Hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines - Cavitation pitting evaluation -- Part 1: Evaluation in reaction turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines

Provides a basis for the formulation of guarantees applied to cavitation pitting for reaction hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines. It addresses the measurement and evaluation of the amount of cavitation pitting on certain specified machine components for given conditions, which are defined in the contract by output, specific hydraulic energy (E), speed, material, operation, etc. The cavitation-pitting evaluation is based on the loss of material during a given time and under accurately defined operating conditions. All wetted surfaces are considered

Wasserturbinen, Speicherpumpen, Pumpenturbinen - Bewertung des Kavitationsangriffs -- Teil 1: Bewertung in Reaktionsturbinen, Speicherpumpen und Pumpenturbinen

Turbines hydrauliques, pompes d'accumulation et pompes-turbines - Evaluation de l'érosion de cavitation -- Partie 1: Evaluation dans les turbines à réaction, les pompes d'accumulation et les pompes-turbines hydrauliques

Fournit la base à l'établissement des garanties d'érosion de cavitation s'appliquant aux turbines hydrauliques à réaction, pompes d'accumulation et pompes-turbines. Elle traite de la mesure et de l'évaluation de l'importance de cette érosion sur divers composants d'une machine pour des conditions définies au contrat: puissance, énergie hydraulique massique (E), vitesse de rotation, nature des matériaux, conditions de fonctionnement, etc. Pour évaluer l'importance de l'étendue de l'érosion de cavitation on s'appuie sur la perte de matière pendant une période donnée et pour des conditions de fonctionnement définies avec précision. Toutes les surfaces en contact avec l'eau sont prises en compte.

Vodne turbine, akumulacijske črpalke in črpalne turbine – Ovrednotenje kavitacijskih razjed – 1. del: Ovrednotenje za reakcijske turbine, akumulacijske črpalke in črpalne turbine (IEC 60609-1:2004)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
31-Aug-2005
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Sep-2005
Due Date
01-Sep-2005
Completion Date
01-Sep-2005

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 60609-1:2005
01-september-2005
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NDYLWDFLMVNLKUD]MHG±GHO2YUHGQRWHQMH]DUHDNFLMVNHWXUELQHDNXPXODFLMVNH
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Hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines - Cavitation pitting evaluation --

Part 1: Evaluation in reaction turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines

Wasserturbinen, Speicherpumpen, Pumpenturbinen - Bewertung des Kavitationsangriffs

-- Teil 1: Bewertung in Reaktionsturbinen, Speicherpumpen und Pumpenturbinen
Turbines hydrauliques, pompes d'accumulation et pompes-turbines - Evaluation de

l'érosion de cavitation -- Partie 1: Evaluation dans les turbines à réaction, les pompes

d'accumulation et les pompes-turbines hydrauliques
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 60609-1:2005
ICS:
27.140 Vodna energija Hydraulic energy engineering
SIST EN 60609-1:2005 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 60609-1:2005
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 60609-1:2005
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 60609-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM January 2005
ICS 23.100.10
English version
Hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines –
Cavitation pitting evaluation
Part 1: Evaluation in reaction turbines,
storage pumps and pump-turbines
(IEC 60609-1:2004)
Turbines hydrauliques, pompes Wasserturbinen, Speicherpumpen,
d'accumulation et pompes-turbines – Pumpenturbinen –
Evaluation de l'érosion de cavitation Bewertung des Kavitationsangriffs
Partie 1: Evaluation dans les turbines Teil 1: Bewertung in Reaktionsturbinen,
à réaction, les pompes d'accumulation Speicherpumpen und Pumpenturbinen
et les pompes-turbines hydrauliques (IEC 60609-1:2004)
(CEI 60609-1:2004)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2004-12-01. CENELEC members are bound to

comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and

notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland and United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2005 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 60609-1:2005 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 60609-1:2005
EN 60609-1:2005 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 4/196/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 60609-1, prepared by IEC TC 4, Hydraulic

turbines, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by CENELEC as

EN 60609-1 on 2004-12-01.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2005-09-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2007-12-01
Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60609-1:2004 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.
__________
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 60609-1:2005
- 3 - EN 60609-1:2005
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE Where an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
1) 2)
IEC 60193 - Hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and EN 60193 1999
pump-turbines - Model acceptance tests
IEC/TR 61366-1 - Hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and - -
pump-turbines - Tendering documents
Part 1: General and annexes
Undated reference.
Valid edition at date of issue.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 60609-1:2005
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 60609-1:2005
NORME CEI
INTERNATIONALE IEC
60609-1
INTERNATIONAL
Première édition
STANDARD
First edition
2004-11
Turbines hydrauliques, pompes d'accumulation
et pompes-turbines –
Evaluation de l'érosion de cavitation –
Partie 1:
Evaluation dans les turbines à réaction,
les pompes d'accumulation et les
pompes-turbines hydrauliques
Hydraulic turbines, storage pumps
and pump-turbines –
Cavitation pitting evaluation –
Part 1:
Evaluation in reaction turbines,
storage pumps and pump-turbines
© IEC 2004 Droits de reproduction réservés ⎯ Copyright - all rights reserved

Aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any

utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including

électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie et les photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'éditeur. the publisher.

International Electrotechnical Commission, 3, rue de Varembé, PO Box 131, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland

Telephone: +41 22 919 02 11 Telefax: +41 22 919 03 00 E-mail: inmail@iec.ch Web: www.iec.ch

CODE PRIX
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Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
International Electrotechnical Commission
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Pour prix, voir catalogue en vigueur
For price, see current catalogue
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 60609-1:2005
60609-1 © IEC:2004 – 3 –
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................5

INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................9

1 Scope and object............................................................................................................13

1.1 Excluded topics and limitations..............................................................................13

1.2 Considerations concerning chemical composition of water.....................................13

1.3 Considerations concerning water containing solids ................................................15

1.4 Normative references ............................................................................................15

2 Terms, definitions and symbols.......................................................................................15

2.1 Units .....................................................................................................................15

2.2 List of terms ..........................................................................................................17

3 Nature and extent of cavitation-pitting guarantees ..........................................................25

3.1 Period of guarantee...............................................................................................25

3.2 Definition of the amount of cavitation pitting ..........................................................25

3.3 Operating ranges and duration of operation...........................................................25

4 Procedures .....................................................................................................................29

4.1 Repair of cavitation pitting during the guarantee period .........................................29

4.2 Measurement and calculation of the amount of cavitation pitting............................31

5 Computation of results and fulfilment of the guarantee ...................................................33

Annex A (normative) Examples of amounts of cavitation pitting.............................................35

Bibliography..........................................................................................................................41

Figure 1 – Amount of cavitation pitting as a function of σ for a given machine at constant

discharge..............................................................................................................................11

Figure 2 – Operating ranges for turbines and pump-turbines during turbine operation...........21

Figure 3 – Operating ranges for storage pumps and pump-turbines during pump

operation ..............................................................................................................................23

Figure A.1 – Examples of maximum permissible values of cavitation pitting depth for

runners/impellers ..................................................................................................................37

Figure A.2 – Examples of maximum permissible values of cavitation pitting volume for

runners/impellers ..................................................................................................................39

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 60609-1:2005
60609-1 © IEC:2004 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
HYDRAULIC TURBINES, STORAGE PUMPS AND PUMP-TURBINES –
CAVITATION PITTING EVALUATION –
Part 1: Evaluation in reaction turbines, storage pumps
and pump-turbines
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and in

addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between

any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60609-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 4: Hydraulic

turbines.

This standard cancels and replaces IEC 60609, published in 1978, and constitutes a technical

revision. The main changes with respect to IEC 60609 pertain to tighter controls on reduced

permissible values of material loss. Modern technology with accumulated R&D has permitted

the integration of improved hydraulic design, better controls from numerical machining and

improved choice of materials.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
4/196/FDIS 4/200/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 60609-1:2005
60609-1 © IEC:2004 – 7 –

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

IEC 60609 consists of the following parts, under the general title Cavitation pitting evaluation in

hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines:
Part 1: Evaluation in reaction turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines
Part 2: Evaluation in Pelton turbines

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the

maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed;
• withdrawn;
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 60609-1:2005
60609-1 © IEC:2004 – 9 –
INTRODUCTION

This part of IEC 60609 covers the subject of cavitation-pitting evaluation for reaction type

hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines, while IEC 60609-2 covers the subject of

cavitation-pitting evaluation for impulse (Pelton) type turbines.

Guarantees applied to cavitation pitting in hydraulic reaction turbines, storage pumps and

pump-turbines are quite different from other performance guarantees stated in the contract

documents representing inherent characteristics of the machine, such as efficiency. The extent

of cavitation pitting depends essentially on five factors:
a) type and design of the machine;
b) material and surface condition of the parts subjected to cavitation;

c) setting of the machine, i.e. the cavitation factor sigma (σ) value at the plant;

d) duration of operation and type of operating conditions; and
e) water quality.

Items a) and b) describe the machine while items c), d) and e) depend on plant operating

conditions. Therefore, the guarantee for cavitation pitting can be established only by mutual

agreement between the employer and the contractor during the planning of the plant or during

the contract negotiations. Under certain severe conditions such as plant upgrades with

runner/impeller replacements or wide operating ranges, it may be to the advantage of the

employer to request that tenderers submit a guarantee to cover cavitation pitting in their

proposals.
A cavitation-pitting guarantee may be negotiated in two ways:

either the setting of the machine (and therefore the σ value of the plant) is given in the

contract documents, and the amount of the cavitation pitting is agreed upon with due

regard to the turbine or pump size, rotational speed, materials, surface conditions,

operation, etc. (see Figure 1a);

or the maximum amount of the cavitation pitting is given and the setting of the machine is

agreed upon (see Figure 1b).

In most cases, a machine can be operated normally without cavitation pitting or may be

required to operate without cavitation pitting. In some cases, it may be more economical to

accept a slight amount of cavitation pitting, which means using a higher setting than would be

required for operation of the machine without cavitation pitting. Of course, in the case of

underground power stations, the cost of additional submergence is usually relatively low.

It is not feasible to make general recommendations for an acceptable amount of cavitation

pitting primarily because items a) through e) make each plant unique. Economic evaluations,

therefore, are recommended for each case as conditions warrant. For example, a deeper

setting of the machine (higher σ value for the plant requiring higher cost for civil work) and/or a

more expensive runner/impeller (shape and/or material) can reduce the amount of cavitation

pitting. The benefits of these higher purchase costs are a reduction in the operating cost and/or

frequency of repair, as well as a reduction in lost energy production during the shut-down of the

unit.

Examples of amounts of cavitation pitting expressed as depth and volume (see 2.2.26 and

2.2.27) as a function of runner/impeller diameter D are given in Annex A.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 60609-1:2005
60609-1 © IEC:2004 – 11 –
σ plant given by contract document
Agreed upon cavitation pitting
IEC 1482/04
Figure 1a
Agreed upon σ plant
Permissible amount established
by contract document
IEC 1483/04
Figure 1b
Figure 1 – Amount of cavitation pitting as a function of σσσσ
for a given machine at constant discharge
Amount of cavitation pitting
Amount of cavitation pitting
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 60609-1:2005
60609-1 © IEC:2004 – 13 –
HYDRAULIC TURBINES, STORAGE PUMPS AND PUMP-TURBINES –
CAVITATION PITTING EVALUATION –
Part 1: Evaluation in reaction turbines, storage pumps
and pump-turbines
1 Scope and object

This part of IEC 60609 serves as a basis for the formulation of guarantees applied to cavitation

pitting for reaction hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines. It addresses the

measurement and evaluation of the amount of cavitation pitting on certain specified machine

components for given conditions, which are defined in the contract by output, specific hydraulic

energy (E), speed, material, operation, etc.

The cavitation-pitting evaluation is based on the loss of material during a given time and under

accurately defined operating conditions. All wetted surfaces are considered.

The contract documents shall state whether cavitation pitting on the hydraulic machine should

or should not be anticipated in all or in some operating ranges.

Guarantees that restrict the extent of cavitation pitting are necessary in the contract whether

cavitation pitting is anticipated or not.
1.1 Excluded topics and limitations

This standard does not cover other effects which cavitation may possibly have on the machine

such as:
– output, efficiency, vibration, mechanical integrity, and noise; and
– material defects revealed during operation.

Material defects revealed by wear on the machine surfaces during operation are not included in

a guarantee against cavitation pitting.
1.2 Considerations concerning chemical composition of water

It is assumed in this standard that the water is not chemically aggressive. In cases where the

water is considered to be chemically aggressive, the cavitation-pitting guarantee shall be given

on the basis of an agreed water analysis. Since chemical aggressiveness is dependent upon so

many possible chemical compositions, and the materials of the machine, it is beyond the scope

of this standard to set particular limits.

If it becomes apparent in the course of later analysis that the water is in fact more aggressive

than the agreed analysis indicated, this must be taken into consideration when evaluating

whether the cavitation-pitting guarantees have been met. If cavitation pitting occurs in zones

where damage can be separately attributable to chemical or electrochemical corrosion, such

damage shall be excluded from the evaluation of cavitation pitting. If cavitation pitting occurs in

zones where damage can be proven to have been increased by chemical or electrochemical

effects additional to those normal to cavitation in water of the agreed analysis, then such zones

shall be excluded from the evaluation of cavitation pitting.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 60609-1:2005
60609-1 © IEC:2004 – 15 –
1.3 Considerations concerning water containing solids

Abrasion due to water contaminated with solids (for example, sand) cannot be considered as

cavitation-pitting damage. When a machine operates in water containing a significant amount of

solids, the weight loss of material will be intensified due to the joint action of both cavitation

pitting (if it exists) and abrasion. The degree of intensifying destruction depends on various

aspects, such as sediment concentration, mineral composition, size gradation and impact

parameters (i.e. relative velocity and incidence angle) as well as the material characteristics

and hydraulic machine operation conditions. When a surface is altered by abrasion erosion,

cavitation-pitting damage can be initiated and accelerated because of the hydraulic shape

change. With respect to measurement of damage, it is important to realize that, for cavitation

erosion damage and abrasion erosion damage, the appearance, position and mechanism of

destruction is not similar. If cavitation pitting occurs in zones where damage can be separately

attributed to abrasion, such damage shall be excluded from the evaluation of cavitation pitting.

While the examples of amounts of cavitation pitting and measurement methods given in this

standard cover cavitation-pitting damage only, it must be recognized that some hydro sites

operate in water that contains significant amounts of solids for at least some portion of the

year. Since erosion due to abrasion is so dependent on the above-mentioned parameters, it is

beyond the scope of this standard to define an acceptable amount of solids content.

The contract documents shall describe the solids content of the water and, if relevant, the types

of minerals and size of solid (sand) particles in the water analysis and, if it reaches significant

proportion, shall be the subject of a special agreement. This agreement could consider the

volume loss caused by cavitation pitting and abrasion erosion separately. However, in practice

it is extremely difficult to measure them separately. It may be preferable that the contractor

guarantee the material loss as a combination of cavitation pitting and abrasion. Aspects of

abrasion wear by sand erosion are dealt with in IEC 61366-1.
1.4 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For

dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of

the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60193, Hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines – Model acceptance tests

IEC TR 61366-1, Hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines – Tendering documents

– Part 1: General and annexes
2 Terms, definitions and symbols
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1 Units

The International System of Units (SI) is adopted throughout this standard but other systems

are allowed.
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN 60609-1:2005
60609-1 © IEC:2004 – 17 –
2.2 Terms and definitions
The terms, symbols and definitions adopted in this standard are listed below.
NOTE They are also based, where relevant, on IEC 61364.
cavitation vapour bubbles which form when the level of local pressure
2.2.1
drops to approximately that of vapour pressure and which
collapse when the level of local pressure rises above that of
vapour pressure
2.2.2 cavitation pitting loss of material caused by cavitation
2.2.3 cavitation factor (Thoma number) characterizing the setting of a
hydraulic machine referred to the tailwater level or suction
water level (see IEC 60193)

2.2.4 cavitation pitting number of months or years of service of a machine during

guarantee period which the cavitation pitting guarantee is valid

2.2.5 cavitation pitting number of machine operating hours during which the cavitation

guarantee pitting guarantee is valid
duration of
operation

2.2.6 reference duration number of machine operating hours used as a reference value

of operation t (h) for establishing cavitation-pitting guarantees

2.2.7 actual duration of the actual number of machine operating hours at the time of

operation t (h) cavitation-pitting examination
2.2.8 lower limit of turbine power for continuous operation specified
for each specific hydraulic energy and each permissible NPSE
(see Figure 2)
2.2.9 P upper limit of turbine power for continuous operation specified
for each specific hydraulic energy and each permissible NPSE
(see Figure 2)
2.2.10 lower limit of turbine power for temporary operation specified
for each specific hydraulic energy and each permissible NPSE
(see Figure 2)
2.2.11 P upper limit of turbine power for temporary operation specified
for each specific hydraulic energy and each permissible NPSE
(see Figure 2)
2.2.12 E(Jkg ) specific hydraulic energy of machine, E = gH (see 2.2.14 and
for full information, see IEC 60193)
2.2.13 g (ms ) acceleration due to gravity for the considered plant (for full
information, see IEC 60193)
2.2.14 H (m) head of machine H = E/g
2.2.15 NPSE(Jkg ) net positive suction specific energy in operation (for full
information, see IEC 60193)
2.2.16 E lower limit of specific hydraulic energy for normal continuous
operation specified for each permissible NPSE (Figures 2 and 3)
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN 60609-1:2005
60609-1 ” IEC:2004 – 19 –
2.2.17 E upper limit of specific hydraulic energy for normal continuous
operation specified for each permissible NPSE (Figures 2 and
2.2.18 E lower limit of specific hydraulic energy for temporary abnormal
operation specified for each permissible NPSE (Figures 2 and
3). In many applications, E can be the same as E
TL CL
2.2.19 E upper limit of specific hydraulic energy for temporary
abnormal operation specified for each permissible NPSE
(Figures 2 and 3). In many applications, E can be the same
as E
2.2.20 NPSE lowest permissible value of NPSE (see 2.2.15)
2.2.21 normal continuous Limited a) for turbine mode by P , P , E and E
CL CU, CL CU
operating range (Figure 2) and b) for pumps and pump cycle of pump-turbines
by E and E (Figure 3)
CL CU
2.2.22 high-load Limited by P and P (Figure 2)
CU TU
temporary
operating range in
turbine mode
2.2.23 low-load Limited by P and P (Figure 2)
CL TL
temporary
operating range in
turbine mode
2.2.24 low specific Limited by E and E (Figure 2 or 3)
CL TL
hydraulic energy
temporary
operating range
2.2.25 high specific Limited by E and E (Figure 2 or 3)
CU TU
hydraulic energy
temporary
operating range
2.2.26.1 S (mm) absolute maximum depth of any pitted area measured from
the original surface (see 4.2.1)

2.2.26.2 S , S , S ,…S maximum depth of a particular pitted area measured from the

1 2 3 i
original surface (see 4.2.2 and 4.2.3b)
(mm)
2.2.27 V (cm ) volume of material removed by cavitation pitting

2.2.28 A , A , A ,…A individual areas damaged by cavitation pitting (see 4.2.2 and

1 2 3 i
(cm ) 4.2.3b)

2.2.29 K k , k , k ,…k coefficients used in the approximate calculation of volume as

1 2 3 i
indicated in 4.2.3b
2.2.30 C (mm, cm ) guaranteed limit of the amount of cavitation pitting for the
reference duration of operation

2.2.31 C (mm, cm ) guaranteed limit of the amount of cavitation pitting at the time

of cavitation-pitting examination
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN 60609-1:2005
60609-1 © IEC:2004 – 21 –
2.2.32 D (m) in the case of Kaplan and propeller turbines, runner blade tip
diameter at exit
in the case of Francis turbines, the outlet diameter of the
runner
in the case of storage pumps and pump-turbines during
pumping operation, the inlet diameter of the impeller (for any
other type of machine, see IEC 60193)
mass of
...

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