Railway applications - Fire protection on railway vehicles - Assessment of fire containment and control systems for railway vehicles

This document specifies the assessment of Fire Containment and Control Systems (FCCS) and associated fire detection systems for railway vehicles as an alternative to the fire barriers specified in EN 45545-3.
This document describes:
- assessment of installation and capability of fire detection system;
- assessment of interaction between fire detection system and FCCS;
- application and limitations of assessment process (mock-up or real scale test).
This document considers any additional assessment requirements when vehicle designs which have already been assessed as acceptable to this document are modified, or when new design variants, which have an impact on FCCS, are made which are based on an existing design.
This document is applicable to any railway vehicle, where fire detection systems and/or Fire Control and Containment Systems are used.
This document defines performance requirements and verification and validation requirements for systems whose objective is to detect and control or contain the effect of fire in order to create a protected area within the railway vehicle until passengers and staff can be evacuated from the railway vehicle. It is additionally assumed that the new railway vehicles comply with EN 45545-2 (material properties) and EN 45545-4 (design rules) in order to achieve the safety requirements defined in EN 45545.

Bahnanwendungen - Brandschutz in Schienenfahrzeugen - Bewertung von Systemen zur Eindämmung und Bekämpfung von Bränden für Eisenbahnfahrzeuge

Applications ferroviaires - Protection contre les incendies dans les véhicules ferroviaires - Evaluation des systèmes de lutte et de contrôle des incendies pour les véhicules ferroviaires

Le présent document spécifie l'évaluation des systèmes de lutte et de contrôle des incendies (FCCS) et les systèmes de détection incendie associés destinés à être utilisés à bord des véhicules ferroviaires à la place des barrières au feu spécifiées dans l'EN 45545 3.
Le présent document décrit notamment :
- l'évaluation de l'installation et de l'aptitude des systèmes de détection incendie ;
- l'évaluation de l'interaction entre les systèmes de détection incendie et les systèmes FCCS ;
- l'application et les limites du processus d'évaluation (essai sur maquette ou à échelle réelle).
En outre, le présent document étudie les exigences d'évaluation supplémentaires en cas de modification de conceptions de véhicules ayant déjà été évaluées comme acceptables au regard du présent document ou en cas d'introduction de nouvelles variantes de conception reposant sur une conception existante qui ont un impact sur les systèmes FCCS.
Le présent document s'applique à tout véhicule ferroviaire équipé de systèmes de détection incendie et/ou de systèmes de lutte et de contrôle des incendies (FCCS).
Le présent document définit les exigences de performance, ainsi que les exigences de vérification et de validation relatives aux systèmes destinés à détecter et à contrôler l'incendie ou à lutter contre les effets d'un incendie, dans le but de créer une zone protégée à l'intérieur du véhicule ferroviaire jusqu'à ce que les passagers et le personnel de bord puissent être évacués du véhicule. Il est en outre admis que les nouveaux véhicules ferroviaires sont conformes à l'EN 45545 2 (propriétés des matériaux) et à l'EN 45545 4 (règles de conception) afin de respecter les exigences de sécurité de la série EN 45545.

Železniške naprave - Požarna zaščita v železniških vozilih - Ocena sistemov za obvladovanje in gašenje požara za železniška vozila

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
02-Sep-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
24-Aug-2020
Due Date
29-Oct-2020
Completion Date
03-Sep-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17532:2020
01-november-2020
Železniške naprave - Požarna zaščita v železniških vozilih - Ocena sistemov za
obvladovanje in gašenje požara za železniška vozila
Railway applications - Fire protection on railway vehicles - Assessment of fire
containment and control systems for railway vehicles
Bahnanwendungen - Brandschutz in Schienenfahrzeugen - Bewertung von Systemen
zur Eindämmung und Bekämpfung von Bränden für Eisenbahnfahrzeuge

Applications ferroviaires - Protection contre les incendies dans les véhicules ferroviaires

- Evaluation des systèmes de lutte et de contrôle des incendies pour les véhicules

ferroviaires
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17532:2020
ICS:
13.220.20 Požarna zaščita Fire protection
45.060.01 Železniška vozila na splošno Railway rolling stock in
general
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17532:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17532:2020
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17532:2020
CEN/TR 17532
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
August 2020
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 13.220.20; 45.060.01
English Version
Railway applications - Fire protection on railway vehicles -
Assessment of fire containment and control systems for
railway vehicles

Applications ferroviaires - Protection contre les Bahnanwendungen - Brandschutz in

incendies dans les véhicules ferroviaires - Evaluation Schienenfahrzeugen - Bewertung von Systemen zur

des systèmes de lutte et de contrôle des incendies pour Eindämmung und Bekämpfung von Bränden für

les véhicules ferroviaires Eisenbahnfahrzeuge

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 3 August 2020. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 256.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 17532:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 4

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Fire detection .................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.1 Fire detection in passenger areas ............................................................................................................. 6

4.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.1.2 Vehicle parameters ........................................................................................................................................ 6

4.1.3 Fire detection system parameters ............................................................................................................ 7

4.1.4 Test equipment parameters ........................................................................................................................ 7

4.1.5 Test Details ..................................................................................................................................................... 11

4.1.6 Pass – fail criteria in passenger/staff areas ........................................................................................ 12

4.2 Fire detection in technical area .............................................................................................................. 12

5 FCCS ................................................................................................................................................................... 12

5.1 Assessment process ..................................................................................................................................... 12

5.1.1 Vehicles parameters ................................................................................................................................... 12

5.1.2 Test equipment parameter ....................................................................................................................... 13

5.1.3 Calibration ...................................................................................................................................................... 14

5.1.4 Threshold values (Tenability criteria) ................................................................................................. 14

5.1.5 Location in which the tests are carried out ........................................................................................ 15

5.1.6 Test Procedures ............................................................................................................................................ 15

5.2 Application and limitations of assessment process......................................................................... 15

6 Reassessment in case of renewal or modification ........................................................................... 16

7 Functional requirements........................................................................................................................... 16

Annex A (informative) Test of the FCCS systems ........................................................................................... 17

A.1 Test Procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 17

A.2 Test Results .................................................................................................................................................... 17

A.3 Test Report ..................................................................................................................................................... 17

Annex B (informative) Information to ERA to close the open point ....................................................... 18

B.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 18

B.2 Proposal of diagrams .................................................................................................................................. 19

Annex C (informative) Required research ....................................................................................................... 21

Annex D (informative) Framework to close the unresolved issue in the TSI LOC&PAS .................. 22

D.1 Position of the Swiss NSB ........................................................................................................................... 22

D.2 Position of the French NSB ........................................................................................................................ 22

D.3 Position of the UK NSB ................................................................................................................................ 23

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 24

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 17532:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 “Railway

applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been developed in addition to EN 45545 series and EN 50553 to define an assessment

method for Fire Containment and Control Systems (FCCS) that may be installed in rolling stock as an

alternative to full cross-section partitions. The EN 45545-3 requirements are that full cross-section

partitions are required at a maximum separation of 30 metres within a train and each barrier is required

to achieve 15 minutes minimum Fire Resistance – Integrity and Insulation performance. This document

describes an alternative protection system - FCCS - that also protects passengers and staff from the effects

of fire until the train has been evacuated.

It is expected that the FCCS will be activated shortly after a fire that has ignited in a train has been

detected. At the same time, passengers and staff in the affected area may move to a non-affected area of

the train.

This document also defines requirements for the fire detection systems that activate FCCS systems on

board trains.

This document gives the last version of WI947 and comments of NSBs where the compromise is not

finalised.
This document provides information to ERA to close the open point.

This document contains information on research to be done to improve the state of the art. The cost of

the research should be also evaluated.

This document proposes the next steps with the goal of creating a standard that resolves the issues at

hand. This document does not give a cost-benefit-analysis, because such an analysis is not the task of

CEN/TC 256/WG 01 experts.
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1 Scope

This document specifies the assessment of Fire Containment and Control Systems (FCCS) and associated

fire detection systems for railway vehicles as an alternative to the fire barriers specified in EN 45545-3.

This document describes:
— assessment of the installation and capability of fire detection systems;
— assessment of the interaction between fire detection systems and FCCS;

— application and limitations of the assessment process (mock-up or real scale test).

This document considers any additional assessment requirements when vehicle designs that have

already been assessed as acceptable to this document are modified, or when new design variants, which

have an impact on FCCS, are made which are based on an existing design.

This document is applicable to any railway vehicle where fire detection systems and/or Fire Control and

Containment Systems are used.

This document defines performance requirements and verification and validation requirements for

systems whose objective is to detect and control or contain the effect of fire in order to create a protected

area within the railway vehicle until the railway vehicle can be cleared of passengers and staff by way of

evacuation. It is additionally assumed that the new railway vehicles comply with EN 45545-2 (material

properties) and EN 45545-4 (design rules) in order to achieve the safety requirements defined in the

EN 45545 series.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 45545-1, Railway applications - Fire protection on railway vehicles - Part 1: General

EN 45545-2, Railway applications - Fire protection on railway vehicles - Part 2: Requirements for fire

behaviour of materials and components

EN 45545-3, Railway applications - Fire protection on railway vehicles - Part 3: Fire resistance requirements

for fire barriers

EN 45545-4, Railway applications - Fire protection on railway vehicles - Part 4: Fire safety requirements for

rolling stock design

EN 45545-6, Railway applications - Fire protection on railway vehicles - Part 6: Fire control and

management systems
EN 50155, Railway applications – Rolling stock – Electronic equipment

EN 50553, Railway applications - Requirements for running capability in case of fire on board of rolling

stock
EN ISO 13943, Fire safety - Vocabulary (ISO 13943)

ISO 8421-1, Fire protection - Vocabulary - Part 1: General terms and phenomena of fire

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3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 45545-1, EN ISO 13943,

ISO 8421-1, relevant Technical Specification for Interoperability (TSI) documents and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
fire containment

action of keeping the effects of fire in terms of heat, smoke and toxic gases within prescribed limits based

on avoiding critical thresholds for temperature rise, smoke and toxic gas flow
3.2
fire control
reduction of the effects of a fire to defined levels

Note 1 to entry: It is intended to have no significant risk of serious injury or threat to life.

3.3
detection time

time interval between ignition of a fire and its detection by an automatic or manual system

3.4
affected area

area where the fire should be contained and controlled by FCCS in the context of a fire incident

3.5
non-affected area

area outside the affected area on board of the rolling stock where passengers and staff are protected by

FCCS in the context of a fire incident
Note 1 to entry: This is also called protected area.
3.6
artificial smoke
artificial particulate matter to simulate smoke
3.7
basic module

part of the coach with one or several FCCS devices expected to contain and to control the fire source in

its area
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4 Fire detection
4.1 Fire detection in passenger areas
4.1.1 General

The fire detection system should be assessed based on vehicle parameters as defined in 4.1.2 and the fire

detection system parameters defined in 4.1.3.

Fire detection systems should be tested with the equipment described in 4.1.4 at the test location defined

in 4.1.4.2. The pass-fail criteria are in 4.1.6. The test is based on the time it takes for the system to detect

smoke emission from a standard smoke generator that produces smoke at a fixed rate.

This subclause defines the verification requirements that are based on the detection system complying

with the following parameters:
— power and type of fire source for verification;
— detection time (refer to 3.3);
— adequate location of detectors.

The application of this subclause for the proof of specified functions serves the final proof of the detector

position and detector selection in terms of confirming compliance with the time limit for fire detection.

This verification can be carried out by test in a mock-up or in a real vehicle, or by simulations if input data

were validated by real test in a mock-up or in a real vehicle.

NOTE 1 This subclause is suitable only for validation of detection systems which use smoke detectors to

determine the presence of a fire.

NOTE 2 Validation of alternative fire detection technologies (such as cameras or thermal detection) is not yet

described in this document.
4.1.2 Vehicle parameters

Where the train being assessed is a new design, the vehicle or vehicle sub-element to be tested should be

fully defined prior to testing and documented in detail in the test report including the following details:

— definition and description of the individual rail vehicle or non-separable train set being tested, with

regard to operational use and the related environmental conditions (e.g. tunnel operation) and the

definition and location of any specific test objects;

— control and regulation concept for the air treatment units (for ventilation, heating, cooling) in the rail

vehicle or the train set and air routing concept (layout of air ducts and air inlet and air outlet

situations, dynamic or static exhaust air routes);

— information on door and window openings and their possible handling (e.g. open in normal service

or open only if ventilation equipment fails);

— information on ventilation concepts of control cabinets and machine rooms (e.g. static or dynamic

ventilation).

This situation should also be considered in terms of preconditions for system specification tests, e.g. at

older types of rolling stock.

As part of vehicle evaluation, the location of the smoke source during the test should use the demanding

case which is the situation which assumedly will create the longest detection time under normal

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operating conditions. The justification for the demanding case should be fully explained in the technical

documentation of the FCCS.

The demanding case should be defined, based on the individual vehicle layout and location of the fire

detectors.

The validation tests of the fire detection sub-system should take place with the vehicle in standstill

condition under operating conditions.
4.1.3 Fire detection system parameters

The fire detection system should be in accordance with EN 50155. Fire detection devices should be

functionally suitable for the expected fire products.

For planning and performing the tests, the following information relating to the fire detector(s)

connected within the system should be recorded and included in the test report:

— description of the fire detection system concerning the fire detectors' function within the system;

— description of the fire detector types and their positions (including variations, if available) in the

vehicle or the monitored area;

— possible requirements deviating from standards should regarded (e.g. corresponding conditions

concerning operating and storage temperature).
4.1.4 Test equipment parameters
4.1.4.1 Fire source for test
4.1.4.1.1 General

For the test, one of the following smoke generator sources should be selected. Details of the smoke

generator source specification should be included in the test report:
— liquid tray;
— smoke generator;
— or equivalent source.

Definition of a repeatable and reliable fire source is the main topic. For choosing an equivalent source, it

should be clearly defined with quantitative requirements.

NOTE There is no consensus on the suitability of liquid tray/ TF4 cushion (open fire) for testing in a new

vehicle. There is no consensus on the possibility to test temperature detectors with the smoke generator. Infrared

detection has not yet been proven conclusively and needs more investigation.
4.1.4.1.2 Test with liquid tray

A fire source equivalent to Ignition Model 1/Fire type A according to EN 45545-1/EN 50553 is placed

underneath a tray of liquid.
EN 45545-1 Ignition model 1is defined as follows:
— flaming source of 3 minutes duration;
— average power output (7 ± 1) kW;
2 2
— 25 kW/m – 30 kW/m flux generation.
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The liquid tray is made from galvanized or stainless steel with jointed sealed edges covered with a 10 mm

thick calcium silicate, a square trunk section and the following exterior dimensions (see Figure 1a)):

— bottom base: (160 ± 2) mm × (160 ± 2) mm;
— top base: (160 ± 2) mm × (160 ± 2) mm;
— height: (50 ± 2) mm;
— thickness of tray: (3,0 ± 0,1) mm.
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Dimensions in millimetres
a) — Top view of the tray with dimensions in millimetres
b) — Metalwork and the calcium silicate

Figure 1b) shows the relative position of the metalwork and the calcium silicate.

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Key
1a Calcium silicate 3b Open-ended steel tube
2a Open-ended steel tube A Cut A-A
1b Calcium silicate
2b Metalwork
Figure 1 — Liquid tray

The tray should be positioned at a height of 20 mm ± 10 mm from the floor; 1 hole is obtained in the

centre of the tray with the insertion of an open ended steel tube (height: (30 ± 2) mm – external diameter

(16,0 ± 0,1) mm) to permit air circulation around, beneath and in the centre of the tray (see Figure 2).

Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 Calcium silicate
2 Metalwork
3 Space height
4 Open-ended steel tube
Figure 2 — Front view of the tray with dimensions in millimetres (Cut A-A)
The smoke producing liquid should be prepared as follows:
1) fill the tray with 70 ml of water;
2) add 80 ml of toluene (99,8 % purity);
3) add 20 ml of methanol (99,9 % purity).

For a future standard, toluene should be replaced by heptane because of health issues.

This liquid tray should be ignited within 2 min after preparation.
4.1.4.1.3 Test with smoke generator

The artificial smoke should be generated according to generally recognized codes of practice.

NOTE 1 Currently, ARGE guideline and UNI 11565 are the two known “Generally recognised codes of practice”.

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NOTE 2 The test method for this subclause is not yet described in this document.
4.1.4.1.4 Equivalent source

The use of an equivalent source should be validated and compared with sources mentioned in 4.1.4.1.2

and 4.1.4.1.3 by engineering assessment.
NOTE More research is needed to define a reproducible equivalent source.
4.1.4.2 Test locations of the fire source
4.1.4.2.1 In passenger and staff areas

The test should be carried out on a vehicle representative of the finished complete vehicle (ventilation,

geometry, interiors, location of detectors as expected in the finished vehicle), with the ventilation system

operational (normal mode).

The positioning of the test equipment and the realization of the test fire source should be focused at areas

which cover:
a) the demanding case;
b) and other locations of fire detectors as defined in EN 45545-6.
4.1.4.3 Calibration
4.1.4.3.1 Test with liquid tray
No calibration is needed.

NOTE Data from round robin testing demonstrates that repeatability and reliability of the liquid tray is

sufficient.
4.1.4.3.2 Test with smoke generator

Calibration for the artificial smoke should be realized according to generally recognized codes of practice.

NOTE 1 Currently, ARGE guideline and UNI 11565 are the two known “Generally recognised codes of practice”.

NOTE 2 The calibration method for this chapter is not yet described in this document.

4.1.4.3.3 Equivalent source

The calibration of an equivalent source should be validated and compared with sources mentioned in

4.1.4.3.1 and 4.1.4.3.2 by engineering assessment.
NOTE More research is needed to define a reproducible equivalent source.
4.1.5 Test Details

The detection system should be activated on the test vehicle or system, and the smoke source should be

activated.

The time from activation of the smoke source until the detection system is activated (i.e. reports a fire)

should be monitored and should be recorded.

The vehicle should be ventilated to eliminate any residual smoke inside the vehicle.

The test report should include all test results, consisting of detection times as well as any related test

observations.
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4.1.6 Pass – fail criteria in passenger/staff areas

If the detection time is less than 1 min, no further requirements apply and/or no further evidence is

necessary.

If the detection time is between 1 min and 2 min, CFD-simulation, evacuation / egress studies, risk

analysis and/or comparable studies should be used as an additional safety analysis to demonstrate that

the reported detection time gives a sufficient level of safety for passengers and train staff.

NOTE 1 There has been no agreement within WG 01 on 1 or 2 minutes of detection time.

NOTE 2 Some experts want to incorporate a more precise statement on how to demonstrate that the detection

times do not impede the level of safety.

Regardless of the result of any safety analysis, the detection time is not permitted to exceed 2 minutes.

NOTE 3 The detection time of this subclause is related to the smoke quantity of a smoke generator according to

generally recognized codes of practice.

NOTE 4 The pass-fail criteria are also valid for liquid tray and equivalent sources if the smoke quantity is equal

to that of a smoke generator according to generally recognized codes of practice.

NOTE 5 In case the smoke sources of generally recognized codes of practice are changed, the pass – fail criteria

will also be adapted.

NOTE 6 Currently, ARGE guideline and UNI 11565 are the two known “Generally recognised codes of practice”.

4.2 Fire detection in technical area
Reserved.

NOTE This is not in the priority of the working group because it is not in the scope of the RFS 045.

5 FCCS
5.1 Assessment process
5.1.1 Vehicles parameters
An example of a basic FCCS module is shown in Figure 3.

The test should be performed on a mock-up reproducing the vehicle volume and geometry. This test will

validate the FCCS for wide ranges of rolling stock designs, by testing the basic FCCS module.

The basic module is the part of the coach with one or several FCCS devices expected to contain and control

the fire source in its area. Depending on the vehicle design, there can be one or several basic modules.

The mock-up should represent, as a minimum, the basic FCCS module. The boundary of the basic module

should represent the limit beyond which the acceptability criteria are expected to be met. The minimum

size of the module and the number of FCCS devices depend on the train layout and the FCCS system used.

The maximum length of the basic module should be no more than 30 metres.

The basic module should be designed to assess the FCCS in all types of design of vehicles (double deck or

single deck).

The fire source should be located in the basic module in the identified “worst case position” with a

minimum distance between the perimeter of the FCCS module and the fire source of at least 500 mm.

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Key
1 Fire source A FCCS basic module A
2 Fire detector B FCCS basic module B
3 mock-up reproducing the vehicle volume and C FCCS basic module C
geometry
Figure 3 — Example of a basic FCCS module
Test conditions should consider:
— ambient temperature;

— air movements caused by fixed and temporary openings to the outside of the train (windows, doors,

transit doors);

— it should not be allowed to create additional full cross-section partitions for testing, which can

influence the FCCS performance (e.g. extinguishing agent concentration, airflow).

5.1.2 Test equipment parameter
5.1.2.1 Ignition model passenger/staff area
5.1.2.1.1 General

The ignition models are derived from predefined fire sources. The parameters that should be assessed

depend on the system used.

Type 2 fire should be “transferred” to reproducible test fires for the test, and research should be done to

define this repeatable and reliable test fire source.
5.1.2.1.2 Ignition model
The ignition model should conform to generally recognized codes of practice.

NOTE 1 Currently, ARGE guideline and UNI 11565 are the two known “Generally recognised codes of practice”.

NOTE 2 The ignition model for this chapter is not yet described in this document.

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NOTE 3 Some experts consider a wood crib according to EN 3-7 with some additives (e.g. TF4 cushion, heptane)

for production of smoke (after having the result of the HRR measurement done by one or two laboratories).

5.1.2.2 Source of Ignition
To be adapted with the Ignition model.
5.1.2.3 Location of Fire source / FCCS

Location of fire source(s) in passengers/staff areas should be defined on the basis of the chosen FCCS

system and the relevant Design and Installation Manual issued by the manufacturer for the specific FCCS

system, reproducing the worst-case situation with respect to system installation, configuration and

system performances.
5.1.3 Calibration
No calibration of the fire source is needed.
5.1.4 Threshold values (Tenability criteria)
5.1.4.1 Toxicity
Indices and references to values for quantitative protection
...

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