Railway applications - Wheelsets and bogies - Monobloc Wheels - Technical approval procedure - Part 1: Forged and rolled wheels

The aim of this document is to define a design assessment procedure of a forged and rolled monobloc
wheel (RST). This assessment is carried out before the wheel is commissioned. This document describes,
in particular, the assessment to be performed in order to use wheels on a European network which, in
addition, have quality requirements in conformity with those defined in EN 13262.
This assessment requires that the conditions of use for the wheel are defined and this standard provides
a method for defining those conditions.
The assessment of the design covers four aspects:
— a geometrical aspect: to allow interchangeability of different solutions for the same application;
— a thermomechanical aspect: to manage wheel deformations and to ensure that braking will not cause
wheels to fracture;
— a mechanical aspect: to ensure that no fatigue cracks occur in the wheel web and that no permanent
deformation occurs under exceptional loading;
— an acoustic aspect: to ensure that the solution chosen is as good as the reference wheel.
This document does not cover assessment of the hub or of the rim.
This document has been drawn up for wheels of non-powered tread-braked wheelsets and applies in full
to this type of wheel. For wheels on which disc brakes are mounted or toothed transmission wheels or
even wheels with noise reduction devices, the requirements may be amended or supplemented.
For urban railway vehicles, other standards or documents may be used.

Bahnanwendungen - Radsätze und Drehgestelle - Vollräder - Technische Zulassungsverfahren - Teil 1: Geschmiedete und gewalzte Räder

Gegenstand der vorliegenden europäischen Norm ist die Bestimmung einer Methode zur Konstruktions-bewertung eines aus Eisenbahnmaterial gewalzten und geschmiedeten Vollrades für Güter- oder Reisezüge. Diese Bewertung wird vor der Inbetriebnahme vorgenommen. Die vorliegende Norm beschreibt insbesondere die Bewertung, die auszuführen ist, um Räder, deren Qualitätsvorschriften angemessener als die sind, die nach EN 13262 festgelegt sind, auf einem europäischen Radbahnnetz zu nutzen.
Diese Bewertung erfordert die Festlegung der Rad-Nutzungsbedingungen und die vorliegende Norm präzisiert, wie diese Bedingungen festzulegen sind.
Die technische Zulassungsbewertung umfasst vier Gesichtspunkte:
-   geometrisch: um die Austauschbarkeit verschiedener Lösungen für den gleichen Anwendungsbereich zu ermöglichen;
-   thermomechanisch: um die Verformungen des Rades zu beherrschen und sicherzustellen, dass Bremsungen nicht zum Radbruch führen;
-   mechanisch: um sicherzustellen, dass kein Dauerschwingriss im Radsteg auftritt;
-   akustisch: um sicherzustellen, dass die Lösung so gut wie ein Referenzrad für den betrachteten Anwendungsbereich ist.
Diese Norm behandelt weder die Bewertung der Nabe, noch die Bewertung des Kranzes.
Für Räder von Treibradsätzen oder für Räder mit Schallabsorbern können die Anforderungen geändert bzw. vervollständigt werden.
Für Nahverkehrsfahrzeuge und Straßenbahnen können andere Normen oder Dokumente angewendet werden.

Applications ferroviaires - Essieux montés et bogies - Roues monobloc - Procédure d'homologation technique - Partie 1 : Roues forgées et laminées

La présente Norme européenne a pour objet de définir une méthode d’évaluation de la conception d’une roue monobloc laminée forgée de matériel ferroviaire fret ou voyageur. Cette évaluation est effectuée avant sa mise en service. La présente norme décrit en particulier l’évaluation à effectuer afin de pouvoir utiliser sur un réseau européen des roues dont les prescriptions de qualité sont de plus conformes à celles définies par l’EN 13262.
Cette évaluation nécessite de définir les conditions d’utilisation de la roue et la présente norme précise comment définir ces conditions.
L’évaluation de la conception comporte quatre aspects :
-   un aspect géométrique : permettre l’interchangeabilité de différentes solutions pour une même application ;
-   un aspect thermomécanique : maîtriser les déformations et garantir la non-rupture sous l’effet des freinages ;
-   un aspect mécanique : garantir la non-fissuration par fatigue des toiles de roue et l’absence de déformations permanentes sous chargement exceptionnel ;
-   un aspect acoustique : assurer que, pour l’exploitation considérée, la solution choisie est aussi bonne que la roue prise comme référence.
La présente norme ne traite pas de l’évaluation du moyeu ni de la jante.
Pour les roues des essieux-axes moteurs ou pour les roues qui comportent des absorbeurs acoustiques, les prescriptions peuvent être modifiées ou complétées.
Pour les véhicules légers et les tramways, d’autres normes ou documents peuvent être utilisés.

Železniške naprave - Kolesne dvojice in podstavni vozički - Monoblok kolesa - Postopek za tehnično odobritev - 1. del: Kovana in valjana kolesa

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Apr-2017
Publication Date
20-Sep-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
30-Jul-2020
Due Date
04-Oct-2020
Completion Date
21-Sep-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 13979-1:2020
01-november-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 13979-1:2004+A2:2011
Železniške naprave - Kolesne dvojice in podstavni vozički - Monoblok kolesa -
Postopek za tehnično odobritev - 1. del: Kovana in valjana kolesa

Railway applications - Wheelsets and bogies - Monobloc Wheels - Technical approval

procedure - Part 1: Forged and rolled wheels
Bahnanwendungen - Radsätze und Drehgestelle - Vollräder - Technische
Zulassungsverfahren - Teil 1: Geschmiedete und gewalzte Räder

Applications ferroviaires - Essieux montés et bogies - Roues monobloc - Procédure

d'homologation technique - Partie 1 : Roues forgées et laminées
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 13979-1:2020
ICS:
45.040 Materiali in deli za železniško Materials and components
tehniko for railway engineering
SIST EN 13979-1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 13979-1:2020
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SIST EN 13979-1:2020
EN 13979-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
July 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 45.040 Supersedes EN 13979-1:2003+A2:2011
English Version
Railway applications - Wheelsets and bogies - Monobloc
Wheels - Technical approval procedure - Part 1: Forged
and rolled wheels

Applications ferroviaires - Essieux montés et bogies - Bahnanwendungen - Radsätze und Drehgestelle -

Roues monobloc - Procédure d'homologation Vollräder - Technische Zulassungsverfahren - Teil 1:

technique - Partie 1 : Roues forgées et laminées Geschmiedete und gewalzte Räder
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 April 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 13979-1:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 13979-1:2020
EN 13979-1:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 5

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Parameters for the definition of the application covered ................................................................ 8

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.2 Geometric parameters for interchangeability ..................................................................................... 8

4.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.2.2 Functional requirements .............................................................................................................................. 8

4.2.3 Assembly requirements ................................................................................................................................ 9

4.2.4 Maintenance requirements ......................................................................................................................... 9

4.3 Parameters for thermomechanical assessment of tread-braked wheels ................................... 9

4.3.1 Drag braking or consecutive stop braking ............................................................................................. 9

4.3.2 Accidental drag braking incident ........................................................................................................... 10

4.4 Mechanical assessment parameters ..................................................................................................... 10

4.5 Acoustic assessment parameters ........................................................................................................... 11

5 Description of the wheel, the design of which shall be assessed ................................................ 11

6 Assessment of geometric interchangeability ..................................................................................... 11

7 Assessment of thermomechanical behaviour .................................................................................... 11

7.1 General procedure ....................................................................................................................................... 11

7.2 First stage – Braking bench test .............................................................................................................. 12

7.2.1 Test procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 12

7.2.2 Decision criteria ........................................................................................................................................... 12

7.3 Second stage – Wheel fracture bench test ........................................................................................... 13

7.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13

7.3.2 Test procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 13

7.3.3 Decision criterion ........................................................................................................................................ 13

7.4 Third stage – Field braking test .............................................................................................................. 13

7.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13

7.4.2 Test procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 13

7.4.3 Decision criteria ........................................................................................................................................... 13

8 Assessment of mechanical behaviour ................................................................................................... 14

8.1 General procedure ....................................................................................................................................... 14

8.2 First stage – Calculation ............................................................................................................................. 14

8.2.1 Applied forces ................................................................................................................................................ 14

8.2.2 Calculation procedure ................................................................................................................................ 16

8.2.3 Decision criteria ........................................................................................................................................... 16

8.3 Second stage – Bench test .......................................................................................................................... 17

8.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

8.3.2 Definition of bench loading and the test procedure ........................................................................ 17

8.3.3 Decision criteria ........................................................................................................................................... 17

9 Assessment of acoustic behaviour ......................................................................................................... 17

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SIST EN 13979-1:2020
EN 13979-1:2020 (E)

10 Technical approval documents ............................................................................................................... 17

Annexe A (informative) Drag braking values .................................................................................................... 18

A.1 Freight wagons .............................................................................................................................................. 18

A.2 Other types of rolling stock and specific freight wagons ............................................................... 18

Annexe B (normative) Assessment of thermomechanical behaviour ...................................................... 19

B.1 Assessment flow chart ................................................................................................................................ 19

B.2 Braking bench test procedure ................................................................................................................. 20

B.2.1 Test principle ................................................................................................................................................. 20

B.2.2 Definition of drag braking ......................................................................................................................... 20

B.2.3 Method for measuring decision criteria ............................................................................................... 20

B.2.4 Tests and measurements ........................................................................................................................... 21

B.2.5 Anomalies ........................................................................................................................................................ 22

B.3 Wheel fracture bench testing procedure ............................................................................................. 22

B.3.1 Test principle ................................................................................................................................................. 22

B.3.2 Creation of residual stresses in the rim of the wheel ...................................................................... 22

B.3.3 Pre-cracked rim ............................................................................................................................................ 22

B.3.4 Definition of drag braking test ................................................................................................................. 24

B.3.5 Parameters for the wheel fracture bench test ................................................................................... 24

B.3.6 Tests and measurements ........................................................................................................................... 25

B.3.7 Anomalies ........................................................................................................................................................ 26

B.4 Field braking test procedure .................................................................................................................... 26

B.4.1 Test principle ................................................................................................................................................. 26

B.4.2 Definition of braking ................................................................................................................................... 26

B.4.3 Method for measuring decision criteria ............................................................................................... 27

B.4.4 Route type for testing .................................................................................................................................. 27

B.4.5 Tests and measurements ........................................................................................................................... 28

B.4.6 Anomalies ........................................................................................................................................................ 29

Annexe C (normative) Wheel profile diameter definition ............................................................................ 30

C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 30

C.2 Diameter after last reprofiling ................................................................................................................ 30

C.3 Worn diameter .............................................................................................................................................. 31

Annexe D (normative) Assessment of mechanical behaviour ..................................................................... 32

D.1 Assessment flow chart ................................................................................................................................ 32

D.2 Calculation procedure in the case of exceptional load.................................................................... 33

D.2.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................... 33

D.2.2 Load ................................................................................................................................................................... 33

D.3 Calculation procedure for cases of fatigue load ................................................................................ 33

D.3.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................... 33

D.3.2 Load ................................................................................................................................................................... 33

D.3.3 Method of calculation .................................................................................................................................. 33

Annexe E (informative) Fatigue loading for narrow gauge tracks (metric or close to a metre) ..... 35

Annexe F (informative) Fatigue loading for tilting trains ............................................................................. 36

Annexe G (normative) Mechanical behaviour – Finite element calculation assessment .................. 37

Annexe H (informative) Mechanical behaviour – Bench loading and test procedure ........................ 38

H.1 Principle of bench loading and test procedure .................................................................................. 38

H.2 Definition of loads ........................................................................................................................................ 38

H.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 38

H.2.2 Measurement of stresses during field tests ........................................................................................ 38

H.3 Fatigue bench test ......................................................................................................................................... 39

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SIST EN 13979-1:2020
EN 13979-1:2020 (E)

H.3.1 Method 1 – Random fatigue test ............................................................................................................. 39

H.3.2 Method 2 – Single-stage fatigue test ...................................................................................................... 40

H.3.3 Examples of benches ................................................................................................................................... 41

Annexe I (informative) Assessment of acoustic behaviour ......................................................................... 42

I.1 General procedure ....................................................................................................................................... 42

I.2 Assessment procedure ............................................................................................................................... 42

I.3 Assessment criteria ..................................................................................................................................... 43

I.4 Decision criterion ........................................................................................................................................ 43

I.5 Assessment flow chart ................................................................................................................................ 44

I.5.1 Preliminary comment................................................................................................................................. 44

I.5.2 Calculating the wheel modal basis ......................................................................................................... 45

I.5.3 Defining the reference speeds ................................................................................................................. 45

I.5.4 Defining the reference combined wheel-rail roughness ............................................................... 45

I.5.5 Defining the reference track model ....................................................................................................... 46

I.5.6 Defining the calculation parameters ..................................................................................................... 47

I.5.7 Calculating sound power ........................................................................................................................... 48

I.5.8 Factoring the weighted spectrum into sound power ...................................................................... 48

I.5.9 Calculating the acceptance criterion ..................................................................................................... 49

I.5.10 Optional calculations .................................................................................................................................. 49

I.6 Field measurement procedure ................................................................................................................ 50

I.6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 50

I.6.2 Environmental conditions ........................................................................................................................ 50

I.6.3 Conditions for the track ............................................................................................................................. 50

I.6.4 Conditions for the train .............................................................................................................................. 50

I.6.5 Positioning the measurement points .................................................................................................... 51

I.6.6 Measurement quantities............................................................................................................................ 52

I.6.7 Test procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 52

I.6.8 Data processing ............................................................................................................................................. 53

Annexe J (informative) Ultrasonic method for determining residual stresses in the rim

(non-destructive method) ......................................................................................................................... 55

J.1 Procedure........................................................................................................................................................ 55

J.2 Measurement uncertainty ........................................................................................................................ 55

J.3 Calibrations .................................................................................................................................................... 56

J.4 Verifying measurement parameters ..................................................................................................... 56

Annexe ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the relevant

essential requirements of EU Directive 2008/57/EC which it aims to cover ......................... 57

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 61

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SIST EN 13979-1:2020
EN 13979-1:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 13979-1:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 “Railway

applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, by January 2021 at the latest, and all conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn no later than January 2021.

Attention is drawn to the fact that some elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights or

similar rights. CEN and/or CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying all or some of these

patent rights.
This document replaces EN 13979-1:2003+A2:2011.

This document has been prepared in the context of a standardization request given to CEN by the

European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of

EU Directive 2008/57/EC.

For the relationship with Directive 2008/57/EC, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of

this document.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are required to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, the Former Yugoslav Republic of

Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg,

Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Republic of Serbia, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,

Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 13979-1:2020
EN 13979-1:2020 (E)
Introduction

An assessment of the two following aspects is carried out before a wheel is commissioned:

— assessment of the design as described in this standard;
— assessment of the quality of the product (EN 13262).
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SIST EN 13979-1:2020
EN 13979-1:2020 (E)
1 Scope

The aim of this document is to define a design assessment procedure of a forged and rolled monobloc

wheel (RST). This assessment is carried out before the wheel is commissioned. This document describes,

in particular, the assessment to be performed in order to use wheels on a European network which, in

addition, have quality requirements in conformity with those defined in EN 13262.

This assessment requires that the conditions of use for the wheel are defined and this standard provides

a method for defining those conditions.
The assessment of the design covers four aspects:

— a geometrical aspect: to allow interchangeability of different solutions for the same application;

— a thermomechanical aspect: to manage wheel deformations and to ensure that braking will not cause

wheels to fracture;

— a mechanical aspect: to ensure that no fatigue cracks occur in the wheel web and that no permanent

deformation occurs under exceptional loading;

— an acoustic aspect: to ensure that the solution chosen is as good as the reference wheel.

This document does not cover assessment of the hub or of the rim.

This document has been drawn up for wheels of non-powered tread-braked wheelsets and applies in full

to this type of wheel. For wheels on which disc brakes are mounted or toothed transmission wheels or

even wheels with noise reduction devices, the requirements may be amended or supplemented.

For urban railway vehicles, other standards or documents may be used.
2 Normative references

The following documents referred to in the text constitute, for all or part of their content, requirements

of this document. For dated references, only the cited edition applies. For undated references, the last

edition of the reference document applies (including any amendments).

EN 13103-1, Railway applications — Wheelsets and bogies — Part 1: Design method for axles with external

journals

EN 13262:2004+A2:2011, Railway applications – Wheelsets and bogies – Wheels – Product requirements

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: http://www.iso.org/obp
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SIST EN 13979-1:2020
EN 13979-1:2020 (E)
3.1
technical specification

document describing specific parameters and/or design assessment procedure requirements as an

addition to the requirements of this standard
3.2
diameter after last reprofiling

nominal value defined by a 5 x 5 mm nominal chamfer and the slope of the new tread profile

Note 1 to clause: Adapted values can be defined, for example, in the maintenance plan or in the technical

specification. See Figure C.1.
3.3
worn diameter

theoretical minimum diameter in service, and cylindrical profile from the outer side of the rim to D and

then original new profile to the inner side of the rim
Note 1 to clause: See Figure C.1.
4 Parameters for the definition of the application covered
4.1 General

The application for which a wheel is to be assessed shall be defined by the parameters set out below.

If the application parameters are changed for an assessed wheel, the assessment shall be reviewed.

4.2 Geometric parameters for interchangeability
4.2.1 General

The application shall be defined by geometric parameters for interchangeability, which can be split into

three categories according to whether they are related to functional requirements, assembly

requirements or maintenance requirements.

NOTE For rolling stock wheels that have to conform to the Directive, some of the geometrical parameters are

given in the TSIs concerned.
4.2.2 Functional requirements

— the nominal tread diameter that influences the buffer height and the loading gauge;

— the maximum rim width linked to the switches and crossings and the track brakes;

— the tread profile outside the conical part of the tread;

— the position of the inner side of the rim relative to the corresponding side of the hub;

— the conicity of the hub bore;
— the space required for disc brakes mounted on the wheel;
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SIST EN 13979-1:2020
EN 13979-1:2020 (E)

— the space required on the bogie frame, braking equipment and suspension equipment.

4.2.3 Assembly requirements
— the bore diameter;
— the hub length to ensure the hub overhangs on the wheelseat.
4.2.4 Maintenance requiremen
...

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