
The accuracy of the load measurement should be 1 % of F .
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ISO 22477-1:2018(E)

When the load is measured using the jack pressure, the calibration shall be done within a period of

6 months before the test. Otherwise, a period of 12 months shall be applied.

In some circumstances, for example shock or eccentric loading or deviations of electronic load cells,

change of components or presumed damage, additional calibration is recommended.
4.6 Pile instrumentation
The pile instrumentation depends on the aim of the static pile load test:
— determine the overall resistance;
— determine the pile base resistance and the shaft resistance;

— determine the pile base resistance and the distribution of the shaft friction along the length of the pile.

To determine only the overall pile resistance, no pile instrumentation is needed.

The pile base resistance can be measured directly with a load cell at the pile base or indirectly using

strain measurements at the pile base.

The distribution of the shaft resistance can be determined by measurement of the strain at cross

sections of the pile at various depths. This can be achieved for example by:
— built-in or removable extensometers;

— strain-measuring devices (such as vibrating wires strain gauges, optical fibre sensors, etc.) fixed to

the reinforcement or embedded in the concrete of precast concrete piles or attached to the walls of

steel piles.
The pile base settlement can be measured by an extensometer (from head to base).

The depth, the number of measuring levels and the number of devices at each level shall take into

account the ground conditions, the type and the size of the test pile and the aim of the test.

Removable extensometers shall be installed in diametrically opposed pairs for large diameter piles

(shaft diameter > 0,6 m) and for each depth to be measured. For smaller piles (shaft diameter ≤ 0,6 m),

one removable extensometer can be installed in the centre, if this does not conflict with execution codes.

If instrumentation is installed before pile installation, like strain measuring devices, there should be at

least four symmetrically arranged pieces for each depth to be measured to achieve redundancy.

Strain measurements using continuous fibre optics shall be arranged with at least two loops

symmetrically arranged.

To determine load from strain, the cross section A and the pile material modulus of elasticity shall be

assessed. All the materials present in the pile shall be considered.
5 Test procedure
5.1 Test preparation
5.1.1 Protections
Throughout the test period all necessary precautions shal
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