Railway applications - Infrastructure - Non-destructive testing on rails in track - Part 2: Eddy current testing of rails in track

This document is applicable to testing of rails installed in track for detecting rail surface cracks. This part of this European Standard applies to testing equipment in inspection-trains or reprofiling machines and manual systems. This document specifies the requirement for testing principles and systems in order to produce comparable results in respect to the location and the characteristic of surface cracks. This document is not aiming to give any guidelines for managing the result of eddy current rail testing. This document does not define the requirements for vehicle acceptance. This document is not concerned with production testing of rails in a production plant. This document applies only to rail profiles meeting the requirements of EN 13674-1.

Bahnanwendungen - Infrastruktur - Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung an Schienen im Gleis - Teil 2: Wirbelstromprüfung an Schienen im Gleis

Dieses Dokument ist anwendbar für das Prüfen von Schienen im Gleis im Hinblick auf Oberflächenrisse. Dieser Teil dieser Europäischen Norm bezieht sich auf Testausrüstungen bei Inspektionszügen oder Reprofilierungsmaschinen und manuellen Systemen. Dieses Dokument legt die Anforderung an die Testprinzipien und die Testsysteme fest, um vergleichbare Ergebnisse hinsichtlich des Ortes und der Eigenschaften des Oberflächenrisses zu erhalten. Dieses Dokument beabsichtigt nicht, Leitlinien zur Handhabung der Ergebnisse von Wirbelstromprüfungen zu geben. Dieses Dokument definiert nicht die Anforderungen an die Fahrzeugabnahme. Dieses Dokument befasst sich nicht mit Prüfungen von Schienen während der Produktion in einer Produktionsanlage. Dieses Dokument gilt nur für Schienenprofile, die den Anforderungen von EN 13674-1 genügen.

Applications ferroviaires - Infrastructure - Essais non destructifs sur les rails de voie - Partie 2 : Contrôle par courant de Foucault des rails en voie

Le présent document s'applique au contrôle des fissures en surface affectant les rails en voie. La présente partie de cette série de Normes européennes s'applique aux équipements d'essai montés sur les trains d'inspection, de reprofilage et sur les systèmes manuels. Le présent document spécifie les exigences relatives aux principes et systèmes de contrôle dans le but de produire des résultats comparables vis-à-vis de la localisation et des caractéristiques des fissures en surface. Le présent document n'a pas pour objet de fournir des lignes directrices pour la gestion des résultats des contrôles par courants de Foucault des rails en voie. Le présent document n'entend pas non plus définir les exigences relatives à l'acceptation du véhicule. Le présent document ne traite pas des essais réalisés sur les rails suite à leur production sur leur lieu de fabrication. Le présent document s'applique uniquement aux rails dont les profils répondent aux exigences de l'EN 13674-1.

Železniške naprave - Infrastruktura - Neporušitveno preskušanje na progi - 2. del: Preskušanje z vrtinčnimi tokovi na progi

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Dec-2018
Publication Date
30-Mar-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
12-Mar-2020
Due Date
17-May-2020
Completion Date
31-Mar-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16729-2:2020
01-maj-2020

Železniške naprave - Infrastruktura - Neporušitveno preskušanje na progi - 2. del:

Preskušanje z vrtinčnimi tokovi na progi

Railway applications - Infrastructure - Non-destructive testing on rails in track - Part 2:

Eddy current testing of rails in track

Bahnanwendungen - Infrastruktur - Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung an Schienen im Gleis - Teil

2: Wirbelstromprüfung an Schienen im Gleis

Applications ferroviaires - Infrastructure - Essais non destructifs sur les rails de voie -

Partie 2 : Contrôle par courant de Foucault des rails en voie
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16729-2:2020
ICS:
19.100 Neporušitveno preskušanje Non-destructive testing
93.100 Gradnja železnic Construction of railways
SIST EN 16729-2:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16729-2:2020
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SIST EN 16729-2:2020
EN 16729-2
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 93.100
English Version
Railway applications - Infrastructure - Non-destructive
testing on rails in track - Part 2: Eddy current testing of
rails in track

Applications ferroviaires - Infrastructure - Test non- Bahnanwendungen - Infrastruktur - Zerstörungsfreie

destructive sur des rails Prüfung an Schienen im Gleis - Teil 2:
Wirbelstromprüfung an Schienen im Gleis
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 15 December 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 16729-2:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 16729-2:2020
EN 16729-2:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 9

5 Basic principles ................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.2 Purpose of testing ........................................................................................................................................... 9

6 Requirements for the eddy current testing system on rails ......................................................... 10

7 Requirements for testing procedure .................................................................................................... 10

8 Requirements for documentation .......................................................................................................... 11

Annex A (normative) System acceptance of eddy current systems for detecting head checks .... 12

A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12

A.2 Requirements for detecting and sizing head checks ....................................................................... 12

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 32

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SIST EN 16729-2:2020
EN 16729-2:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 16729-2:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 “Railway

applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2020, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This EN 16729 series, Railway applications – Infrastructure – Non-destructive testing on rails in track,

consists of:
— Part 1: Requirements for ultrasonic inspection and evaluation principles;
— Part 2: Eddy current testing of rails in track;
— Part 3: Requirements for identifying internal and surface rail defects;
— Part 4: Qualification of personnel for non-destructive testing on rails.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 16729-2:2020
EN 16729-2:2020 (E)
Introduction

This document represents the actual state of the art of eddy current testing for surface cracks on rails in

track applied by European railway companies.
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SIST EN 16729-2:2020
EN 16729-2:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This document is applicable to testing of rails installed in track for detecting rail surface cracks. This

document applies to testing equipment in inspection-trains or reprofiling machines and manual

systems. This document specifies the requirement for testing principles and systems in order to

produce comparable results in respect to the location and the characteristic of surface cracks. This

document is not aiming to give any guidelines for managing the result of eddy current rail testing. This

document does not define the requirements for vehicle acceptance. This document is not concerned

with production testing of rails in a production plant. This document applies only to rail profiles

meeting the requirements of EN 13674-1.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 13231-5, Railway applications — Track — Acceptance of works — Part 5: Procedures for rail

reprofiling in plain line, switches, crossings and expansion devices

EN 16729-1:2016, Railway applications — Infrastructure — Non-destructive testing on rails in track —

Part 1: Requirements for ultrasonic inspection and evaluation principles
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 16729-1:2016 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
real crack
crack caused by traffic loads or production induced

Note 1 to entry: Cracks may also be simulated. They then constitute an artificial feature designed to represent a

real defect of a known size, orientation and position.
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SIST EN 16729-2:2020
EN 16729-2:2020 (E)
3.2
testing area for gauge corner cracks
see Figure 1
Dimensions in mm
Key
x horizontal coordinate
z vertical coordinate
SO top of rail
a distance between contact point of wheelset and centre of rail
1-2 minimum gauge inspection area
Figure 1 — Testing area for gauge corner cracks
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SIST EN 16729-2:2020
EN 16729-2:2020 (E)
3.3
testing area for running surface cracks
see Figure 2
Dimensions in mm
Key
x horizontal coordinate
z vertical coordinate
SO top of rail
a distance between contact point of wheelset and centre of rail
3-4 minimum running surface inspection area
Figure 2 — Testing area for running surface cracks
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SIST EN 16729-2:2020
EN 16729-2:2020 (E)
3.4
depth to be machined
depth to be machined to remove cracks
Note 1 to entry: see Figure 3
Key
d' depth to be machined (depth of the crack rectangular to the surface including
to a safety distance to ensure the removal of the crack)
α' penetrating angle
1 gauge side
A sectional plane
Pocket length
Figure 3 — Depth to be machined depending on the head checks position
3.5
detectability

capability to recognize, discover and register surface cracks with the help of a testing system

3.6
reproducibility
conformity of several results from the verified test system
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SIST EN 16729-2:2020
EN 16729-2:2020 (E)
4 Symbols and abbreviations
Symbol Definition Unit
d' Depth to be machined (from each probe) mm
α' penetrating angle °
d' Maximum depth to be machined (maximum of all mm
max
probes)
d Depth of the cluster (median value) mm
median
IM Infrastructure manager
ET Eddy Current Testing
LH Left Rail
RH Right Rail
5 Basic principles
5.1 General

With the help of eddy current testing, surface cracks can be detected in electrically conducting materials

(ferromagnetic or non-ferromagnetic materials).

Eddy current testing is based on the induction of electric current in electrically conducting material. The

measured and analysed size refers to the distribution of the induced currents (eddy currents).

The distribution of the eddy currents in the material is governed by physical laws; the density of these

eddy currents drastically decreases with the distance to the surface.

To determine the depth of a head check crack, the pocket length of the crack and the penetrating angle

are used. The penetrating angle can vary depending on steel grade, traffic, tonnage and support

conditions of the rail. The penetrating angle α' (see Figure 3) commonly used for testing head checks in

rail is 25 °.
Parameters influencing the testing results are:
— conductivity of the material;
— permeability of the material;
— dimension and geometry of the defect;
— geometry between the eddy current probe and the material surface;
— design and size of the probe;
— setting of the excitation frequency.

More detailed information on the eddy current method can be found in EN ISO 15549.

5.2 Purpose of testing

The purpose of eddy current testing on rails is to detect, quantify or classify rail defects in the material

surface mainly due to rolling contact fatigue which can affect the structural integrity of the rails in track

and which are defined in EN 13231-5. This is not limited to, but generally covers the following defects:

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SIST EN 16729-2:2020
EN 16729-2:2020 (E)
— head checks;
— squats;
— flaking;
— spalling.
6 Requirements for the eddy current testing system on rails

Inspection of the rail surface can be carried out manually or by using mechanized devices.

When testing with an eddy current probe, it is placed above the rail head. The impedance of the probe is

influenced by the interaction of the electromagnetic field generated by the probe and the rail head. This

influence recorded by the complex voltage of the probe can be calculated to the severity of cracking on

rail surface.
The minimum requirements for a test system are:
— suitable for the test task;

— capable of dealing with various material characteristics (e.g. welds, steel grades);

— probes optimized to the position, direction, depth and distance between cracks;

— probes optimized to test non-planar rail surfaces;
— capable of testing rough and rusty surfaces;
— capable of recording the correct location of the defect;

— capable of testing forwards and backwards in track independent of the direction of the traffic (if

mounted on vehicle, independent of the orientation of the vehicle).

NOTE The list does not include the requirements for operational use of the test system in track.

7 Requirements for testing procedure
The IM shall define:
— inspection area;
— defect type;
— minimum and maximum defect size;
— frequency and requirements of system verification;
— testing speed;
— rail profiles and wear limits to be inspected;
— rail grades to be inspected;
— penetrating angle.
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SIST EN 16729-2:2020
EN 16729-2:2020 (E)
8 Requirements for documentation
The content and type of documentation shall be specified by the IM.
The documentation should include:
— configuration details of the system:
— type and serial number of the probes and date of calibration;
— type and serial number of the eddy current device and date of calibration;
— system settings and software version;
— probe position details;
— criteria and limits for the evaluation of the defects.
The report should include:
— testing speed;

— test range or non-testable range, position of the probe relating to the rail profile;

— location information;
— scanning direction;
— defect classification;
— position of defects on rail head;
— lift off events and/or other non-testable areas.
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SIST EN 16729-2:2020
EN 16729-2:2020 (E)
Annex A
(normative)
System acceptance of eddy current systems for detecting head checks
A.1 General

Requirements defined by the IM, according to Clause 7, shall be verified by the system acceptance.

Eddy current testing systems shall provide evidence that they can detect and size head checks

accurately.
There are two parts of system acceptance:

— generic acceptance of new test systems where there is no evidence of performance when testing

rails;

— acceptance of individual established test systems to confirm performance, interval to be defined by

the IM.
A.2 Requirements for detecting and sizing head checks
A.2.1 General

This annex specifies detection and sizing requirements for head checks. Test area on the rail head

depends on the head check type and may be located on the gauge corner and / or the running surface

(see Figure 3).
The systems shall report the following:
— the depth to be machined (d') given in mm for each probe in one metre;

— the reported defect depth (d' ) presented as the maximum depth to be machined (d') in one

max
metre.

NOTE The reported defect depth (d' ) to determine the necessary depth to be machined (d') will vary

max
depending on defect position in the rail head.

For evaluating the reported values of the system to be verified, the results of a reference system

(approved system) shall be used. In addition, verification with destructive investigations and

appropriate non-destructive investigations may be carried out.
A.2.2 Procedure to verify new systems

For the verification of a non-destructive testing system, the details shall be defined by the IM. The IM

shall verify that the ET system performance (considering Clauses 6 and 7) has been validated on real

head checks and the true reported maximum depth to be machined (d' ) confirmed by destructive

max
testing.

In the case that a system has already been accepted in at least one network, the IM may consider cross

acceptance. For cross acceptance the IM shall consider Clauses 6 and 7. If necessary additional tests

shall be undertaken.

The supplier shall document the system configuration for all variable values of the system.

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SIST EN 16729-2:2020
EN 16729-2:2020 (E)

A.2.3 Procedure for acceptance of established test systems to confirm performance

A.2.3.1 Procedure for selection of the verification tracks

In order to verify the performance of eddy current systems for rail testing there shall be a set of

different verified real cracks in reference tracks.

The reference tracks shall be constructed from used rail with real cracks and provide representative

examples of the defects to be detected.

The reference track consists of two different kinds of track for verifying the functionality of the test

system. The aim of reference track number 1 is to provide consistent reference results for

representative depths to be machined (light, medium, heavy) in a track. The aim of reference track

number 2 is for verifying systems under real testing and operational conditions in curves over longer

distances.

The defects in the reference track shall be verified before they are used as verification for the test

system. Where the reference rails carry traffic, the IM shall carry out a risk assessment to determine if

risk mitigation (e.g. speed restrictions or additional inspections) is necessary.

Head check depth shall be tested periodically to monitor growth, ensure accuracy and safety of the line.

A.2.3.2 Reference track number 1: Permanent reference track

A permanent reference track consists of suitable used rail with head checks with three different damage

levels, determined by the IM. The damage level shall be verified by destructive investigation.

Characteristics of the track:
— defined damage levels;
— separated by undamaged rail with a length of at least 5 m;
...

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