Textiles - Quantitative microscopical analysis - General principles of testing (ISO 20705:2019)

This document specifies common methods for the quantitative microscopical analysisof various mixtures of fibres. The methods described are based on the use of alight microscope (LM) or a scanning electronic microscope (SEM), on themeasurements of the fibre apparent diameter (preparation of longitudinal views)or on the measurements of fibre section area (preparation of cross views),depending on the section shape of the fibres. The given procedures apply tofibres in any textile form when mixtures of fibres cannot be separated by manualmethods or by chemical methods. Examples of mixtures of fibres are cashmere andwool, cotton and flax, flax and hemp.

Textilien - Quantitative mikroskopische Analyse - Allgemeine Prüfungsgrundsätze (ISO 20705:2019)

Dieses Dokument legt allgemeine Verfahren für die quantitative mikroskopische Analyse verschiedener Fasermischungen fest. Die beschriebenen Verfahren beruhen auf der Verwendung eines Lichtmikroskops (LM) oder eines Rasterelektronenmikroskops (REM), auf den Messungen des sichtbaren Faserdurchmessers (Vorbereitung der Längsansichten) oder auf den Messungen des Faserquerschnitts (Vorbereitung von Querschnittsansichten), abhängig von der Querschnittsform der Fasern.
ANMERKUNG 1   Ist die Querschnittsform kreisförmig oder nahezu kreisförmig, sind die Längsansichten geeignet. Für die anderen Querschnittsformen sind die Querschnittsansichten passend und Anhang A gibt die konventionelle Faserdichte für die Verwendung bei der Berechnung der prozentualen Massenanteile der Bestandteile an. Bilder von Querschnittsformen von Fasern können in ISO/TR 11827 gefunden werden.
ANMERKUNG 2   Anhang B enthält statistische Daten über Messungen des Faserdurchmessers (Längsansicht) und über Messungen der Faserfläche (Querschnittsansicht).
Die angegebenen Verfahren werden auf Fasern in jeglicher Form textiler Flächengebilde angewendet, wenn Mischungen von Fasern nicht durch manuelle oder chemische Verfahren getrennt werden können.
Beispiele für Mischungen von Fasern sind Kaschmir und Wolle, Baumwolle und Flachs, Flachs und Hanf.

Textiles - Analyse quantitative par microscopie - Principes généraux des essais (ISO 20705:2019)

Le présent document spécifie les méthodes communes pour l'analyse microscopique quantitative de divers mélanges de fibres. Les méthodes décrites reposent sur l'utilisation d'un microscope optique (MO) ou d'un microscope électronique à balayage (MEB), sur les mesurages du diamètre apparent des fibres (préparation de vues longitudinales) ou sur les mesurages de la surface de section des fibres (préparation de vues en coupe), selon la forme de la section des fibres.
NOTE 1 Lorsque la forme de la section est circulaire ou presque circulaire, les vues longitudinales sont adaptées. Pour les autres formes de section, les vues en coupe sont adéquates et l'Annexe A présente la densité de fibre conventionnelle à utiliser pour le calcul du pourcentage en masse des composants. L'ISO/TR 11827 contient des photographies des formes de section de fibres.
NOTE 2 L'Annexe B présente des données statistiques relatives aux mesures du diamètre des fibres (vue longitudinale) et aux mesures de la surface des fibres (vue en coupe).
Les modes opératoires fournis s'appliquent aux fibres de toute forme de textile lorsque les mélanges de fibres ne peuvent pas être séparés par des méthodes manuelles ou des méthodes chimiques.
Le cachemire et la laine, le coton et le lin, le lin et le chanvre sont des exemples de mélanges de fibres.

Tekstilije - Kvantitativna mikroskopska analiza - Splošna načela preskušanja (ISO 20705:2019)

Ta dokument določa običajne metode za kvantitativno mikroskopsko analizo različnih vlakenskih mešanic. Opisane metode temeljijo na uporabi svetlobnega mikroskopa (LM) ali optičnega elektronskega mikroskopa (SEM), na meritvah navideznega premera vlaken (priprava vzdolžnih pogledov) ali na meritvah površine odseka vlaken (priprava navzkrižnih pogledov), odvisno od oblike preseka vlaken. Navedeni postopki veljajo za vlakna v kateri koli tekstilni obliki, kadar mešanic vlaken ni mogoče ločiti z ročnimi ali kemičnimi metodami. Primeri mešanic vlaken so kašmir in volna, bombaž in lan ter lan in konoplja.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
02-Dec-2018
Publication Date
26-Jan-2020
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
22-Jan-2020
Due Date
28-Mar-2020
Completion Date
27-Jan-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 20705:2020
01-marec-2020

Tekstilije - Kvantitativna mikroskopska analiza - Splošna načela preskušanja (ISO

20705:2019)

Textiles - Quantitative microscopical analysis - General principles of testing (ISO

20705:2019)

Textilien - Quantitative mikroskopische Analyse - Allgemeine Prüfungsgrundsätze (ISO

20705:2019)

Textiles - Analyse quantitative par microscopie - Principes généraux des essais (ISO

20705:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 20705:2020
ICS:
59.080.01 Tekstilije na splošno Textiles in general
SIST EN ISO 20705:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 20705:2020
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SIST EN ISO 20705:2020
EN ISO 20705
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
January 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 59.060.01
English Version
Textiles - Quantitative microscopical analysis - General
principles of testing (ISO 20705:2019)

Textiles - Analyse quantitative par microscopie - Textilien - Quantitative mikroskopische Analyse -

Principes généraux des essais (ISO 20705:2019) Allgemeine Prüfungsgrundsätze (ISO 20705:2019)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 December 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 20705:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 20705:2020
EN ISO 20705:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 20705:2020
EN ISO 20705:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 20705:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 38 "Textiles"

in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 248 “Textiles and textile products” the secretariat of

which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2020, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by July 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 20705:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 20705:2020 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 20705:2020
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SIST EN ISO 20705:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20705
First edition
2019-12
Textiles — Quantitative microscopical
analysis — General principles of testing
Textiles — Analyse quantitative par microscopie — Principes
généraux des essais
Reference number
ISO 20705:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 20705:2020
ISO 20705:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20705:2020
ISO 20705:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Reagents ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

7 Preparation of the test specimens ..................................................................................................................................................... 2

7.1 Selection of the test specimens ................................................................................................................................................. 2

7.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

7.1.2 Loose fibres .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.1.3 Slivers ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

7.1.4 Yarns ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.1.5 Fabrics ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.2 Preparation of a test specimen slide (LM) or stub (SEM) .................................................................................. 4

7.2.1 Preparation for longitudinal view for LM................................................................................................... 4

7.2.2 Preparation for longitudinal view for SEM ............................................................................................... 4

7.2.3 Preparation for cross view for LM or SEM .................. ............................................................................... 4

8 Procedures .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.2 LM procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.2.1 Longitudinal view ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.2.2 Cross view .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

8.3 SEM procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

8.3.1 Longitudinal view ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.3.2 Cross view .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

9 Calculation and expression of the results .................................................................................................................................. 6

9.1 Calculation based on fibre diameter measurements (Longitudinal view) .......................................... 6

9.2 Calculation based on fibre area measurements (Cross view) ........................................................................ 7

9.3 Calculating the percentage by mass of fibre component in woven fabric sample ........................ 7

10 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (normative) Fibre density (Conventional) ............................................................................................................................. 9

Annex B (informative) Statistical data .............................................................................................................................................................10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 20705:2020
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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 38, Textiles.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20705:2020
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Introduction

This document is used for the quantitative analysis of textiles containing mixtures of fibres which

cannot be separated readily by mechanical methods or by chemical methods, as described in the

different parts of ISO 1833.

The quantitative microscopical analysis rely on the ability of a fibre analyst to identify and count, by

means of a microscope [light microscope (LM) or scanning electron microscope (SEM)], the relative

number of fibres of each type in a prepared test specimen (based on fibre apparent diameter of a

longitudinal view or fibre section area of a cross view, depending on the fibre types).

Fibre counts lead to the calculation of the percentage in the mixture of the test specimen by number

of fibres (based on fibre apparent diameter or fibre section area) and by their respective density. And

then, the calculation of the fibre percentage by mass of the laboratory sample is carried out in relation

to its structure (loose fibres, yarns, woven fabrics, knitted fabric, etc.).
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SIST EN ISO 20705:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20705:2019(E)
Textiles — Quantitative microscopical analysis — General
principles of testing
1 Scope

This document specifies common methods for the quantitative microscopical analysis of various

mixtures of fibres. The methods described are based on the use of a light microscope (LM) or a scanning

electronic microscope (SEM), on the measurements of the fibre apparent diameter (preparation

of longitudinal views) or on the measurements of fibre section area (preparation of cross views),

depending on the section shape of the fibres.

NOTE 1 When the section shape is circular or almost circular, the longitudinal views are appropriate. For the

other section shapes, the cross views are adequate and Annex A lists conventional density of fibres to be used

for the calculation of the mass percentage of the components. Pictures of section shapes of fibres can be found in

ISO/TR 11827.

NOTE 2 Annex B presents statistical data on fibre diameter measurements (longitudinal view) and on fibre

area measurements (cross view).

The given procedures apply to fibres in any textile form when mixtures of fibres cannot be separated

by manual methods or by chemical methods.

Examples of mixtures of fibres are cashmere and wool, cotton and flax, flax and hemp.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1833-1, Textiles — Quantitative chemical analysis — Part 1: General principles of testing

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following term and definition apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
test specimen unit
linear portion of a single thread

Note 1 to entry: The length of the test specimen unit depends on the test specimen holder dimension.

Note 2 to entry: This expression is not applicable to test specimen prepared from samples of loose fibre (see

7.1.2) or sliver (see 7.1.3).
4 Principle

A longitudinal view image (respectively, a cross view image) of fibre snippets representative of a

test specimen is magnified to an appropriate scale/size under optical light microscope or scanning

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electron microscope. All fibre types found in the test specimens are identified by the difference in

fibre morphology and are counted, measuring their individual apparent diameter (respectively section

area). Including their respective density in the calculation, the percentage of the fibres in the mixture is

determined by mass.

If it is practicable to chemically separate the components, the method described in the individual parts

of ISO 1833 should be used in preference to the microscopical methods.
5 Apparatus

5.1 Transmitted-light type microscope, shall comprise a light source, a light condenser, a stage, an

objective, an ocular with a graduated scale (eyepiece graticule or micron scale). The objective and ocular

of this type of microscope shall be capable of providing a magnification of ×150 to ×500.

The stage is movable in two directions at right angles by means of a sliding mechanism capable of

successive displacements in approximately 1,0 mm steps.
Alternatively, a projection light microscope (PLM) may be used.
NOTE A description of a PLM can be found in ISO 137.

5.2 Scanning electron microscope, shall comprise the following components: vacuum system,

electronic optical system, signal collecting and imaging system, display system.

NOTE A description of a method for calibrating the magnification of images generated by a scanning electron

microscope (SEM) using an appropriate reference material can be found in ISO 16700.

5.3 Tools.
5.3.1 Scissors, tweezers, dissecting needle, cleaning fabric, watch-glass, etc.
5.3.2 Slides and cover glasses.
5.3.3 Microtome.
6 Reagents
6.1 Neutral liquid medium, (e.g. liquid paraffin).
6.2 Resin, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate.
7 Preparation of the test specimens
7.1 Selection of the test specimens
7.1.1 General

Follow the general procedure described in ISO 1833-1, and then proceed as follows.

Take a laboratory test sample that is representative of the laboratory bulk sample and sufficient to

provide all the specimens.

Fabrics may contain yarns of different composition and account should be taken of this fact in the

sampling of the fabric.
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Treat loose fibres as described in 7.1.2, slivers as described in 7.1.3, yarns as described in 7.1.4, and

fabrics as described in 7.1.5.
7.1.2 Loose fibres

Put the laboratory sample flat on the test table. Pick up appropriate amount of fibres randomly on not

less than 20 spots with tweezers from top and bottom sides of the sample.
Blend homogeneously and divide into two equal portions.

Sort those drawn fibres into two basically parallel fibre bundles, as the two “loose fibre” test specimens.

7.1.3 Slivers

Cut out two sections from the laboratory sliver sample, so that the length section is greater than the

length of the test specimen holder (slide, SEM stub or tube).

Take out appropriate amount of fibre bundle in the longitudinal direction from each sliver section.

7.1.4 Yarns

Cut out two sections from the laboratory yarn sample, so that the length section is greater than the

length of the test specimen holder (slide, SEM stub or tube).

For the structure of the yarn, if necessary, destructure each yarn section by subsequently untwisting

the yarn and its possible components in order to get test specimen units.
For example, in the case of:
— a single yarn, the test specimen unit is directly obtained;

— a yarn made of two twisted single yarns, untwist the 2-ply yarn section in order to separate the two

single yarn sections. And then, two test specimen units are obtained from one initial section (four

test specimen units in total);

— a yarn made of two twisted 2-ply yarns, untwist firstly the yarn section in order to separate the two

2-ply yarn sections, then untwist each 2-ply yarn section in order to separate the 2-plies. And then

four test specimen units are obtained from one initial section (eight test specimen units in total).

7.1.5 Fabrics
7.1.5.1 Woven fabrics

Unravel warp and weft yarns in order to get couple(s) of representative yarns from two different places

of each direction.

For the structure of the woven fabric, destructure the woven fabric by unravelling warp and weft

yarns, and then continue the preparation of each yarn sections as described in 7.1.4 in order to get test

specimen units.

Cut out sections of the selected yarns from the laboratory woven fabric sample, so that the length

section is greater than the length of the test specimen holder (such as slide, SEM stub or tube).

For example, in the case of:

— woven fabric made of single yarn in warp and another single yarn in weft, two single yarns shall

be selected in the warp direction (one couple) and two single yarns shall be selected in the weft

direction (one couple). And then, four test specimen units are prepared in total;

— woven fabric made of a 2-ply yarn in warp and another 2-ply yarn in weft, two 2-ply yarns shall be

selected in the warp direction (one couple of 2-ply yarn) and two 2-ply yarns shall be selected in the

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weft direction (one couple of 2-ply yarn). Each 2-ply yarn is prepared as described in 7.2. And then,

eight test specimen units are prepared in total.
7.1.5.2 Knitted fabrics

De-knit yarns in order to get couple(s) of representative yarns from two different places.

For the structure of the knitted fabric, destructure the knitted fabric by de-knitting, and then continue

the preparation of each yarn sections as described in 7.1.4 in order to get test specimen units.

Cut out sections of the selected yarns from the laboratory knitted fabric sample, so that the length

section is greater than the length of the test specimen holder (such as slide, SEM stub or tube).

7.2 Preparation of a test specimen slide (LM) or stub (SEM)
7.2.1 Preparation for longitudinal view for LM

Prepare the test specimen(s) units as specified below. The selection of the test specimens is

described in 7.1.

For each separate place, drop appropriate amount of neutral liquid medium (6.1). Cut snippets from the

fibre bundle or the test specimen unit and place them on the two separate places of the slide. Disperse

the fibre snippets uniformly by stirring with the dissecting needle. Carefully, lower a glass cover of the

correct size over the fibre/ neutral liquid medium mixture and avoid air bubbles.

If the thickness of the preparation prevents the diameter measurements, discard the slide and prepare

another one.
Prepare at least two slides.

If it is required to get more accurate results, more than one thousand fibres need to be counted.

Considering that a yarn can have 100 to 120 fibres in a section, it could lead to prepare at least 10 slides.

7.2.2 Preparation for longitudinal view for SEM

Prepare the test specimen(s) units as specified below. The selection of the test specimens is

described in 7.1.

Cut snippets from the fibre bundle or the test specimen unit and place them on the SEM stub. Prepare at

least two stubs.
7.2.3 Preparation for cross view for LM or SEM

Prepare the test specimen(s) units as specified below. The selection of the test specimen or test

specimen unit is described in 7.1.

Double the fibre bundle several times or fold the test specimen unit several times in order to fill the test

tube, before filling it with the resin (6.2).

NOTE In order to reduce the time of the SEM stub preparation, different test specimen units can be placed

on the same stub provided that they remain distinguishable.

Using the relevant procedure for the microtome type (5.3.3), prepare at least two cross sections from

the fibre bundle embedded in the tube.
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8 Procedures
8.1 General
Identification of the fibre type can be carried out based on ISO/TR 11827.

The total of all the fibres measured for the test specimen shall be at least 600.

8.2 LM procedure
8.2.1 Longitudinal view

Place the slide on the microscope stage, cover glass towards the objective. After the fibres have settled,

the slide is examined in different fields. Begin the examination by moving the slide until a corner of the

cover slip is focused. Then traverse the slide 1,0 mm (to B) then along a targeted fibre in the transverse

direction, thus bringing the first area into view on the screen.

Traverse the slide in 1,0 mm steps, using the sliding mechanism described in 5.1, and analyse other

fibres in each field as before. Continue traversing until the edge of the cover glass C is reached. Cross-

traverse the slide 1,0 mm distance and continue with a second traverse and then a third, etc. following

the A B C D E F G, etc. pattern (see Figure 1) until the observations have been done.

Measure the diameter of each targeted fibre after its observation and count the number of fibres.

Record these results.
Figure 1 — Examination of the test specimen
8.2.2 Cross view
Place the slide on the microscope stage.

Focus to examine in different fields based on low magnification in order to target some fibres, and then

set up higher magnification to get details of the targeted fibres.

Repeat again the same operation on several spots until the observations have been done.

Measure the area of each targeted fibre after its observation and count the number of fibres. Record

these results.
8.3 SEM procedure
8.3.1 Longitudinal view

Place the stub inside the SEM. Focus to examine in different fields. Begin the examination by moving

the stub to A. Then traverse the stub (to B) then along a targeted fibre in the transverse direction, thus

bringing the first area into view on the screen.
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Traverse the stub in several steps and analyse other fibres in each field as before, with a step width

adapted to the stub. Continue traversing until C is reached. Cross-traverse the stub and continue with

a second traverse and then a third, etc. following the A B C D E F G etc. pattern (see Figure 1) until the

number of measurements (width, as a fibre diameter estimation D ) has been reached.

Measure the diameter of each targeted fibre after its observation and count the number of fibres.

Record these results.
8.3.2 Cross view

Place the stub inside the SEM. Focus to examine in different fields based on low magnification in order

to target some fibres, and then set up higher magnification to get details of the targeted fibres.

Repeat again the same operation on several spots until the number of measurements (fibres area A )

has been reached.

Measure the area of each targeted fibre after its observation and count the number of fibres. Record

these results.
9 Calculation and expression of the results
...

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