Timber structures - Dowel-type fasteners - Requirements

This draft European Standard specifies the requirements for the following types of dowel-type fasteners: nails, staples, screws, dowels, and bolts with nuts.
Only dowel-type fasteners for structural use in load bearing timber structures, and manufactured from steel, are covered by this European Standard. In addition, this draft European Standard covers also the use of screws:
-   to fix roof or cladding elements to the timber structure, with or without insulation layers;
and
-   as reinforcement inserted in timber or in a glue laminated timber element to improve its resistance to compression perpendicular to the grain.
This draft European Standard specifies also the assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) procedures and includes requirements for marking of these products.
This draft European Standard covers dowel-type fasteners that may be coated for the following purposes:
-   corrosion protection;
-   lubrication (to facilitate insertion);
-   withdrawal enhancement and/or collation for staples (adhesive and/or resin coatings).
This draft European Standard does not cover fasteners treated with fire retardants to improve their fire performance, nor does it cover glued-in rods.

Holzbauwerke - Stiftförmige Verbindungsmittel - Anforderungen

Dieser Europäische Normentwurf legt Anforderungen an folgende Arten von stiftförmigen Verbindungs-mitteln fest: Nägel, Klammern, Schrauben, Stabdübel und Bolzen mit Muttern.
Die vorliegende Europäische Norm deckt nur stiftförmige Verbindungsmittel für die Anwendung in tragenden Holzbaukonstruktionen ab, die aus Stahl hergestellt sind. Des Weiteren deckt dieser Europäische Normentwurf auch die Verwendung von Schrauben ab:
-   zur Befestigung von Dach  oder Verkleidungselementen an der Holzbaukonstruktion, mit oder ohne Wärmedämmung;
und
-   als Verstärkung, eingesetzt in Holz oder in ein Brettschichtholzelement zur Verbesserung des Widerstands gegenüber Druck rechtwinklig zur Faser.
Dieser Europäische Normentwurf legt außerdem die Verfahren zur Bewertung und Überprüfung der Leistungsbeständigkeit (AVCP) fest und enthält Anforderungen an die Kennzeichnung dieser Produkte.
Dieser Europäische Normentwurf behandelt stiftförmige Verbindungsmittel, die für die folgenden Zwecke beschichtet werden dürfen:
-   Korrosionsschutz;
-   Gleitschicht (um das Eintreiben/Eindrehen zu erleichtern);
-   Erhöhung der Ausziehfestigkeit und/oder der Magazinierung von Klammern (Klebe  und/oder Harzüberzug).
Dieser Europäische Normentwurf gilt nicht für zur Verbesserung des Brandverhaltens mit Feuerschutz-mitteln behandelte Verbindungsmittel und eingeklebte Gewindestangen.

Structures en bois - Éléments de fixation de type tige - Exigences

Le présent projet de Norme européenne spécifie les exigences relatives aux types suivants d’éléments de fixation de type tige : pointes, agrafes, vis, broches et boulons avec écrous.
La présente Norme européenne couvre uniquement les éléments de fixation de type tige fabriqués en acier et destinés à un usage structurel dans les structures porteuses en bois. En outre, le présent projet de Norme européenne couvre également l’utilisation de vis :
-   pour la fixation à la structure en bois d’éléments de couverture ou de bardage de façade, avec ou sans couches isolantes ;
et
-   comme renfort inséré dans un élément en bois ou un élément en bois lamellé-collé, afin d’améliorer sa résistance à la compression perpendiculairement aux fibres.
Le présent projet de Norme européenne spécifie également les modes opératoires d’évaluation et de vérification de la constance des performances (EVCP), et intègre les exigences relatives au marquage de ces produits.
Le présent projet de Norme européenne couvre les éléments de fixation de type tige pouvant recevoir un revêtement à des fins :
-   de protection contre la corrosion ;
-   de lubrification (pour faciliter leur insertion) ;
-   d’optimisation de la résistance à l’arrachement et/ou de solidarisation des agrafes (revêtements adhésifs et/ou en résine).
Le présent projet de Norme européenne ne couvre pas les éléments de fixation traités avec des produits ignifuges pour améliorer leurs performances au feu, ni les assemblages par goujons collés.

Lesene konstrukcije - Paličasta vezna sredstva - Zahteve

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
04-Sep-2017
Publication Date
15-Jun-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
08-Jun-2022
Due Date
13-Aug-2022
Completion Date
16-Jun-2022

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Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 14592:2022
01-julij-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 14592:2009+A1:2012
Lesene konstrukcije - Paličasta vezna sredstva - Zahteve
Timber structures - Dowel-type fasteners - Requirements
Holzbauwerke - Stiftförmige Verbindungsmittel - Anforderungen
Structures en bois - Éléments de fixation de type tige - Exigences
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 14592:2022
ICS:
21.060.01 Vezni elementi na splošno Fasteners in general
91.080.20 Lesene konstrukcije Timber structures
SIST EN 14592:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 14592:2022
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SIST EN 14592:2022
EN 14592
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2022
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 21.060.01; 91.080.20 Supersedes EN 14592:2008+A1:2012
English Version
Timber structures - Dowel-type fasteners - Requirements

Structures en bois - Éléments de fixation de type tige - Holzbauwerke - Stiftförmige Verbindungsmittel -

Exigences Anforderungen
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 February 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 14592:2022 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 14592:2022
EN 14592:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ............................................................................................................................................. 3

1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms, definitions, symbols, units and abbreviated terms ................................................... 8

3.1 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................... 8

3.2 Symbols, units and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................10

4 General product characteristics – Testing, assessment and sampling method ............11

4.1 Corrosion resistance ..........................................................................................................................11

4.2 Low cycle ductility (seismic performance) ................................................................................15

4.3 Reaction to fire .....................................................................................................................................15

5 Product specific characteristics - Testing, assessment and sampling method .............16

5.1 Nails ..........................................................................................................................................................16

5.2 Staples .....................................................................................................................................................19

5.3 Screws......................................................................................................................................................21

5.4 Dowels .....................................................................................................................................................26

5.5 Bolts and nuts .......................................................................................................................................27

6 Assessment and verification of constancy of performance - AVCP ...................................29

6.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................29

6.2 Assessment of performance ............................................................................................................29

6.3 Verification of constancy of performance ..................................................................................37

Annex A (normative) Test methods for alternative coatings ...........................................................48

Annex B (informative) Corrosivity of atmospheric environments and timber .........................52

Annex C (normative) Methods for measuring zinc thicknesses ......................................................56

Annex D (normative) Selection of test specimens – Specifications on wood density ..............57

Annex E (normative) Test to determine seismic performance........................................................60

Annex F (normative) Characteristic withdrawal parameter for dowel-type fasteners with

Type 3 coating ......................................................................................................................................65

Annex G (normative) Specifications for materials and geometry properties ............................67

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................................78

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SIST EN 14592:2022
EN 14592:2022 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 14592:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 124 “Timber

structures”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2022 and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by January 2024.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 14592:2008+A1:2012.
The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below:
— new concepts concerning dimensions and tolerances, e.g. target diameter;
— improved categories for corrosion protection;

— new specifications on wood density for testing of connections with dowel-type fasteners;

— low cycle ductility classes (seismic performance) and related test method;
— axial stiffness, static ductility and torsional ratio for screws.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North

Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
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SIST EN 14592:2022
EN 14592:2022 (E)
1 Scope

This document specifies the characteristics of the following types of dowel-type fasteners:

— nails;
— staples;
— screws;
— dowels;
— bolts with nuts.

This document covers dowel-type fasteners for structural use in load bearing timber structures only. This

document covers also the following additional intended uses of the screws:

— to fix roof or cladding elements to the timber structure, with or without insulation layers; and

— as reinforcement inserted in timber or in a glue laminated timber element to improve its resistance

to compression perpendicular to the grain.

This document covers types of dowel-type fasteners, which are manufactured of either carbon steel or

stainless steel and which may be coated for the following purposes:
— corrosion protection (as Type 1 coating);
— lubrication, to facilitate insertion (as Type 2 coating);

— withdrawal enhancement and/or collation for nails and staples (adhesive and/or resin coatings) (as

Type 3 coating).

This document covers types of dowel-type fasteners, which are manufactured from materials and within

the specifications for their geometry related properties, only as they are specified for:

— nails (see G.1);
— staples (see G.2);
— screws (see G.3);
— dowels (see G.4); and
— bolts with nuts (see G.5).

This document specifies also the assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP)

procedures of these characteristics and includes provisions for marking of dowel-type fasteners.

This document does not cover dowel-type fasteners treated with fire retardants to improve their fire

performance, nor does it cover glued-in rods.
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SIST EN 14592:2022
EN 14592:2022 (E)
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 409:2009, Timber structures - Test methods - Determination of the yield moment of dowel type fasteners

EN 634-2:2007, Cement-bonded particleboards - Specifications - Part 2: Requirements for OPC bonded

particleboards for use in dry, humid and external conditions
EN 636:2012+A1:2015, Plywood - Specifications

EN 1382:2016, Timber Structures - Test methods - Withdrawal capacity of timber fasteners

EN 1383:2016, Timber structures - Test methods - Pull through resistance of timber fasteners

EN 1990:2002, Eurocode - Basis of structural design

EN 1993-1-4:2006/A1:2015, Eurocode 3 - Design of steel structures - Part 1-4: General rules -

Supplementary rules for stainless steels

EN 1995-1-1:2004 , Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures - Part 1-1: General - Common rules and rules

for buildings

EN 10025-2:2019, Hot rolled products of structural steels - Part 2: Technical delivery conditions for non-

alloy structural steels

EN 10025-3:2019, Hot rolled products of structural steels - Part 3: Technical delivery conditions for

normalized/normalized rolled weldable fine grain structural steels
EN 10088-1:2014, Stainless steels - Part 1: List of stainless steels

EN 10088-2:2014, Stainless steels - Part 2: Technical delivery conditions for sheet/plate and strip of

corrosion resisting steels for general purposes

EN 10088-3:2014, Stainless steels - Part 3: Technical delivery conditions for semi-finished products, bars,

rods, wire, sections and bright products of corrosion resisting steels for general purposes

EN 10088-4:2009, Stainless steels - Part 4: Technical delivery conditions for sheet/plate and strip of

corrosion resisting steels for construction purposes

EN 10088-5:2009, Stainless steels - Part 5: Technical delivery conditions for bars, rods, wire, sections and

bright products of corrosion resisting steels for construction purposes

EN 10149-1:2013, Hot rolled flat products made of high yield strength steels for cold forming - Part 1:

General technical delivery conditions
EN 10204:2004, Metallic products - Types of inspection documents
As impacted by EN 1995-1-1:2004/A1:2008 and EN 1995-1-1:2004/A2:2014.
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SIST EN 14592:2022
EN 14592:2022 (E)
EN 10218-1:2012, Steel wire and wire products - General - Part 1: Test methods
EN 10277:2018, Bright steel products - Technical delivery conditions

EN 13501-1:2018, Fire classification of construction products and building elements - Part 1: Classification

using data from reaction to fire tests

EN 13986:2004+A1:2015, Wood-based panels for use in construction - Characteristics, evaluation of

conformity and marking

EN 14081-1:2016+A1:2019, Timber structures - Strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross

section - Part 1: General requirements

EN 14358:2016, Timber structures - Calculation and verification of characteristic values

EN 15737:2009, Timber Structures - Test methods - Torsional resistance of driving in screws

EN ISO 898-1:2013 , Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloy steel - Part 1: Bolts,

screws and studs with specified property classes - Coarse thread and fine pitch thread (ISO 898-1:2013)

EN ISO 898-2:2012, Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloy steel - Part 2: Nuts

with specified property classes - Coarse thread and fine pitch thread (ISO 898-2:2012)

EN ISO 1460:1994, Metallic coatings - Hot dip galvanized coatings on ferrous materials - Gravimetric

determination of the mass per unit area (ISO 1460:1992)

EN ISO 1463:2004, Metallic and oxide coatings - Measurement of coating thickness - Microscopical method

(ISO 1463:2003)

EN ISO 2081:2018, Metallic and other inorganic coatings - Electroplated coatings of zinc with

supplementary treatments on iron or steel (ISO 2081:2018)

EN ISO 2178:2016, Non-magnetic coatings on magnetic substrates - Measurement of coating thickness -

Magnetic method (ISO 2178:2016)

EN ISO 3497:2000, Metallic coatings - Measurement of coating thickness - X-ray spectrometric methods

(ISO 3497:2000)

EN ISO 3506-1:2009, Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant stainless steel fasteners - Part 1: Bolts,

screws and studs (ISO 3506-1:2009)
EN ISO 4042:2018, Fasteners - Electroplated coating systems (ISO 4042:2018)

EN ISO 6270-1:2018, Paints and varnishes - Determination of resistance to humidity - Part 1: Condensation

(single-sided exposure) (ISO 6270-1:2017)

EN ISO 6892-1:2019, Metallic materials - Tensile testing - Part 1: Method of test at room temperature (ISO

6892-1:2019)
As impacted by EN ISO 898-1:2013/AC:2013.
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SIST EN 14592:2022
EN 14592:2022 (E)

EN ISO 8407:2014, Corrosion of metals and alloys - Removal of corrosion products from corrosion test

specimens (ISO 8407:2009)

EN ISO 8565:2011, Metals and alloys - Atmospheric corrosion testing - General requirements (ISO

8565:2011)

EN ISO 9226:2012, Corrosion of metals and alloys - Corrosivity of atmospheres - Determination of corrosion

rate of standard specimens for the evaluation of corrosivity (ISO 9226:2012)

EN ISO 9227:2017, Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres - Salt spray tests (ISO 9227:2017)

EN ISO 10289:2001, Methods for corrosion testing of metallic and other inorganic coatings on metallic

substrates - Rating of test specimens and manufactured articles subjected to corrosion tests (ISO

10289:1999)

EN ISO 10666:1999, Drilling screws with tapping screw thread - Mechanical and functional properties (ISO

10666:1999)
EN ISO 10684:2004, Fasteners - Hot dip galvanized coatings (ISO 10684:2004)

EN ISO 11997-1:2017, Paints and varnishes - Determination of resistance to cyclic corrosion conditions -

Part 1: Wet (salt fog)/dry/humid (ISO 11997-1:2017)

EN ISO 16120-1:2017, Non-alloy steel wire rod for conversion to wire - Part 1: General requirements (ISO

16120-1:2017)

EN ISO 16120-2:2017, Non-alloy steel wire rod for conversion to wire - Part 2: Specific requirements for

general purpose wire rod (ISO 16120-2:2017)

EN ISO 16120-3:2011, Non-alloy steel wire rod for conversion to wire - Part 3: Specific requirements for

rimmed and rimmed substitute, low-carbon steel wire rod (ISO 16120-3:2011)

EN ISO 16120-4:2017, Non-alloy steel wire rod for conversion to wire - Part 4: Specific requirements for

wire rod for special applications (ISO 16120-4:2017)

EN ISO 21968:2019, Non-magnetic metallic coatings on metallic and non-metallic basis materials -

Measurement of coating thickness - Phase-sensitive eddy-current method (ISO 21968:2019)

ISO 965-1:2013, ISO general purpose metric screw threads - Tolerances - Part 1: Principles and basic data

ISO 965-2:1998, ISO general purpose metric screw threads - Tolerances - Part 2: Limits of sizes for general

purpose external and internal screw threads - Medium quality

ISO 965-3:1998, ISO general purpose metric screw threads - Tolerances - Part 3: Deviations for

constructional screw threads

ISO 965-4:1998, ISO general purpose metric screw threads - Tolerances - Part 4: Limits of sizes for hot-dip

galvanized external screw threads to mate with internal screw threads tapped with tolerance position H or

G after galvanizing
As impacted by EN ISO 10684:2004/AC:2009.
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SIST EN 14592:2022
EN 14592:2022 (E)

ISO 965-5:1998, ISO general purpose metric screw threads - Tolerances - Part 5: Limits of sizes for internal

screw threads to mate with hot-dip galvanized external screw threads with maximum size of tolerance

position h before galvanizing
3 Terms, definitions, symbols, units and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 1995-1-1:2004 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
3.1.1
smooth shank nail
nail that has a constant cross-section along its entire length
EXAMPLE Round, square or grooved.
3.1.2
ring shank nail
nail that has a profiled shank along a part of its length
EXAMPLE Ringed or twisted.
Note 1 to entry: The profiled length l is defined in Figure G.1 b).
3.1.3
staple crown width
distance between the outer edges of the staple legs
3.1.4
dowel
cylindrical metal fastener that does not contain an integral head
3.1.5
bolt
cylindrical metal fastener consisting of a screw part and a nut part
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SIST EN 14592:2022
EN 14592:2022 (E)
3.1.6
nominal diameter

cross-sectional dimension of a dowel-type fastener for the determination of a load bearing capacity

Note 1 to entry: Nails: for smooth shank nails, spiral rolled nails or annular ring shank nails, d is the outer cross-

sectional diameter of the round nail wire, or the side length dimension of the cross-section for a square nail, for all

other profiled nails, d is the cross-sectional diameter of the original wire rod, from which the profiled nail has been

produced.

Note 2 to entry: Staples: d is the diameter of a round rod with the same area as that of the cross-sectional area of

one leg of the staple. See G.2 for exceptions.
Note 3 to entry: Screws: d is the outer thread diameter.
Note 4 to entry: Dowels: d is the diameter.

Note 5 to entry: Bolts: d is the nominal diameter of the threaded part of the screw.

3.1.7
target diameter

diameter used to declare the nominal diameter of screws intended for use in load bearing timber

structures as specified in G.3

Note 1 to entry: For the purpose of both production specifications and applicability, screws may only be

produced allowing some tolerances. Thus for production purposes these tolerances are measured on the target

diameter, d .
3.1.8
inner thread diameter
inner diameter of the thread of a screw

Note 1 to entry: The inner diameter is used in EN 1995-1-1:2004 to determine the effective diameter for laterally

loaded screws.
3.1.9
stiffness
force for a unit deformation
3.1.10
coating type
the purpose of a coating is defined as follows:

— Type 1 coating: corrosion protection, with either pure zinc coating or hot-dipped galvanized coating

or alternative coatings;
— Type 2 coating: lubrication, to facilitate insertion;

— Type 3 coating: withdrawal enhancement and/or collation for nails and staples (adhesive and/or

resin coatings)

Note 1 to entry: A coating can serve more than one purpose, i.e. for staples the coating is both adhesive and serves

collation purposes.
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SIST EN 14592:2022
EN 14592:2022 (E)
3.2 Symbols, units and abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the symbols and abbreviations given in EN 1995-1-1:2004 and the

following apply:
A percentage elongation (%)
A nail head area (mm )
A staple leg cross-sectional area (mm )
b staple crown width (mm)
d nominal diameter (mm)
d head diameter (mm)
d diameter of the smooth shank of a screw (mm)
target diameter (mm)
d inner thread diameter; inner diameter of fluting (mm)
d secondary thread diameter (mm)
f characteristic withdrawal parameter (N/mm )
ax,k
f characteristic head pull-through parameter (N/mm )
head,k
F characteristic tensile capacity (N)
tens,k
f characteristic tensile yield stress (N/mm )
y,tens,k
f tensile strength of the wire (N/mm )
h nail head thickness (mm)
L nominal dowel-type fastener length (mm)
l length of profiling/threading (mm)
l length of the secondary profiling/threading (mm)
g,1
l length of the nail point (mm)
M characteristic yield moment (N.mm)
y,Rk
M characteristic torsional moment capacity (N.mm)
tor,Rk
bend angle ( )
bend angle under cyclic loading ( )

ρ characteristic timber density when conditioned to constant mass at 20 °C and 65 %

relative humidity (kg/m )
ω moisture content
As impacted by EN 1995-1-1:2004/A1:2008 and EN 1995-1-1:2004/A2:2014.
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SIST EN 14592:2022
EN 14592:2022 (E)
4 General product characteristics – Testing, assessment and sampling method
4.1 Corrosion resistance
4.1.1 General

Dowel-type fasteners shall withstand corrosion exposure of both the timber and the atmosphere for the

design service life. Pure zinc coated and hot-dipped galvanized coated dowel-type fasteners shall be

assigned to a T-category and C-category in accordance with Table 1 and Table 2. Stainless steel dowel-

type fasteners shall be assigned to a category for corrosion resistance in atmosphere expressed by a

Corrosion Resistance Class (CRC) and a T-category in accordance with Table 3 and Table 4. Alternative

coated dowel-type fasteners shall be assigned to a T-category and C-category in accordance with Table 5

and Table 6.

The T-category refers to the fastener resistance with respect corrosion caused by the timber. The

C-category and CRC refers to the fastener resistance with respect corrosion caused by the atmosphere.

The design service life is generally assumed to be 50 years for T-categories, C-categories and CRC. In

addition, for alternative coated dowel-type fasteners to be used in structures with shorter service life or

in replaceable structural parts, additional T-categories and C-categories with a design service life of

15 years are provided in Clause 4.1.4.
NOTE Advices on appropriate categories specification are given in Annex B.
4.1.2 Pure zinc coating and hot-dipped galvanized coating
4.1.2.1 Determination

The specifications to achieve a category of corrosion resistance with respect to timber and atmospheres

shall be determined in accordance with Table 1 and Table 2, respectively. The corrosion protection stated

in these tables is assumed to secure a design service life of 50 years.
4.1.2.2 Evaluation

The zinc thicknesses shall be measured in accordance with Annex C. The mean value of the coating

thickness, measured in accordance with Annex C, shall be greater than or equal to the thickness specified

by the manufacturer.

The zinc layer thickness of Table 1 and Table 2 may be reduced when a protective layer is applied. For

applications in C2 atmospheres, CrIII passivation may reduce the required coating thickness by 25 %, and

with CrVI passivation the required coating thickness may be reduced by 50 %.
4.1.2.3 Expression

The corrosion resistance of dowel-type fasteners made of pure zinc coated carbon steel or hot-dipped

galvanized coated carbon steel shall be expressed according to Table 1 and Table 2, giving the dowel-type

fastener a corrosion resistance category for both timber and atmosphere. The indication of the categories

implies fulfilment with the provisions for corrosion resistance.
EXAMPLE 1 T3/C3.

Table 1 — Categories for corrosion resistance of dowel-type fasteners in timber — Minimum

thicknesses for pure zinc coating and hot-dipped galvanized coating
Timber category T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
Zinc thickness on
– 10 μm 20 μm 55 μm n.a.
carbon steel
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SIST EN 14592:2022
EN 14592:2022 (E)

Table 2 — Categories for corrosion resistance of dowel-type fasteners in atmospheres —

Minimum thicknesses for pure zinc coating and hot-dipped galvanized coating
Atmosphere
C1 C2nw C2w C3 C4 C5
category
Zinc thickness on
– 10 μm 20 μm 55 μm 110 μm n.a.
carbon steel

NOTE The minimum zinc thicknesses are based on the upper limit of the average steady corrosion rate for zinc

in the first 20 years of EN ISO 9224:2012 and linearly extended to 50 years.
4.1.3 Stainless steel
4.1.3.1 Determination

The specifications to achieve a category of corrosion resistance with respect to atmospheres shall be

determined in accordance with Table 3. The specifications to achieve a category of corrosion resistance

with respect to timber shall be determined in accordance with Table 4. The corrosion protection stated

in these tables is assumed to secure a design service life of 50 years.
4.1.3.2 Evaluation
The assignment of stainless steel grades to CRC is given in Table 3.
4.1.3.3 Expression

The corrosion resistance of dowel-type fasteners made of stainless steel shall be expressed giving the

dowel-type fastener a corrosion resistance category for timber according to Table 4 and a CRC for

atmospheric corrosivity according to Table 3.

In addition, either the steel number according to EN 10088-1:2014 or steel grade according to

EN ISO 3506-1:2009, Table 1 may be added. The indication of the T-category and the CRC class implies

fulfilment with the provisions for corrosion resistance.
EXAMPLE 1 T3/CRC II.
EXAMPLE 2 T3/C3 (1.4567); T3/CII (A2).
Table 3 — Stainless steel grades assigned to Corrosion Resistance Classes
Corrosion Resistance Class Steel number according to
EN ISO 3506-1:2009, Table 1
(CRC) EN 10088-1:2014
1.4301 A2
1.4307 A2
1.4567 A2
1.4541 A3
CRC II
1.4318 -
1.4306 -
1.4311 -
1.4482 -
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EN 14592:2022 (E)
Corrosion Resistance Class Steel number according to
EN ISO 3506-1:2009, Table 1
(CRC) EN 10088-1:2014
1.4401 A4
1.4404 A4
1.4578 A4
1.4571 A5
1.4362 –
CRC III 1.4062 –
1.4162 –
1.4662 –
1.4429 -
1.4432 -
1.4435 -
1.4439 –
CRC IV 1.4462 –
1.4539 –
1.4565 –
1.4529 –
1.4547 –
CRC V
1.4410 -
1.4501 -
1.4507 -
NOTE Classes are in accordance with EN 1993-1-4:2006/A1:2015, Annex A.

Table 4 — Categories for corrosion resistance of dowel-type fasteners in timber — Minimum

specifications for stainless steel
Timber category T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
Corrosion
Resistance Class – – CRC II CRC III CRC III
for stainless steel
4.1.4 Alternative coatings
4.1.4.1 Determination

The specifications to achieve a category of corrosion resistance with respect to timber and atmospheres

shall be determined in accordance with Table 5 and Table 6, respectively. The corrosion protection stated

in these tables is assumed to secure a design service life of 50 years unless otherwise specified.

Alternative coated dowel-type fasteners satisfying test procedure according to A.2.1 shall be assigned to

classes T3 and C2w.
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Alternative coated dowel-type fasteners satisfying test procedure according to A.3.1 shall be assigned to

classes T4 and C3.

Alternative coated dowel-type fasteners with coating made of inorganic materials with or without an

organic top coat satisfying test procedure according to A4.1.4 shall be assigned to classes T3(15) and

C4(15) or T2 and C2nw. Note that T3(15) and C4(15) assume to secure a design service life of 15 years.

Alternative coated dow
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 14592:2017
01-september-2017
/HVHQHNRQVWUXNFLMH3DOLþDVWDYH]QDVUHGVWYD=DKWHYH
Timber structures - Dowel-type fasteners - Requirements
Holzbauwerke - Stiftförmige Verbindungsmittel - Anforderungen
Structures en bois - Éléments de fixation de type tige - Exigences
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 14592
ICS:
21.060.01 Vezni elementi na splošno Fasteners in general
91.080.20 Lesene konstrukcije Timber structures
oSIST prEN 14592:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 14592:2017
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oSIST prEN 14592:2017
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 14592
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
June 2017
ICS 21.060.01; 91.080.20 Will supersede EN 14592:2008+A1:2012
English Version
Timber structures - Dowel-type fasteners - Requirements

Structures en bois - Éléments de fixation de type tige - Holzbauwerke - Stiftförmige Verbindungsmittel -

Exigences Anforderungen

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 124.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 14592:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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oSIST prEN 14592:2017
prEN 14592:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 9

5 General requirements for fasteners ...................................................................................................... 10

5.1 Dimensions and areas – Method of measurement, accuracy and assessment ....................... 10

5.2 Corrosion protection................................................................................................................................... 10

5.3 Withdrawal parameter for fasteners with Type 3 coating ............................................................ 12

5.3.1 Testing .............................................................................................................................................................. 13

5.3.2 Correction of the measured withdrawal capacities ......................................................................... 13

5.3.3 Determination of the characteristic withdrawal capacities ......................................................... 13

5.3.4 The load duration effect ............................................................................................................................ 13

5.4 Withdrawal and head pull-through ....................................................................................................... 13

5.5 Seismic performance .................................................................................................................................. 14

5.6 Reaction to fire .............................................................................................................................................. 15

5.7 Dangerous substances ................................................................................................................................ 15

6 Specific requirements for fasteners ...................................................................................................... 15

6.1 Nails ................................................................................................................................................................... 15

6.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 15

6.1.2 Materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 15

6.1.3 Geometry ......................................................................................................................................................... 16

6.1.4 Mechanical strength and stiffness .......................................................................................................... 17

6.1.5 Corrosion protection................................................................................................................................... 18

6.2 Staples .............................................................................................................................................................. 19

6.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 19

6.2.2 Materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 19

6.2.3 Geometry ......................................................................................................................................................... 19

6.2.4 Mechanical strength and stiffness .......................................................................................................... 20

6.2.5 Corrosion protection................................................................................................................................... 21

6.3 Screws............................................................................................................................................................... 21

6.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 21

6.3.2 Materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 21

6.3.3 Geometry ......................................................................................................................................................... 21

6.3.4 Mechanical strength and stiffness .......................................................................................................... 23

6.3.5 Corrosion protection................................................................................................................................... 25

6.4 Dowels .............................................................................................................................................................. 25

6.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 25

6.4.2 Materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 25

6.4.3 Geometry ......................................................................................................................................................... 25

6.4.4 Mechanical strength and stiffness .......................................................................................................... 25

6.4.5 Corrosion protection................................................................................................................................... 26

6.5 Bolts and nuts ................................................................................................................................................ 26

6.5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 26

6.5.2 Materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 26

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6.5.3 Geometry ......................................................................................................................................................... 27

6.5.4 Mechanical strength and stiffness .......................................................................................................... 27

6.5.5 Corrosion protection ................................................................................................................................... 27

7 Assessment and Verification of Constancy of Performance (AVCP) ........................................... 27

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 27

7.2 Determination of product type ................................................................................................................ 28

7.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 28

7.2.2 Sampling, testing and conformity criteria ........................................................................................... 28

7.3 Factory production control (FPC) ........................................................................................................... 35

7.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 35

7.3.2 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................. 36

8 Marking ............................................................................................................................................................ 45

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 45

8.2 Nails ................................................................................................................................................................... 45

8.3 Staples ............................................................................................................................................................... 46

8.4 Screws ............................................................................................................................................................... 46

8.5 Dowels .............................................................................................................................................................. 47

8.6 Bolts and nuts................................................................................................................................................. 47

Annex A (informative) Proving performance equivalence of alternative corrosion protection

and selection of corrosion resistance and accelerated testing .................................................... 48

Annex B (informative) Corrosivity of atmospheric environments indoor and outdoor –

outside the timber and inside the timber ............................................................................................ 50

Annex C (normative) Proposal for measuring zinc thicknesses ................................................................. 53

Annex D (informative) Selection of test specimens – Requirements on wood density ...................... 54

D.1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................. 54

D.2 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 54

D.3 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................. 54

D.4 Corrections to target conditions ............................................................................................................. 55

D.4.1 Mean value ...................................................................................................................................................... 55

D.4.2 Coefficient of variation ............................................................................................................................... 56

D.5 Test report ...................................................................................................................................................... 56

Annex E (normative) Test to determine seismic performance ................................................................... 58

E.1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................. 58

E.2 Test setup ........................................................................................................................................................ 58

E.3 Test procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 59

E.4 Test results ...................................................................................................................................................... 60

E.5 Test report ...................................................................................................................................................... 60

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship of this European Standard with Regulation (EU)

No. 305/2011 ................................................................................................................................................. 62

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 70

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oSIST prEN 14592:2017
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European foreword

This document (prEN 14592:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 124 “Timber

structures”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.
This document is currently submitted to the Enquiry.
This document will supersede EN 14592:2008+A1:2012.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this

document.
This new edition of EN 14592 incorporates the following new technical topics:
— new concepts concerning dimensions and tolerances, e.g. target diameter;
— voluntary classes for withdrawal capacity and head pull-through capacity;
— improved classes for corrosion protection;

— new requirements on wood density for testing of connections with mechanical fasteners;

— voluntary classes for seismic performance and related test method;
— informative annex on the determination of the axial slip modulus for screws.
Other EU Directives/Regulations may also apply to construction products.
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oSIST prEN 14592:2017
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1 Scope

This draft European Standard specifies the requirements for the following types of dowel-type fasteners:

nails, staples, screws, dowels, and bolts with nuts.

Only dowel-type fasteners for structural use in load bearing timber structures, and manufactured from

steel, are covered by this European Standard. In addition, this draft European Standard covers also the

use of screws:

— to fix roof or cladding elements to the timber structure, with or without insulation layers;

and

— as reinforcement inserted in timber or in a glue laminated timber element to improve its resistance

to compression perpendicular to the grain.

This draft European Standard specifies also the assessment and verification of constancy of performance

(AVCP) procedures and includes requirements for marking of these products.

This draft European Standard covers dowel-type fasteners that may be coated for the following purposes:

— corrosion protection;
— lubrication (to facilitate insertion);

— withdrawal enhancement and/or collation for staples (adhesive and/or resin coatings).

This draft European Standard does not cover fasteners treated with fire retardants to improve their fire

performance, nor does it cover glued-in rods.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively references in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 338, Structural timber — Strength classes

EN 409, Timber structures — Test methods — Determination of the yield moment of dowel type fasteners

EN 1382, Timber Structures — Test methods — Withdrawal capacity of timber fasteners

EN 1383:2016, Timber structures — Test methods — Pull through resistance of timber fasteners

EN 1993-1-4:2006 , Eurocode 3 — Design of steel structures — Part 1-4: General rules — Supplementary

rules for stainless steels

EN 1995-1-1, Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures — Part 1-1: General — Common rules and rules for

buildings

EN 10025-2, Hot rolled products of structural steels — Part 2: Technical delivery conditions for non-alloy

structural steels

1) This standard is impacted by the stand-alone amendment EN 1993-1-4:2006/A1:2015.

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EN 10025-3, Hot rolled products of structural steels — Part 3: Technical delivery conditions for

normalized/normalized rolled weldable fine grain structural steels
EN 10088 (all parts), Stainless steels

EN 10149-1, Hot rolled flat products made of high yield strength steels for cold forming — Part 1: General

technical delivery conditions
EN 10204, Metallic products — Types of inspection documents
EN 10218-1, Steel wire and wire products — General — Part 1: Test methods

EN 10277-2, Bright steel products — Technical delivery conditions — Part 2: Steels for general engineering

purposes

EN 13183-1, Moisture content of a piece of sawn timber — Part 1: Determination by oven dry method

EN 14081-1, Timber structures — Strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross section —

Part 1: General requirements

EN 14358, Timber structures — Calculation and verification of characteristic values

EN 15737, Timber Structures — Test methods — Torsional resistance of driving in screws

EN ISO 898-1, Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloy steel — Part 1: Bolts,

screws and studs with specified property classes — Coarse thread and fine pitch thread (ISO 898-1)

EN ISO 898-2, Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloy steel — Part 2: Nuts with

specified property classes — Coarse thread and fine pitch thread (ISO 898-2)

EN ISO 1460, Metallic coatings — Hot dip galvanized coatings on ferrous materials — Gravimetric

determination of the mass per unit area (ISO 1460)

EN ISO 1463, Metallic and oxide coatings — Measurement of coating thickness — Microscopical method

(ISO 1463)

EN ISO 2081:2008, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Electroplated coatings of zinc with

supplementary treatments on iron or steel (ISO 2081:2008)

EN ISO 2178, Non-magnetic coatings on magnetic substrates — Measurement of coating thickness —

Magnetic method (ISO 2178)

EN ISO 3497, Metallic coatings — Measurement of coating thickness — X-ray spectrometric methods

(ISO 3497)

EN ISO 3506-1:2009, Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant stainless steel fasteners — Part 1: Bolts,

screws and studs (ISO 3506-1:2009)

EN ISO 3506-2, Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant stainless steel fasteners — Part 2: Nuts

(ISO 3506-2)
EN ISO 4014, Hexagon head bolts — Product grades A and B (ISO 4014)
EN ISO 4016, Hexagon head bolts — Product grade C (ISO 4016)
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EN ISO 4017, Fasteners — Hexagon head screws — Product grades A and B (ISO 4017)
EN ISO 4018, Hexagon head screws — Product grade C (ISO 4018)
EN ISO 4032, Hexagon regular nuts (style 1) — Product grades A and B (ISO 4032)
EN ISO 4034, Hexagon regular nuts (style 1) — Product grade C (ISO 4034)
EN ISO 4042:1999, Fasteners — Electroplated coatings (ISO 4042:1999)

EN ISO 6892-1, Metallic materials — Tensile testing — Part 1: Method of test at room temperature

(ISO 6892-1)

EN ISO 9223, Corrosion of metals and alloys — Corrosivity of atmospheres — Classification, determination

and estimation (ISO 9223)

EN ISO 9224, Corrosion of metals and alloys — Corrosivity of atmospheres — Guiding values for the

corrosivity categories (ISO 9224)

EN ISO 10666:1999, Drilling screws with tapping screw thread — Mechanical and functional properties

(ISO 10666:1999)

EN ISO 16120 (all parts), Non-alloy steel wire rod for conversion to wire (ISO 16120, all parts)

EN ISO 21968, Non-magnetic metallic coatings on metallic and non-metallic basis materials —

Measurement of coating thickness — Phase-sensitive eddy-current method (ISO 21968)

ISO 3131, Wood — Determination of density for physical and mechanical tests
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 1995-1-1 and the following

apply.
3.1
smooth shank nail

nail that has a constant cross-section along its entire length, e.g. round, square or grooved

3.2
ring shank nail

nail that has a profiled shank along a part of its length, e.g. ringed or twisted; the profiled length l is

defined in Figure 1
3.3
staple crown width
distance between the outer edges of the staple legs
3.4
dowel
cylindrical metal fastener that does not contain an integral head
3.5
bolt
cylindrical metal fastener consisting of a screw part and a nut part
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3.6
withdrawal parameter

parameter measuring the resistance of a timber test piece to the withdrawal of a timber fastener

3.7
head pull-through parameter

parameter measuring the resistance of a timber test piece to the pulling through of the head of a timber

fastener or the crown of a staple
3.8
tensile yield stress
stress at which yielding takes place
3.9
nominal diameter

cross sectional dimension of a fastener for the determination of a load-carrying capacity:

— nails: for smooth shank nails, spiral rolled nails or annular ring shank nails, d is the outer cross-

sectional diameter of the round nail wire, or the side length dimension of the cross-section for a

square nail, for all other profiled nails, d is the cross-sectional diameter of the original wire rod, from

which the profiled nail has been produced;

— staples: d is the diameter of a round rod with the same area as that of the cross-sectional area of the

staple;
— screws: d is the outer thread diameter;
— dowels: d is the diameter;
— bolts: d is the diameter of the smooth shank of the screw part
3.10
target diameter

diameter used to declare the nominal diameter of screws intended for use in load bearing timber

structures

Note 1 to entry: For the purpose of both production requirements and applicability, screws may only be

produced allowing some tolerances. Thus for production purposes these tolerances are measured on the target

diameter, d .
3.11
thread root diameter
inner diameter of the thread of a screw

Note 1 to entry: The inner diameter is used in EN 1995–1-1 to determine the effective diameter for laterally

loaded screws.
3.12
stiffness
force for a unit deformation
3.13
coating type
purpose of a coating:
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— coating type 1: corrosion protection
— coating type 2: lubricant to facilitate insertion

— coating type 3: adhesive coating for improving withdrawal strength and/or for collation of staples

4 Symbols and abbreviations

For the purposes of this standard, the symbols and abbreviations given in EN 1995-1-1 and the following

apply:
A percentage elongation (%)
A nail head area (mm )
A staple leg cross-sectional area (mm )
b staple crown width (mm)
d nominal diameter (mm)
d head diameter (mm)
d diameter of the smooth shank of a screw
d target diameter (mm)
d inner thread diameter; inner diameter of fluting (mm)
f characteristic withdrawal parameter (N/mm )
ax,k
f characteristic head pull-through parameter (N/mm )
head,k
F haracteristic tensile capacity (head pull-off or shank tensile capacity) (kN)
tens,k
M characteristic torsional moment capacity (Nmm)
tor,Rk
f tensile strength of the wire (N/mm )
h nail head thickness (mm)
l overall fastener length (mm)
l length of profiling/threading (mm)
l length of the nail point (mm)
M characteristic yield moment (Nmm)
y,Rk
M mean value for torsional resistance to insertion into timber (Nmm)
tor,Em
α bend angle ( )
α bend angle under cyclic loading ( )

ρ characteristic timber density when conditioned to constant mass at 20 °C and 65 % relative

humidity (kg/m )
ω moisture content
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5 General requirements for fasteners
5.1 Dimensions and areas – Method of measurement, accuracy and assessment

Dimensions shall be taken on the fastener using a calibrated device capable of achieving an accuracy

of ± 1 % of the measurement.

If a dimension or an area has been assigned a tolerance, then the mean measured values of the dimensions

and areas of the fasteners shall be within the range of the declared values ± tolerances. If no tolerance

has been assigned, then the requirement shall be greater than or equal to the declared value.

5.2 Corrosion protection

The materials or coating specifications used to achieve corrosion protection shall be in accordance with

Table 1 or Table 2. The corrosion protection stated in these tables is assumed to secure an intended

lifetime of 50 years.

NOTE 1 Standards for galvanized and electroplated coatings express mass/unit area of coatings with respect to

the surface area, and standards for hot-dip coated sheet express mass/unit area with respect to the area of the sheet,

i.e. the area of a sheet represents half the area of its surface.

The zinc thickness of Table 1 and Table 2 may be reduced if a passivation layer is applied or an alloy is

added. For C2 atmospheres a CrIII passivation reduces the zinc thickness by 25 % and a CrVI passivation

reduces the zinc thickness by 50 %.
NOTE 2 The improvement is lower in C3 and C4 atmospheres.

Measuring methods for the thickness of a zinc coating shall be taken from Annex C.

NOTE 3 Metal fasteners in load-bearing timber connections are generally in contact both direc

...

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