Space engineering - Space environment

This standard applies to all product types which exist or operate in space and defines the natural environment for all space regimes. It also defines general models and rules for determining the local induced environment.
Project-specific or project-class-specific acceptance criteria, analysis methods or procedures are not defined.
The natural space environment of a given item is that set of environmental conditions defined by the external physical world for the given mission (e.g. atmosphere, meteoroids and energetic particle radiation). The induced space environment is that set of environmental conditions created or modified by the presence or operation of the item and its mission (e.g. contamination, secondary radiations and spacecraft charging). The space environment also contains elements which are induced by the execution of other space activities (e.g. debris and contamination).
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

Raumfahrttechnik - Raumfahrtumweltbedingungen

Ingénierie spatiale - Environnement spatial

Vesoljska tehnika - Okolje v vesolju

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
28-Feb-2021
Publication Date
12-Sep-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
09-Sep-2021
Due Date
14-Nov-2021
Completion Date
13-Sep-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16603-10-04:2021
01-november-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 16603-10-04:2015
Vesoljska tehnika - Okolje v vesolju
Space engineering - Space environment
Raumfahrttechnik - Raumfahrtumweltbedingungen
Ingénierie spatiale - Environnement spatial
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16603-10-04:2021
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST EN 16603-10-04:2021 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16603-10-04:2021
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SIST EN 16603-10-04:2021
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 16603-10-04
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
September 2021
ICS 49.140
Supersedes EN 16603-10-04:2015
English version
Space engineering - Space environment

Ingénierie spatiale - Environnement spatial Raumfahrttechnik - Raumfahrtumweltbedingungen

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 23 June 2021.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for

giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical

references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to

any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 16603-10-04:2021 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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SIST EN 16603-10-04:2021
EN 16603-10-04:2021 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword ........................................................................................ 13

Introduction ..................................................................................................... 14

1 Scope ............................................................................................................ 15

2 Normative references .................................................................................. 16

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................. 19

3.1 Terms defined in other standards ..................................................................19

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard ..........................................................19

3.3 Abbreviated terms.......................................................................................... 27

4 Gravity .......................................................................................................... 29

4.1 Introduction and description ...........................................................................29

4.1.1 Introduction ......................................................................................29

4.1.2 Gravity model formulation ................................................................29

4.1.3 Third body gravitation .......................................................................31

4.1.4 Tidal effects......................................................................................31

4.2 Requirements for model selection and application ......................................... 31

4.2.1 General requirements for gravity models .......................................... 31

4.2.2 Selection and application of gravity models ...................................... 32

5 Geomagnetic fields ..................................................................................... 33

5.1 Introduction and description ...........................................................................33

5.1.1 The geomagnetic field and its sources ............................................. 33

5.1.2 The internal field ..............................................................................33

5.1.3 External field: ionospheric components ............................................ 33

5.1.4 External magnetic field: magnetospheric components ...................... 34

5.1.5 Models of the internal and external geomagnetic fields .................... 34

5.2 Requirements for model selection and application ......................................... 35

5.2.1 The internal field ..............................................................................35

5.2.2 The external field .............................................................................36

5.3 Tailoring guidelines ........................................................................................37

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6 Natural electromagnetic radiation and indices ......................................... 38

6.1 Introduction and description ...........................................................................38

6.1.1 Introduction ......................................................................................38

6.1.2 Electromagnetic radiation and indices .............................................. 38

6.2 Requirements ................................................................................................41

6.2.1 Electromagnetic radiation ................................................................. 41

6.2.2 Reference index values ....................................................................41

6.2.3 Tailoring guidelines ..........................................................................42

6.3 Tables ............................................................................................................42

7 Neutral atmospheres ................................................................................... 44

7.1 Introduction and description ...........................................................................44

7.1.1 Introduction ......................................................................................44

7.1.2 Structure of the Earth’s atmosphere ................................................. 44

7.1.3 Models of the Earth’s atmosphere .................................................... 44

7.1.4 Wind model of the Earth’s homosphere and heterosphere ............... 45

7.2 Requirements for atmosphere and wind model selection ............................... 45

7.2.1 Earth atmosphere ............................................................................45

7.2.2 Earth wind model .............................................................................47

7.2.3 Models of the atmospheres of the planets and their satellites .......... 47

8 Plasmas ........................................................................................................ 48

8.1 Introduction and description ...........................................................................48

8.1.1 Introduction ......................................................................................48

8.1.2 Ionosphere .......................................................................................48

8.1.3 Plasmasphere ..................................................................................49

8.1.4 Outer magnetosphere ......................................................................49

8.1.5 Solar wind ........................................................................................50

8.1.6 Magnetosheath ................................................................................50

8.1.7 Magnetotail and L2...........................................................................50

8.1.8 Planetary environments ................................................................... 51

8.1.9 Induced environments ......................................................................51

8.2 Requirements for model selection and application ......................................... 51

8.2.1 General ............................................................................................ 51

8.2.2 Ionosphere .......................................................................................52

8.2.3 Auroral charging environment ..........................................................52

8.2.4 Plasmasphere ..................................................................................53

8.2.5 Outer magnetosphere ......................................................................54

8.2.6 The solar wind (interplanetary environment)..................................... 54

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8.2.7 Other plasma environments .............................................................54

8.2.8 Tables ..............................................................................................55

9 Energetic particle radiation ........................................................................ 56

9.1 Introduction and description ...........................................................................56

9.1.1 Introduction ......................................................................................56

9.1.2 Overview of energetic particle radiation environment and effects ..... 56

9.2 Requirements for energetic particle radiation environments ........................... 59

9.2.1 Trapped radiation belt fluxes ............................................................59

9.2.2 Solar particle event models ..............................................................61

9.2.3 Cosmic ray models ...........................................................................6 3

9.2.4 Geomagnetic shielding .....................................................................63

9.2.5 Neutrons ..........................................................................................63

9.2.6 <> .....................................................................................63

9.2.7 L2 and the Deep Magnetotail Environment ...................................... 63

9.3 Preparation of a radiation environment specification ...................................... 63

9.4 Tables ............................................................................................................65

10 Space debris and meteoroids ................................................................... 66

10.1 Introduction and description ...........................................................................66

10.1.1 The particulate environment in near Earth space ............................. 66

10.1.2 Space debris ....................................................................................66

10.1.3 Meteoroids .......................................................................................67

10.2 Requirements for impact risk assessment and model selection ..................... 67

10.2.1 General requirements for meteoroids and space debris ................... 67

10.2.2 Model selection and application ....................................................... 67

10.2.3 <> .....................................................................................70

10.2.4 The meteoroid model .......................................................................71

10.2.5 Impact risk assessment ....................................................................71

10.2.6 Margins ............................................................................................ 72

11 Contamination ........................................................................................... 73

11.1 Introduction and description ...........................................................................73

11.1.1 Introduction ......................................................................................73

11.1.2 Description of molecular contamination ............................................ 73

11.1.3 Transport mechanisms .....................................................................74

11.1.4 Description of particulate contamination ........................................... 74

11.1.5 Transport mechanisms .....................................................................74

11.2 Requirements for on-orbit contamination assessment ................................... 75

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EN 16603-10-04:2021 (E)
Annex A (normative) Natural electromagnetic radiation and indices ........ 76

A.1 Solar activity values for complete solar cycle ................................................. 76

A.2 Tables ............................................................................................................77

Annex B (normative) Energetic particle radiation ....................................... 81

B.1 Historical dates of solar maximum and minimum ........................................... 81

B.2 GEO model (IGE-2006) .................................................................................81

B.3 ONERA MEOv2 model ..................................................................................81

B.4 FLUMIC model ..............................................................................................82

B.4.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 82

B.4.2 Outer belt (L>2,5 Re) .......................................................................82

B.4.3 Inner belt (L<2,5 Re) ........................................................................83

B.5 NASA worst case GEO spectrum ..................................................................83

B.6 ESP solar proton model specification.............................................................84

B.7 Solar ions model ............................................................................................ 84

B.8 Geomagnetic shielding (Størmer theory) ....................................................... 85

B.9 MOBE-DIC..................................................................................................... 85

B.9.1 Overview ..........................................................................................85

B.9.2 Spectral form ....................................................................................85

B.9.3 L-shell profile ....................................................................................86

B.9.4 Magnetic latitude profile ................................................................... 87

B.10 Tables ............................................................................................................88

Annex C (normative) Space debris and meteoroids .................................. 100

C.1 Flux models ................................................................................................. 100

C.1.1 <> ................................................................................... 100

C.1.2 <> ................................................................................... 100

C.1.3 <> ................................................................................... 100

C.1.4 Meteoroid streams ......................................................................... 100

C.1.5 Grün meteoroid model ................................................................... 102

C.2 Tables ..........................................................................................................105

Annex D (informative) Gravitation ............................................................. 109

D.1 Gravity models: background ........................................................................ 109

D.2 Guidelines for use ........................................................................................110

D.3 Availability of models ................................................................................... 112

D.4 Tables ..........................................................................................................112

D.5 Figures ........................................................................................................113

Annex E (informative) Geomagnetic fields ................................................. 114

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E.1 Overview of the effects of the geomagnetic field .......................................... 114

E.2 Models of the internal geomagnetic field ...................................................... 114

E.3 Models of the external geomagnetic field ..................................................... 115

E.4 Magnetopause boundary ............................................................................. 115

E.5 Geomagnetic coordinate system – B and L ................................................. 116

E.6 Tables ..........................................................................................................118

E.7 Figures ........................................................................................................120

Annex F (informative) Natural electromagnetic radiation and indices .... 122

F.1 Solar spectrum ............................................................................................ 122

F.2 Solar and geomagnetic indices – additional information .............................. 122

F.2.1 E10.7 .............................................................................................122

F.2.2 F10.7..............................................................................................122

F.2.3 S10.7 .............................................................................................122

F.2.4 M10.7 .............................................................................................123

F.3 Additional information on short-term variation .............................................. 123

F.4 Useful internet references for indices ........................................................... 124

F.5 Earth electromagnetic radiation ................................................................... 124

F.5.1 Earth albedo................................................................................... 124

F.5.2 Earth infrared ................................................................................. 125

F.6 Electromagnetic radiation from other planets ............................................... 126

F.6.1 Planetary albedo ............................................................................ 126

F.6.2 Planetary infrared ........................................................................... 126

F.7 Activity indices information ........................................................................... 126

F.8 Tables ..........................................................................................................126

F.9 Figures ........................................................................................................127

Annex G (informative) Neutral atmospheres .............................................. 130

G.1 Structure of the Earth’s atmosphere ............................................................ 130

G.2 Development of models of the Earth’s atmosphere ...................................... 130

G.3 NRLMSISE-00 and JB-2006 - additional information ................................... 131

G.4 The GRAM series of atmosphere models. ................................................... 132

G.5 Atmosphere model uncertainties and limitations .......................................... 132

G.6 HMW07 additional information ..................................................................... 132

G.7 Planetary atmospheres models.................................................................... 133

G.7.1 Jupiter ............................................................................................ 133

G.7.2 Venus.............................................................................................133

G.7.3 Mars ...............................................................................................134

G.7.4 Saturn ............................................................................................ 134

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G.7.5 Titan ...............................................................................................134

G.7.6 Neptune .........................................................................................13 4

G.7.7 Mercury ..........................................................................................134

G.8 Reference data ............................................................................................ 135

G.9 Tables ..........................................................................................................136

G.10 Figures ........................................................................................................140

Annex H (informative) Plasmas ................................................................... 144

H.1 Identification of plasma regions.................................................................... 144

H.2 Plasma effects on spacecraft ....................................................................... 144

H.3 Reference data ............................................................................................ 144

H.3.1 Introduction .................................................................................... 144

H.3.2 Ionosphere ..................................................................................... 145

H.3.3 Plasmasphere ................................................................................ 145

H.3.4 Outer magnetosphere .................................................................... 146

H.3.5 Magnetosheath .............................................................................. 147

H.3.6 Magnetotail and distant magnetosheath ......................................... 147

H.3.7 Planetary environments ................................................................. 147

H.3.8 Induced environments .................................................................... 148

H.4 Tables ..........................................................................................................149

H.5 Figures ........................................................................................................152

Annex I (informative) Energetic particle radiation ..................................... 153

I.1 Trapped radiation belts ................................................................................ 153

I.1.1 Basic data ...................................................................................... 153

I.1.2 Tailoring guidelines: orbital and mission regimes ........................... 153

I.1.3 Existing trapped radiation models .................................................. 154

I.1.4 The South Atlantic Anomaly ........................................................... 156

I.1.5 Dynamics of the outer radiation belt ............................................... 157

I.1.6 Internal charging ............................................................................ 157

I.2 Solar particle event models .......................................................................... 158

I.2.1 Overview ........................................................................................158

I.2.2 ESP model ..................................................................................... 158

I.2.3 JPL models .................................................................................... 158

I.2.4 Spectrum of individual events ........................................................ 159

I.2.5 Event probabilities .......................................................................... 160

I.2.6 Other SEP models ......................................................................... 161

I.3 Cosmic ray environment and effects models ................................................ 161

I.4 Geomagnetic shielding ................................................................................ 161

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I.5 <> ................................................................................................162

I.6 Planetary environments ............................................................................... 162

I.6.1 Overview ........................................................................................162

I.6.2 Existing models .............................................................................. 162

I.7 Atmospheric albedo neutron models ............................................................ 163

I.8 Interplanetary environments ........................................................................ 164

I.9 Tables ..........................................................................................................165

I.10 Figures ........................................................................................................167

Annex J (informative) Space debris and meteoroids ................................ 173

J.1 Reference data ............................................................................................ 173

J.1.1 Trackable space debris .................................................................. 173

J.1.2 Reference flux data for space debris and meteoroids ..................... 173

J.2 Additional information on flux models........................................................... 174

J.2.1 Meteoroids ..................................................................................... 174

J.2.2 Space debris flux models ............................................................... 175

J.2.3 Model uncertainties ........................................................................ 177

J.3 Impact risk assessment ............................................................................... 177

J.3.1 Impact risk analysis procedure ....................................................... 177

J.3.2 <> ................................................................................... 178

J.3.3 Damage assessment ..................................................................... 178

J.4 Analysis tools ...............................................................................................180

J.4.1 General ..........................................................................................180

J.4.2 Deterministic analysis .................................................................... 180

J.4.3 Statistical analysis .......................................................................... 181

J.5 Tables ..........................................................................................................182

J.6 Figures ........................................................................................................188

Annex K (informative) <> ............................................................ 190

Figures

Figure D-1 : Graphical representation of the EIGEN-GLO4C geoid (note: geoid heights

are exaggerated by a factor 10 000). ....................................................... 113

Figure E-1 : The IGRF-12 field strength (nT, at 2015) and predicted change in intensity

between 2015 and 2020 at the mean Earth radius. (Mercator projection

from [RN.38]) ..........................................................................................120

Figure E-2 : The general morphology of model magnetospheric field lines, according to

the Tsyganenko 1989 model, showing the seasonal variation, dependent

on rotation axis tilt ................................................................................... 121

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EN 16603-10-04:2021 (E)

Figure F-1 : Solar spectral irradiance (in red, AM0 (Air Mass 0) is the radiation level

outside of the Earth's atmosphere (extraterrestrial), in blue, AM1,5 is the
radiation level after passing through the atmosphere 1,5 times, which is
about the level at solar zenith angle 48,19°s, an average level at the Earth's

surface (terrestrial)). ................................................................................ 127

Figure F-2 : Daily solar and geomagnetic activity indices over the last two solar

cycles ...........................................................................................

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 16603-10-04:2021
01-februar-2021
Vesoljska tehnika - Okolje v vesolju
Space engineering - Space environment
Raumfahrttechnik - Raumfahrtumweltbedingungen
Ingénierie spatiale - Environnement spatial
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 16603-10-04
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
oSIST prEN 16603-10-04:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 16603-10-04:2021
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oSIST prEN 16603-10-04:2021
EUROPEAN STANDARD
DRAFT
prEN 16603-10-04
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
December 2020
ICS 49.140
Will supersede EN 16603-10-04:2015
English version
Space engineering - Space environment

Ingénierie spatiale - Environnement spatial Raumfahrttechnik - Raumfahrtumweltbedingungen

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal

Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any

alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN and CENELEC in three official versions (English, French, German). A

version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own

language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification

of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. prEN 16603-10-04:2020 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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oSIST prEN 16603-10-04:2021
prEN 16603-10-04:2020 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword ........................................................................................ 13

Introduction ..................................................................................................... 14

1 Scope ............................................................................................................ 15

2 Normative references .................................................................................. 16

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................. 19

3.1 Terms defined in other standards .................................................................. 19

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard .......................................................... 19

3.3 Abbreviated terms.......................................................................................... 27

4 Gravity .......................................................................................................... 29

4.1 Introduction and description ........................................................................... 29

4.1.1 Introduction ...................................................................................... 29

4.1.2 Gravity model formulation ................................................................ 29

4.1.3 Third body gravitation ....................................................................... 31

4.1.4 Tidal effects...................................................................................... 31

4.2 Requirements for model selection and application ......................................... 31

4.2.1 General requirements for gravity models .......................................... 31

4.2.2 Selection and application of gravity models ...................................... 32

5 Geomagnetic fields ..................................................................................... 33

5.1 Introduction and description ........................................................................... 33

5.1.1 The geomagnetic field and its sources ............................................. 33

5.1.2 The internal field .............................................................................. 33

5.1.3 External field: ionospheric components ............................................ 33

5.1.4 External magnetic field: magnetospheric components ...................... 34

5.1.5 Models of the internal and external geomagnetic fields .................... 34

5.2 Requirements for model selection and application ......................................... 35

5.2.1 The internal field .............................................................................. 35

5.2.2 The external field ............................................................................. 36

5.3 Tailoring guidelines ........................................................................................ 37

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6 Natural electromagnetic radiation and indices ......................................... 38

6.1 Introduction and description ........................................................................... 38

6.1.1 Introduction ...................................................................................... 38

6.1.2 Electromagnetic radiation and indices .............................................. 38

6.2 Requirements ................................................................................................ 41

6.2.1 Electromagnetic radiation ................................................................. 41

6.2.2 Reference index values .................................................................... 41

6.2.3 Tailoring guidelines .......................................................................... 42

6.3 Tables ............................................................................................................ 42

7 Neutral atmospheres ................................................................................... 44

7.1 Introduction and description ........................................................................... 44

7.1.1 Introduction ...................................................................................... 44

7.1.2 Structure of the Earth’s atmosphere ................................................. 44

7.1.3 Models of the Earth’s atmosphere .................................................... 44

7.1.4 Wind model of the Earth’s homosphere and heterosphere ............... 45

7.2 Requirements for atmosphere and wind model selection ............................... 45

7.2.1 Earth atmosphere ............................................................................ 45

7.2.2 Earth wind model ............................................................................. 46

7.2.3 Models of the atmospheres of the planets and their satellites .......... 47

8 Plasmas ........................................................................................................ 48

8.1 Introduction and description ........................................................................... 48

8.1.1 Introduction ...................................................................................... 48

8.1.2 Ionosphere ....................................................................................... 48

8.1.3 Plasmasphere .................................................................................. 49

8.1.4 Outer magnetosphere ...................................................................... 49

8.1.5 Solar wind ........................................................................................ 50

8.1.6 Magnetosheath ................................................................................ 50

8.1.7 Magnetotail and L2........................................................................... 50

8.1.8 Planetary environments ................................................................... 51

8.1.9 Induced environments ...................................................................... 51

8.2 Requirements for model selection and application ......................................... 51

8.2.1 General ............................................................................................ 51

8.2.2 Ionosphere ....................................................................................... 52

8.2.3 Auroral charging environment .......................................................... 52

8.2.4 Plasmasphere .................................................................................. 53

8.2.5 Outer magnetosphere ...................................................................... 54

8.2.6 The solar wind (interplanetary environment)..................................... 54

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8.2.7 Other plasma environments ............................................................. 54

8.2.8 Tables .............................................................................................. 55

9 Energetic particle radiation ........................................................................ 56

9.1 Introduction and description ........................................................................... 56

9.1.1 Introduction ...................................................................................... 56

9.1.2 Overview of energetic particle radiation environment and effects ..... 56

9.2 Requirements for energetic particle radiation environments ........................... 59

9.2.1 Trapped radiation belt fluxes ............................................................ 59

9.2.2 Solar particle event models .............................................................. 61

9.2.3 Cosmic ray models ........................................................................... 63

9.2.4 Geomagnetic shielding ..................................................................... 63

9.2.5 Neutrons .......................................................................................... 63

9.2.6 <> ..................................................................................... 63

9.2.7 L2 and the Deep Magnetotail Environment ...................................... 63

9.3 Preparation of a radiation environment specification ...................................... 63

9.4 Tables ............................................................................................................ 65

10 Space debris and meteoroids ................................................................... 66

10.1 Introduction and description ........................................................................... 66

10.1.1 The particulate environment in near Earth space ............................. 66

10.1.2 Space debris .................................................................................... 66

10.1.3 Meteoroids ....................................................................................... 67

10.2 Requirements for impact risk assessment and model selection ..................... 67

10.2.1 General requirements for meteoroids and space debris ................... 67

10.2.2 Model selection and application ....................................................... 67

10.2.3 <> ..................................................................................... 70

10.2.4 The meteoroid model ....................................................................... 71

10.2.5 Impact risk assessment .................................................................... 71

10.2.6 Margins ............................................................................................ 72

11 Contamination ........................................................................................... 73

11.1 Introduction and description ........................................................................... 73

11.1.1 Introduction ...................................................................................... 73

11.1.2 Description of molecular contamination ............................................ 73

11.1.3 Transport mechanisms ..................................................................... 74

11.1.4 Description of particulate contamination ........................................... 74

11.1.5 Transport mechanisms ..................................................................... 74

11.2 Requirements for on-orbit contamination assessment ................................... 75

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Annex A (normative) Natural electromagnetic radiation and indices ........ 76

A.1 Solar activity values for complete solar cycle ................................................. 76

A.2 Tables ............................................................................................................ 77

Annex B (normative) Energetic particle radiation ....................................... 81

B.1 Historical dates of solar maximum and minimum ........................................... 81

B.2 GEO model (IGE-2006) ................................................................................. 81

B.3 ONERA MEOv2 model .................................................................................. 81

B.4 FLUMIC model .............................................................................................. 82

B.4.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 82

B.4.2 Outer belt (L>2,5 Re) ....................................................................... 82

B.4.3 Inner belt (L<2,5 Re) ........................................................................ 83

B.5 NASA worst case GEO spectrum .................................................................. 83

B.6 ESP solar proton model specification............................................................. 84

B.7 Solar ions model ............................................................................................ 84

B.8 Geomagnetic shielding (Størmer theory) ....................................................... 85

B.9 MOBE-DIC..................................................................................................... 85

B.9.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 85

B.9.2 Spectral form .................................................................................... 85

B.9.3 L-shell profile .................................................................................... 86

B.9.4 Magnetic latitude profile ................................................................... 87

B.10 Tables ............................................................................................................ 88

Annex C (normative) Space debris and meteoroids .................................. 100

C.1 Flux models ................................................................................................. 100

C.1.1 <> ................................................................................... 100

C.1.2 <> ................................................................................... 100

C.1.3 <> ................................................................................... 100

C.1.4 Meteoroid streams ......................................................................... 100

C.1.5 Grün meteoroid model ................................................................... 102

C.2 Tables .......................................................................................................... 105

Annex D (informative) Gravitation ............................................................. 109

D.1 Gravity models: background ........................................................................ 109

D.2 Guidelines for use ........................................................................................ 110

D.3 Availability of models ................................................................................... 112

D.4 Tables .......................................................................................................... 112

D.5 Figures ........................................................................................................ 113

Annex E (informative) Geomagnetic fields ................................................. 114

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E.1 Overview of the effects of the geomagnetic field .......................................... 114

E.2 Models of the internal geomagnetic field ...................................................... 114

E.3 Models of the external geomagnetic field ..................................................... 115

E.4 Magnetopause boundary ............................................................................. 115

E.5 Geomagnetic coordinate system – B and L ................................................. 116

E.6 Tables .......................................................................................................... 118

E.7 Figures ........................................................................................................ 120

Annex F (informative) Natural electromagnetic radiation and indices .... 122

F.1 Solar spectrum ............................................................................................ 122

F.2 Solar and geomagnetic indices – additional information .............................. 122

F.2.1 E10.7 ............................................................................................. 122

F.2.2 F10.7.............................................................................................. 122

F.2.3 S10.7 ............................................................................................. 122

F.2.4 M10.7 ............................................................................................. 123

F.3 Additional information on short-term variation .............................................. 123

F.4 Useful internet references for indices ........................................................... 124

F.5 Earth electromagnetic radiation ................................................................... 124

F.5.1 Earth albedo................................................................................... 124

F.5.2 Earth infrared ................................................................................. 125

F.6 Electromagnetic radiation from other planets ............................................... 126

F.6.1 Planetary albedo ............................................................................ 126

F.6.2 Planetary infrared ........................................................................... 126

F.7 Activity indices information ........................................................................... 126

F.8 Tables .......................................................................................................... 126

F.9 Figures ........................................................................................................ 127

Annex G (informative) Neutral atmospheres .............................................. 130

G.1 Structure of the Earth’s atmosphere ............................................................ 130

G.2 Development of models of the Earth’s atmosphere ...................................... 130

G.3 NRLMSISE-00 and JB-2006 - additional information ................................... 131

G.4 The GRAM series of atmosphere models. ................................................... 132

G.5 Atmosphere model uncertainties and limitations .......................................... 132

G.6 HMW07 additional information ..................................................................... 132

G.7 Planetary atmospheres models.................................................................... 133

G.7.1 Jupiter ............................................................................................ 133

G.7.2 Venus............................................................................................. 133

G.7.3 Mars ............................................................................................... 134

G.7.4 Saturn ............................................................................................ 134

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G.7.5 Titan ............................................................................................... 134

G.7.6 Neptune ......................................................................................... 134

G.7.7 Mercury .......................................................................................... 134

G.8 Reference data ............................................................................................ 135

G.9 Tables .......................................................................................................... 136

G.10 Figures ........................................................................................................ 140

Annex H (informative) Plasmas ................................................................... 144

H.1 Identification of plasma regions.................................................................... 144

H.2 Plasma effects on spacecraft ....................................................................... 144

H.3 Reference data ............................................................................................ 144

H.3.1 Introduction .................................................................................... 144

H.3.2 Ionosphere ..................................................................................... 145

H.3.3 Plasmasphere ................................................................................ 145

H.3.4 Outer magnetosphere .................................................................... 146

H.3.5 Magnetosheath .............................................................................. 147

H.3.6 Magnetotail and distant magnetosheath ......................................... 147

H.3.7 Planetary environments ................................................................. 147

H.3.8 Induced environments .................................................................... 148

H.4 Tables .......................................................................................................... 149

H.5 Figures ........................................................................................................ 152

Annex I (informative) Energetic particle radiation ..................................... 153

I.1 Trapped radiation belts ................................................................................ 153

I.1.1 Basic data ...................................................................................... 153

I.1.2 Tailoring guidelines: orbital and mission regimes ........................... 153

I.1.3 Existing trapped radiation models .................................................. 154

I.1.4 The South Atlantic Anomaly ........................................................... 156

I.1.5 Dynamics of the outer radiation belt ............................................... 157

I.1.6 Internal charging ............................................................................ 157

I.2 Solar particle event models .......................................................................... 158

I.2.1 Overview ........................................................................................ 158

I.2.2 ESP model ..................................................................................... 158

I.2.3 JPL models .................................................................................... 158

I.2.4 Spectrum of individual events ........................................................ 159

I.2.5 Event probabilities .......................................................................... 160

I.2.6 Other SEP models ......................................................................... 161

I.3 Cosmic ray environment and effects models ................................................ 161

I.4 Geomagnetic shielding ................................................................................ 161

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I.5 <> ................................................................................................ 162

I.6 Planetary environments ............................................................................... 162

I.6.1 Overview ........................................................................................ 162

I.6.2 Existing models .............................................................................. 162

I.7 Atmospheric albedo neutron models ............................................................ 163

I.8 Interplanetary environments ........................................................................ 164

I.9 Tables .......................................................................................................... 165

I.10 Figures ........................................................................................................ 167

Annex J (informative) Space debris and meteoroids ................................ 173

J.1 Reference data ............................................................................................ 173

J.1.1 Trackable space debris .................................................................. 173

J.1.2 Reference flux data for space debris and meteoroids ..................... 173

J.2 Additional information on flux models........................................................... 174

J.2.1 Meteoroids ..................................................................................... 174

J.2.2 Space debris flux models ............................................................... 175

J.2.3 Model uncertainties ........................................................................ 177

J.3 Impact risk assessment ............................................................................... 177

J.3.1 Impact risk analysis procedure ....................................................... 177

J.3.2 <> ................................................................................... 178

J.3.3 Damage assessment ..................................................................... 178

J.4 Analysis tools ............................................................................................... 180

J.4.1 General .......................................................................................... 180

J.4.2 Deterministic analysis .................................................................... 180

J.4.3 Statistical analysis .......................................................................... 181

J.5 Tables .......................................................................................................... 182

J.6 Figures ........................................................................................................ 188

Annex K (informative) <> ............................................................ 190

Figures

Figure D-1 : Graphical representation of the EIGEN-GLO4C geoid (note: geoid heights

are exaggerated by a factor 10 000). ....................................................... 113

Figure E-1 : The IGRF-12 field strength (nT, at 2015) and predicted change in intensity

between 2015 and 2020 at the mean Earth radius. (Mercator projection

from [RN.38]) .......................................................................................... 120

Figure E-2 : The general morphology of model magnetospheric field lines, according to

the Tsyganenko 1989 model, showing the seasonal variation, dependent

on rotation axis tilt ................................................................................... 121

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Figure F-1 : Solar spectral irradiance (in red, AM0 (Air Mass 0) is the radiation l

...

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