Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 3: Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures

The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 3: Lastabtragung und Bemessung von Verbindungen und Konstruktion von Bauwerken

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 3 : Transfert des charges, conception des jonctions et conception des structures

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 3. del: Prenos obremenitve ter projektiranje spojev in konstrukcij

Priročnik o strukturnih materialih, SMH, združuje informacije o materialih in oblikovanju uveljavljenih polimernih matričnih kompozitov z začasnimi informacijami o nastajajočih skupinah novejših naprednih materialov in njihovih kompozitov. Opisani so vidiki oblikovanja, skupaj z dejavniki združevanja in proizvodnje. Kjer je mogoče, so podani primeri ali študije primerov.
Priročnik o strukturnih materialih vsebuje 8 delov.
Slovar izrazov, opredelitve in okrajšave izrazov za te priročnike so v 8. delu.
Deli so:
1. del: Pregled in lastnosti materialov ter aplikacije                    Točke 1–9
2. del: Metode za izračun zasnove in splošni vidiki zasnove    Točke 10–22
3. del: Prenos obremenitve ter projektiranje spojev in konstrukcij    Točke 23–32
4. del: Nadzor integritete, smernice za preverjanje in proizvodnja    Točke 33–45
5. del: Novi napredni materiali, napredni kovinski materiali, splošni konstrukcijski vidiki ter prenos obremenitve in oblikovanje sklepov    Točke 46–63
6. del: Modeliranje zlomov in materialov, študije primerov, načrtovanje in nadzor integritete ter inšpekcijski pregled    Točke 64–81
7. del: Toplotna in okoljska celovitost, proizvodni vidiki, spremljanje stanja materialov v orbiti, mehki materiali, hibridni materiali in nanotehnologije   Točke 82–107
8. del: Slovar   
OPOMBA: Teh 8 delov je označenih s številkami od TR17603-32-01 do TR 17603-32-08.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
20-Oct-2021
Publication Date
10-Feb-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
31-Jan-2022
Due Date
07-Apr-2022
Completion Date
11-Feb-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-03:2022
01-marec-2022

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 3. del: Prenos obremenitve

ter projektiranje spojev in konstrukcij

Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 3: Load transfer and design of

joints and design of structures

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 3: Lastabtragung und

Bemessung von Verbindungen und Konstruktion von Bauwerken

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 3 : Transfert des charges,

conception des jonctions et conception des structures
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17603-32-03:2022
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-03:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-03:2022
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-03:2022
TECHNICAL REPORT CEN/TR 17603-32-03
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
January 2022
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part
3: Load transfer and design of joints and design of
structures

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der

- Partie 3 : Transfert des charges, conception des Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 3: Lastabtragung und

jonctions et conception des structures Bemessung von Verbindungen und Konstruktion von

Bauwerken

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 22 November 2021. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. CEN/TR 17603-32-03:2022 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................. 20

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 21

23 Inserts .................................................................................................................. 22

23.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 22

23.2 Features of inserts .................................................................................................. 22

23.2.1 Basic description ....................................................................................... 22

23.2.2 Types of inserts ......................................................................................... 23

23.2.3 Inserts for honeycomb sandwich structures............................................... 25

23.2.4 Sizes of inserts .......................................................................................... 27

23.2.5 Design parameters .................................................................................... 28

23.2.6 Typical insert materials ............................................................................. 29

23.2.7 Surface protection for inserts .................................................................... 31

23.3 Insert design for non-metallic sandwich components .............................................. 31

23.3.1 Basic design parameters ........................................................................... 31

23.3.2 Areas of concern with respect to analysis ................................................. 33

23.4 Insert analysis for sandwich components ................................................................ 36

23.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 36

23.4.2 Inserts loaded normal to the plane of facing .............................................. 36

23.4.3 Inserts loaded in plane of the facing .......................................................... 38

23.5 References ............................................................................................................. 42

23.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 42

23.5.2 ECSS documents ...................................................................................... 42

24 Load introduction elements ............................................................................... 43

24.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 43

24.1.1 Composite links ......................................................................................... 43

24.1.2 Shear load elements ................................................................................. 43

24.2 Composite links ...................................................................................................... 43

24.2.1 Basic description ....................................................................................... 43

24.3 Analysis of composite links ..................................................................................... 45

24.3.1 Analytical notation ..................................................................................... 45

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24.3.2 Stress distribution in unidirectional composite links ................................... 45

24.4 Shear load elements ............................................................................................... 53

24.4.1 The 'Spider' element ................................................................................. 53

24.5 References ............................................................................................................. 55

24.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 55

25 Design of struts .................................................................................................. 56

25.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 56

25.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 56

25.1.2 Design aspects ......................................................................................... 56

25.2 Analytical notation for strut optimisation .................................................................. 57

25.3 Theoretical evaluation ............................................................................................. 57

25.3.1 Method ...................................................................................................... 57

25.3.2 Evaluation example ................................................................................... 59

25.4 Optimisation of compression tubes ......................................................................... 62

25.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 62

25.4.2 Critical column buckling load ..................................................................... 63

25.4.3 Local buckling stress for circular cylinders ................................................ 65

25.4.4 Applied stress ........................................................................................... 65

25.5 References ............................................................................................................. 69

25.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 69

25.5.2 ECSS documents ...................................................................................... 70

26 Design of sandwich structures ......................................................................... 71

26.1 Notation .................................................................................................................. 71

26.2 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 73

26.2.1 The structural sandwich concept ............................................................... 73

26.2.2 Historical background and overview .......................................................... 75

26.2.3 Applications............................................................................................... 77

26.3 Constituent materials and manufacturing ................................................................ 79

26.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 79

26.3.2 Face materials and their properties ........................................................... 79

26.3.3 Core materials and their properties ........................................................... 79

26.3.4 Cores: Honeycomb materials .................................................................... 80

26.3.5 Cores: Honeycomb properties ................................................................... 82

26.3.6 Cores: Metallic honeycomb ....................................................................... 84

26.3.7 Cores: Non-metallic honeycomb ............................................................... 87

26.3.8 Cores: Foams ........................................................................................... 93

26.3.9 Adhesives: Characteristics ........................................................................ 97

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26.3.10 Manufacturing of sandwich panels .......................................................... 100

26.3.11 Bonding sandwich elements .................................................................... 100

26.4 Failure modes and failure criteria .......................................................................... 101

26.4.1 Survey of general ‘sandwich failure modes’ ............................................ 101

26.4.2 Face failure ............................................................................................. 103

26.4.3 Core failure ............................................................................................. 103

26.5 Modelling of sandwich structures .......................................................................... 103

26.5.1 General ................................................................................................... 103

26.5.2 Simple theories and ESL equivalent single layer models ........................ 104

26.5.3 Love-Kirchhoff theory .............................................................................. 104

26.5.4 ESL and simple multi-layer theories ........................................................ 105

26.5.5 High-order and advanced multi-layer models .......................................... 109

26.5.6 Localised effects ..................................................................................... 113

26.5.7 FEA finite element analysis ..................................................................... 115

26.6 Global buckling instability of sandwich structures.................................................. 116

26.6.1 General ................................................................................................... 116

26.6.2 Buckling of sandwich panels ................................................................... 116

26.6.3 Shear “crimping” ..................................................................................... 125

26.6.4 Buckling of cylindrical sandwich shells subjected to axisymmetric

compression loading ............................................................................... 125

26.7 Local buckling instability of sandwich structures ................................................... 133

26.7.1 General ................................................................................................... 133

26.7.2 Wrinkling instability .................................................................................. 133

26.7.3 Intra-cell buckling or ‘dimpling’ ................................................................ 137

26.8 Design considerations associated with sandwich structures ................................. 142

26.8.1 General ................................................................................................... 142

26.8.2 Edge closures and joints ......................................................................... 143

26.8.3 Mechanical fasteners .............................................................................. 144

26.8.4 Geometrical and material discontinuities ................................................. 146

26.9 Design procedures ................................................................................................ 149

26.9.1 General design of sandwich structures .................................................... 149

26.9.2 Design approach for sandwich structures ................................................ 149

26.9.3 Case study: Pre design calculation of an optimised circular

sandwich shell ......................................................................................... 150

26.10 References ........................................................................................................... 156

26.10.1 General ................................................................................................... 156

26.10.2 ECSS documents .................................................................................... 162

27 Design of thin-walled structures ..................................................................... 163

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27.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 163

27.1.1 General ................................................................................................... 163

27.1.2 Design aspects ....................................................................................... 163

27.2 Inflatable structures .............................................................................................. 164

27.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 164

27.2.2 Applications............................................................................................. 165

27.2.3 Overall configuration ............................................................................... 165

27.2.4 Materials ................................................................................................. 166

27.2.5 Rigidisation ............................................................................................. 167

27.2.6 Evaluation and testing ............................................................................. 168

27.2.7 Design aspects ....................................................................................... 169

27.2.8 Inflatable structures: Examples ............................................................... 171

27.3 References ........................................................................................................... 173

27.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 173

28 Design of dimensionally stable structures ..................................................... 178

28.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 178

28.1.1 General ................................................................................................... 178

28.1.2 Short term ............................................................................................... 178

28.1.3 Long term ................................................................................................ 178

28.1.4 Basic properties of materials ................................................................... 179

28.2 Characteristics for dimensional stability ................................................................ 180

28.2.1 Characteristics ........................................................................................ 180

28.3 Design critical areas ............................................................................................. 182

28.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 182

28.3.2 CTE control by design ............................................................................. 182

28.4 Material options .................................................................................................... 183

28.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 183

28.4.2 Polymer composite constructions ............................................................ 183

28.4.3 MMC and CMC materials ........................................................................ 184

28.5 Effect of composite lay-up ..................................................................................... 185

28.5.1 Composite anisotropy ............................................................................. 185

28.5.2 UHM CFRP prepregs .............................................................................. 185

28.5.3 Fibre and ply misalignment ..................................................................... 186

28.5.4 Material selection .................................................................................... 186

28.6 Sandwich structures ............................................................................................. 192

28.6.1 General ................................................................................................... 192

28.6.2 Core material .......................................................................................... 192

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28.6.3 Core thermal conductivity ........................................................................ 193

28.6.4 Sandwich constructions .......................................................................... 193

28.7 Space environments ............................................................................................. 194

28.7.1 General ................................................................................................... 194

28.7.2 Outgassing .............................................................................................. 194

28.7.3 Thermal cycling ....................................................................................... 195

28.7.4 Radiation damage ................................................................................... 196

28.7.5 Low Earth orbit ........................................................................................ 197

28.7.6 Surface coatings ..................................................................................... 197

28.8 Effect of moisture .................................................................................................. 197

28.8.1 General ................................................................................................... 197

28.8.2 Swelling agent ......................................................................................... 198

28.8.3 Plasticiser ............................................................................................... 199

28.8.4 Coefficient of moisture expansion (CME) ................................................ 199

28.9 Effect of thermal cycling ........................................................................................ 200

28.9.1 Material properties .................................................................................. 200

28.10 Joints .................................................................................................................... 201

28.10.1 General ................................................................................................... 201

28.10.2 Adhesive bonding ................................................................................... 201

28.10.3 Fasteners and inserts .............................................................................. 202

28.11 RF antenna structures .......................................................................................... 202

28.11.1 Basic Characteristics ............................................................................... 202

28.11.2 Performance ........................................................................................... 202

28.11.3 Selection of type of construction.............................................................. 204

28.12 RF Antenna structures: Examples ........................................................................ 205

28.12.1 General ................................................................................................... 205

28.12.2 Deployable reflectors .............................................................................. 205

28.12.3 Solid deployable reflectors ...................................................................... 207

28.12.4 Solid reflectors ........................................................................................ 209

28.12.5 Planer arrays ........................................................................................... 215

28.12.6 Frequency selective reflectors ................................................................. 217

28.13 IR and X-ray telescopes........................................................................................ 219

28.13.1 General ................................................................................................... 219

28.13.2 Technology demonstrators ...................................................................... 219

28.13.3 Soft X-ray telescope (SXT) ...................................................................... 224

28.13.4 X-ray multi-mirror telescope (XMM) ......................................................... 228

28.14 Optical structures and devices .............................................................................. 228

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28.14.1 General ................................................................................................... 228

28.14.2 Mirrors and optics ................................................................................... 228

28.14.3 Cameras and telescopes......................................................................... 229

28.14.4 Radiometers............................................................................................ 229

28.15 Optical structures: Examples ................................................................................ 230

28.15.1 Mars observer camera (MOC) ................................................................. 230

28.15.2 High-stability telescope structures (HSTS) .............................................. 234

28.15.3 Semiconductor laser inter-satellite link experiment (SILEX) .................... 237

28.15.4 Scan mirror ............................................................................................. 240

28.16 Smart technologies ............................................................................................... 242

28.16.1 General ................................................................................................... 242

28.16.2 Active compensation ............................................................................... 242

28.16.3 Microvibration damping ........................................................................... 242

28.17 References ........................................................................................................... 242

28.17.1 General ................................................................................................... 242

28.17.2 ECSS documents .................................................................................... 248

29 Filament wound pressure vessels, tanks and structures ............................. 249

29.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 249

29.1.1 General ................................................................................................... 249

29.1.2 Uses of filament winding ......................................................................... 249

29.1.3 Pressure vessels ..................................................................................... 249

29.1.4 Options with filament winding .................................................................. 250

29.2 Developments in filament winding ......................................................................... 250

29.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 250

29.2.2 Manufacturing capabilities ....................................................................... 251

29.2.3 Materials ................................................................................................. 251

29.2.4 Pressure vessel liner technology ............................................................. 253

29.3 Pressurant and propellant tanks ........................................................................... 253

29.3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 253

29.3.2 All-metal tanks ........................................................................................ 254

29.3.3 Leak-before-burst concept ...................................................................... 255

29.3.4 Seamless metal liners ............................................................................. 256

29.3.5 Design considerations ............................................................................. 259

29.3.6 Pressure vessel performance factor ........................................................ 261

29.3.7 Intelsat VII pressurant tanks .................................................................... 263

29.3.8 Aerospatiale pressurant tanks ................................................................. 266

29.4 Pressure vessels - Characteristics ........................................................................ 267

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29.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 267

29.4.2 Dimension restrictions ............................................................................. 267

29.4.3 Specified load cases ............................................................................... 267

29.4.4 Loads during manufacture ....................................................................... 268

29.4.5 Environmental conditions ........................................................................ 268

29.5 Pressure vessels - Safety factors .......................................................................... 268

29.5.1 General ................................................................................................... 268

29.5.2 Proposed safety factors .......................................................................... 269

29.5.3 Composite material failure mode ............................................................. 269

29.5.4 Service life .............................................................................................. 269

29.5.5 Damage tolerance ................................................................................... 269

29.5.6 Reliability ................................................................................................ 269

29.6 Pressure vessels - Design concepts ..................................................................... 270

29.6.1 Basic concepts ........................................................................................ 270

29.6.2 Isotensoid-shaped pressure vessels ....................................................... 271

29.6.3 Joint structures ...
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-03:2021
01-oktober-2021

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 3. del: Prenos obremenitve

ter projektiranje spojev in konstrukcij

Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 3: Load transfer and design of

joints and design of structures

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 3: Lastabtragung und

Bemessung von Verbindungen und Konstruktion von Bauwerken

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 3 : Transfert des charges,

conception des jonctions et conception des structures
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TR 17603-32-03
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-03:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-03:2021
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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-03:2021
TECHNICAL REPORT
FINAL DRAFT
FprCEN/TR 17603-32-03
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
July 2021
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part
3: Load transfer and design of joints and design of
structures

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der

- Partie 3 : Transfert des charges, conception des Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 3: Lastabtragung und

jonctions et conception des structures Bemessung von Verbindungen und Konstruktion von

Bauwerken

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. FprCEN/TR 17603-32-03:2021 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................. 20

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 21

23 Inserts .................................................................................................................. 22

23.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 22

23.2 Features of inserts .................................................................................................. 22

23.2.1 Basic description ....................................................................................... 22

23.2.2 Types of inserts ......................................................................................... 23

23.2.3 Inserts for honeycomb sandwich structures............................................... 25

23.2.4 Sizes of inserts .......................................................................................... 27

23.2.5 Design parameters .................................................................................... 28

23.2.6 Typical insert materials ............................................................................. 29

23.2.7 Surface protection for inserts .................................................................... 31

23.3 Insert design for non-metallic sandwich components .............................................. 31

23.3.1 Basic design parameters ........................................................................... 31

23.3.2 Areas of concern with respect to analysis ................................................. 33

23.4 Insert analysis for sandwich components ................................................................ 36

23.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 36

23.4.2 Inserts loaded normal to the plane of facing .............................................. 36

23.4.3 Inserts loaded in plane of the facing .......................................................... 38

23.5 References ............................................................................................................. 42

23.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 42

23.5.2 ECSS documents ...................................................................................... 42

24 Load introduction elements ............................................................................... 43

24.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 43

24.1.1 Composite links ......................................................................................... 43

24.1.2 Shear load elements ................................................................................. 43

24.2 Composite links ...................................................................................................... 43

24.2.1 Basic description ....................................................................................... 43

24.3 Analysis of composite links ..................................................................................... 45

24.3.1 Analytical notation ..................................................................................... 45

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24.3.2 Stress distribution in unidirectional composite links ................................... 45

24.4 Shear load elements ............................................................................................... 53

24.4.1 The 'Spider' element ................................................................................. 53

24.5 References ............................................................................................................. 55

24.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 55

25 Design of struts .................................................................................................. 56

25.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 56

25.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 56

25.1.2 Design aspects ......................................................................................... 56

25.2 Analytical notation for strut optimisation .................................................................. 57

25.3 Theoretical evaluation ............................................................................................. 57

25.3.1 Method ...................................................................................................... 57

25.3.2 Evaluation example ................................................................................... 59

25.4 Optimisation of compression tubes ......................................................................... 62

25.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 62

25.4.2 Critical column buckling load ..................................................................... 63

25.4.3 Local buckling stress for circular cylinders ................................................ 65

25.4.4 Applied stress ........................................................................................... 65

25.5 References ............................................................................................................. 69

25.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 69

25.5.2 ECSS documents ...................................................................................... 70

26 Design of sandwich structures ......................................................................... 71

26.1 Notation .................................................................................................................. 71

26.2 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 73

26.2.1 The structural sandwich concept ............................................................... 73

26.2.2 Historical background and overview .......................................................... 75

26.2.3 Applications............................................................................................... 77

26.3 Constituent materials and manufacturing ................................................................ 79

26.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 79

26.3.2 Face materials and their properties ........................................................... 79

26.3.3 Core materials and their properties ........................................................... 79

26.3.4 Cores: Honeycomb materials .................................................................... 80

26.3.5 Cores: Honeycomb properties ................................................................... 82

26.3.6 Cores: Metallic honeycomb ....................................................................... 84

26.3.7 Cores: Non-metallic honeycomb ............................................................... 87

26.3.8 Cores: Foams ........................................................................................... 93

26.3.9 Adhesives: Characteristics ........................................................................ 97

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26.3.10 Manufacturing of sandwich panels .......................................................... 100

26.3.11 Bonding sandwich elements .................................................................... 100

26.4 Failure modes and failure criteria .......................................................................... 101

26.4.1 Survey of general ‘sandwich failure modes’ ............................................ 101

26.4.2 Face failure ............................................................................................. 103

26.4.3 Core failure ............................................................................................. 103

26.5 Modelling of sandwich structures .......................................................................... 103

26.5.1 General ................................................................................................... 103

26.5.2 Simple theories and ESL equivalent single layer models ........................ 104

26.5.3 Love-Kirchhoff theory .............................................................................. 104

26.5.4 ESL and simple multi-layer theories ........................................................ 105

26.5.5 High-order and advanced multi-layer models .......................................... 109

26.5.6 Localised effects ..................................................................................... 113

26.5.7 FEA finite element analysis ..................................................................... 115

26.6 Global buckling instability of sandwich structures.................................................. 116

26.6.1 General ................................................................................................... 116

26.6.2 Buckling of sandwich panels ................................................................... 116

26.6.3 Shear “crimping” ..................................................................................... 125

26.6.4 Buckling of cylindrical sandwich shells subjected to axisymmetric

compression loading ............................................................................... 125

26.7 Local buckling instability of sandwich structures ................................................... 133

26.7.1 General ................................................................................................... 133

26.7.2 Wrinkling instability .................................................................................. 133

26.7.3 Intra-cell buckling or ‘dimpling’ ................................................................ 137

26.8 Design considerations associated with sandwich structures ................................. 142

26.8.1 General ................................................................................................... 142

26.8.2 Edge closures and joints ......................................................................... 143

26.8.3 Mechanical fasteners .............................................................................. 144

26.8.4 Geometrical and material discontinuities ................................................. 146

26.9 Design procedures ................................................................................................ 149

26.9.1 General design of sandwich structures .................................................... 149

26.9.2 Design approach for sandwich structures ................................................ 149

26.9.3 Case study: Pre design calculation of an optimised circular

sandwich shell ......................................................................................... 150

26.10 References ........................................................................................................... 156

26.10.1 General ................................................................................................... 156

26.10.2 ECSS documents .................................................................................... 162

27 Design of thin-walled structures ..................................................................... 163

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27.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 163

27.1.1 General ................................................................................................... 163

27.1.2 Design aspects ....................................................................................... 163

27.2 Inflatable structures .............................................................................................. 164

27.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 164

27.2.2 Applications............................................................................................. 165

27.2.3 Overall configuration ............................................................................... 165

27.2.4 Materials ................................................................................................. 166

27.2.5 Rigidisation ............................................................................................. 167

27.2.6 Evaluation and testing ............................................................................. 168

27.2.7 Design aspects ....................................................................................... 169

27.2.8 Inflatable structures: Examples ............................................................... 171

27.3 References ........................................................................................................... 173

27.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 173

28 Design of dimensionally stable structures ..................................................... 178

28.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 178

28.1.1 General ................................................................................................... 178

28.1.2 Short term ............................................................................................... 178

28.1.3 Long term ................................................................................................ 178

28.1.4 Basic properties of materials ................................................................... 179

28.2 Characteristics for dimensional stability ................................................................ 180

28.2.1 Characteristics ........................................................................................ 180

28.3 Design critical areas ............................................................................................. 182

28.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 182

28.3.2 CTE control by design ............................................................................. 182

28.4 Material options .................................................................................................... 183

28.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 183

28.4.2 Polymer composite constructions ............................................................ 183

28.4.3 MMC and CMC materials ........................................................................ 184

28.5 Effect of composite lay-up ..................................................................................... 185

28.5.1 Composite anisotropy ............................................................................. 185

28.5.2 UHM CFRP prepregs .............................................................................. 185

28.5.3 Fibre and ply misalignment ..................................................................... 186

28.5.4 Material selection .................................................................................... 186

28.6 Sandwich structures ............................................................................................. 192

28.6.1 General ................................................................................................... 192

28.6.2 Core material .......................................................................................... 192

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28.6.3 Core thermal conductivity ........................................................................ 193

28.6.4 Sandwich constructions .......................................................................... 193

28.7 Space environments ............................................................................................. 194

28.7.1 General ................................................................................................... 194

28.7.2 Outgassing .............................................................................................. 194

28.7.3 Thermal cycling ....................................................................................... 195

28.7.4 Radiation damage ................................................................................... 196

28.7.5 Low Earth orbit ........................................................................................ 197

28.7.6 Surface coatings ..................................................................................... 197

28.8 Effect of moisture .................................................................................................. 197

28.8.1 General ................................................................................................... 197

28.8.2 Swelling agent ......................................................................................... 198

28.8.3 Plasticiser ............................................................................................... 199

28.8.4 Coefficient of moisture expansion (CME) ................................................ 199

28.9 Effect of thermal cycling ........................................................................................ 200

28.9.1 Material properties .................................................................................. 200

28.10 Joints .................................................................................................................... 201

28.10.1 General ................................................................................................... 201

28.10.2 Adhesive bonding ................................................................................... 201

28.10.3 Fasteners and inserts .............................................................................. 202

28.11 RF antenna structures .......................................................................................... 202

28.11.1 Basic Characteristics ............................................................................... 202

28.11.2 Performance ........................................................................................... 202

28.11.3 Selection of type of construction.............................................................. 204

28.12 RF Antenna structures: Examples ........................................................................ 205

28.12.1 General ................................................................................................... 205

28.12.2 Deployable reflectors .............................................................................. 205

28.12.3 Solid deployable reflectors ...................................................................... 207

28.12.4 Solid reflectors ........................................................................................ 209

28.12.5 Planer arrays ........................................................................................... 215

28.12.6 Frequency selective reflectors ................................................................. 217

28.13 IR and X-ray telescopes........................................................................................ 219

28.13.1 General ................................................................................................... 219

28.13.2 Technology demonstrators ...................................................................... 219

28.13.3 Soft X-ray telescope (SXT) ...................................................................... 224

28.13.4 X-ray multi-mirror telescope (XMM) ......................................................... 228

28.14 Optical structures and devices .............................................................................. 228

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28.14.1 General ................................................................................................... 228

28.14.2 Mirrors and optics ................................................................................... 228

28.14.3 Cameras and telescopes......................................................................... 229

28.14.4 Radiometers............................................................................................ 229

28.15 Optical structures: Examples ................................................................................ 230

28.15.1 Mars observer camera (MOC) ................................................................. 230

28.15.2 High-stability telescope structures (HSTS) .............................................. 234

28.15.3 Semiconductor laser inter-satellite link experiment (SILEX) .................... 237

28.15.4 Scan mirror ............................................................................................. 240

28.16 Smart technologies ............................................................................................... 242

28.16.1 General ................................................................................................... 242

28.16.2 Active compensation ............................................................................... 242

28.16.3 Microvibration damping ........................................................................... 242

28.17 References ........................................................................................................... 242

28.17.1 General ................................................................................................... 242

28.17.2 ECSS documents .................................................................................... 248

29 Filament wound pressure vessels, tanks and structures ............................. 249

29.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 249

29.1.1 General ................................................................................................... 249

29.1.2 Uses of filament winding ......................................................................... 249

29.1.3 Pressure vessels ..................................................................................... 249

29.1.4 Options with filament winding .................................................................. 250

29.2 Developments in filament winding ......................................................................... 250

29.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 250

29.2.2 Manufacturing capabilities ....................................................................... 251

29.2.3 Materials ................................................................................................. 251

29.2.4 Pressure vessel liner technology ............................................................. 253

29.3 Pressurant and propellant tanks ........................................................................... 253

29.3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 253

29.3.2 All-metal tanks ........................................................................................ 254

29.3.3 Leak-before-burst concept ...................................................................... 255

29.3.4 Seamless metal liners ............................................................................. 256

29.3.5 Design considerations ............................................................................. 259

29.3.6 Pressure vessel performance factor ........................................................ 261

29.3.7 Intelsat VII pressurant tanks .................................................................... 263

29.3.8 Aerospatiale pressurant tanks ................................................................. 266

29.4 Pressure vessels - Characteristics ........................................................................ 267

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29.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 267

29.4.2 Dimension restrictions ............................................................................. 267

29.4.3 Specified load cases ............................................................................... 267

29.4.4 Loads during manufacture ....................................................................... 268

29.4.5 Environmental conditions ........................................................................ 268

29.5 Pressure vessels - Safety factors .......................................................................... 268

29.5.1 General ................................................................................................... 268

29.5.2 Proposed safety factors .......................................................................... 269

29.5.3 Composite material failure mode ............................................................. 269

29.5.4 Service life .............................................................................................. 269

29.5.5 Damage tolerance ................................................................................... 269

29.5.6 Reliability ......................
...

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