Space product assurance - Processing and quality assurance requirements for metallic powder bed fusion technologies for space applications

The scope includes metallic Powder Bed Fusion technologies for space applications.
A clear definition and implementation of quality monitoring and control means is mandatory and shall address the full end to end metallic PBF process, encompassing:
• Design / Simulation
• Materials management (Powder, shielding gases, other consumables, recycling, etc.)
• Processing
• Post Processing
• Testing
By developing a single standard which can be tailored in the Project definition phase, it will help the Space Industry in performing the following functions
related to metallic PBF technologies over the full end to end process:
(i) select and qualify metallic PBF processes for the appropriate application,
(ii) select and validate raw materials for the appropriate applications,
(iii) define monitoring and control means during production to ensure that metallic PBF parts are produced with the required quality,
(iv) define requirements for applying Non-Destructive Inspection methods for the different metallic PBF parts,
(v) define requirements to verify/qualify space parts produced by metallic PBF processes for the selected applications and associated environment,
(vi) define specific requirements for operators/inspectors/instructors certification,
(vii) define requirements for metallic PBF machines certification,
(viii) define requirements for metallic PBF Companies certification.
The Standard will be complemented with informative Annexes, listing guidelines and best practices on specific technical aspects.

Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Verarbeitungs- und Qualitätssicherungsanforderungen für metallische Pulver-Bett-Fusions-Technologien für Weltraumanwendungen

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Exigences de traitement et d'assurance qualité pour les technologies de fusion sur lit de poudre métallique pour applications spatiales

La présente norme définit les exigences de traitement et d'assurance qualité pour les technologies de fusion sur lit de poudre destinées aux applications spatiales.
La présente norme spécifie un ensemble de phases propres aux technologies de fusion sur lit de poudre métallique qui doivent chacune être suivies lors de la définition, de la vérification et de la fabrication des pièces. De plus, elle décrit les exigences relatives au personnel d'exploitation et de supervision ainsi qu'aux installations et équipements.
La présente norme ne vise pas à prescrire des paramètres de procédé en rapport avec l'utilisation des technologies de fusion sur lit de poudre métallique.
Même si cette norme a été développée autour de techniques basées sur la fusion sur lit de poudre, ses principes peuvent également servir de référence pour d'autres procédés à base de métaux et de polymères. Il s'agit, entre autres, de la fabrication additive par arc électrique (WAAM, Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing), de la stéréolithographie (avec métaux), de la projection de liant, mais aussi du frittage sélectif par laser (SLS, Selective Laser Sintering), de la stéréolithographie (avec polymères) et de la modélisation par dépôt fondu (FDM, Fused Deposition Modelling).

Zagotavljanje kakovosti proizvodov v vesoljski tehniki - Zahteve za obdelavo in zagotavljanje kakovosti za fuzijske tehnologije kovinskega prahu za uporabo v vesoljski tehniki

Področje uporabe vključuje fuzijske tehnologije kovinskega prahu za uporabo v vesoljski tehniki.
Jasna opredelitev ter izvajanje spremljanja in nadzora kakovosti je obvezno. Dokument obravnava celoten postopek fuzijske tehnologije kovinskega prahu, ki vključuje:
• projekt/simulacijo
• upravljanje z materiali (prah, zaščitni plini, drug potrošni material, recikliranje itd.)
• obdelavo
• naknadno obdelavo
• preskušanje
Z razvojem enotnega standarda, ki ga je mogoče prilagoditi v fazi opredelitve projekta, bo standard pomagal vesoljski industriji pri izvajanju naslednjih funkcij,
povezanih s celotnim postopkom fuzijske tehnologije kovinskega prahu, kar vključuje:
(i) izbiro in preverjanje postopka fuzijske tehnologije kovinskega prahu za ustrezno uporabo,
(ii) izbiro in potrditev surovin za ustrezno uporabo,
(iii) opredelitev načinov spremljanja in nadzora med proizvodnjo, da se zagotovi, da so deli, izdelani s fuzijsko tehnologijo kovinskega prahu, zahtevane kakovosti,
(iv) opredelitev zahtev za uporabo metod neporušitvenega preskušanja za različne dele, izdelane s fuzijsko tehnologijo kovinskega prahu,
(v) opredelitev zahtev za potrjevanje/preverjanje vesoljskih delov, izdelanih s postopki fuzijske tehnologije kovinskega prahu, za izbrano uporabo in povezano okolje,
(vi) opredelitev posebnih zahtev za certificiranje upravljavcev/inšpektorjev/inštruktorjev,
(vii) opredelitev zahtev za certificiranje strojev za postopke fuzijske tehnologije kovinskega prahu,
(vii) opredelitev zahtev za certificiranje podjetij za postopke fuzijske tehnologije kovinskega prahu.
Standard bo dopolnjen z informativnimi dodatki, seznamom smernic in dobro prakso glede posebnih tehničnih vidikov.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
21-Apr-2021
Publication Date
23-Jan-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
29-Dec-2021
Due Date
05-Mar-2022
Completion Date
24-Jan-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16602-70-80:2022
01-marec-2022
Zagotavljanje kakovosti proizvodov v vesoljski tehniki - Zahteve za obdelavo in
zagotavljanje kakovosti za fuzijske tehnologije kovinskega prahu za uporabo v
vesoljski tehniki

Space product assurance - Processing and quality assurance requirements for metallic

powder bed fusion technologies for space applications

Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Verarbeitungs- und Qualitätssicherungsanforderungen für

metallische Pulver-Bett-Fusions-Technologien für Weltraumanwendungen

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Exigences de traitement et d'assurance qualité

pour les technologies de fusion sur lit de poudre métallique pour applications spatiales

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16602-70-80:2021
ICS:
03.120.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi s Other standards related to
kakovostjo quality
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST EN 16602-70-80:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-80:2022
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-80:2022
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 16602-70-80
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
December 2021
ICS 49.025.99; 49.140
English version
Space product assurance - Processing and quality
assurance requirements for metallic powder bed fusion
technologies for space applications

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Exigences de Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Verarbeitungs- und

traitement et d'assurance qualité pour les technologies Qualitätssicherungsanforderungen für metallische

de fusion sur lit de poudre métallique pour Pulver-Bett-Fusions-Technologien für
applications spatiales Weltraumanwendungen
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 December 2021.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for

giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical

references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to

any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2021 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means
Ref. No. EN 16602-70-80:2021 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-80:2022
EN 16602-70-80:2021 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword .......................................................................................... 9

Introduction ..................................................................................................... 10

1 Scope ............................................................................................................ 11

2 Normative references .................................................................................. 12

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................. 13

3.1 Terms from other standards ...........................................................................13

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard ..........................................................13

3.3 Abbreviated terms.......................................................................................... 14

3.4 Nomenclature ................................................................................................16

4 Principles ..................................................................................................... 17

4.1 General ..........................................................................................................17

5 General ......................................................................................................... 19

5.1 Referential axis definition ...............................................................................19

5.2 Safety classification of AM parts ....................................................................19

5.2.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 19

5.2.2 Definition of AM safety classes.........................................................20

5.2.3 Requirement ....................................................................................20

5.3 Multiple laser systems ...................................................................................20

5.4 Family of parts ...............................................................................................21

5.4.1 Overview ..........................................................................................21

5.4.2 Requirements ...................................................................................21

5.5 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................21

6 AM definition phase .................................................................................... 22

6.1 Overview .......................................................................................................22

6.2 Input for AM definition phase .........................................................................22

6.2.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 22

6.2.2 Requirement ....................................................................................22

6.3 Preliminary Manufacturing Concept Review (PMCR) ..................................... 23

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SIST EN 16602-70-80:2022
EN 16602-70-80:2021 (E)

7 Verification phase ........................................................................................ 24

7.1 Overview .......................................................................................................24

7.2 Establishment of pAMP .................................................................................24

7.2.1 Feedstock ........................................................................................24

7.2.2 Establishment of work processing windows including post

processing .......................................................................................24

7.2.3 Preliminary Additive Manufacturing Procedure (pAMP) .................... 25

7.3 Verification on specimen- (AMP), and prototype-level (HFP) ......................... 25

7.4 Additive Manufacturing Verification Plan (AMVP) .......................................... 26

7.4.1 Overview ..........................................................................................26

7.4.2 Safety class 1.1, 1.2, and class 2 ..................................................... 26

7.4.3 Safety class 3 ...................................................................................27

7.4.4 Reporting .........................................................................................28

7.5 Prototype verification Plan (PVP) ................................................................... 28

7.5.1 General ............................................................................................ 28

7.5.2 Safety classes 1.1, 1.2, and 2 ..........................................................28

7.5.3 Safety class 3 ...................................................................................30

7.5.4 Reporting .........................................................................................30

7.6 Re- verification of AM machines ....................................................................30

7.6.1 Overview ..........................................................................................30

7.6.2 Requirements ...................................................................................30

7.7 Machine pause ..............................................................................................31

7.7.1 Overview ..........................................................................................31

7.7.2 Requirements ...................................................................................31

7.8 Repair ............................................................................................................31

7.9 Manufacturing supports .................................................................................32

7.10 Parts cleaning ................................................................................................32

7.11 Documentation .............................................................................................. 32

7.12 Manufacturing Readiness Review (MRR) ...................................................... 32

8 Hardware production................................................................................... 33

8.1 Overview .......................................................................................................33

8.2 Requirements for hardware production ..........................................................33

8.2.1 General ............................................................................................ 33

8.2.2 Process interruption .........................................................................33

8.2.3 Manufacture of hardware and witness samples ................................ 33

8.3 Testing of witness samples ............................................................................34

8.3.1 Tensile testing ..................................................................................34

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SIST EN 16602-70-80:2022
EN 16602-70-80:2021 (E)

8.3.2 Full height blanks .............................................................................34

8.3.3 Powder capture sample ................................................................... 35

8.4 Inspection of hardware ..................................................................................35

8.4.1 Non-destructive techniques ..............................................................35

8.5 Reporting .......................................................................................................37

9 AM operation and supervision personnel ................................................. 38

9.1 Overview .......................................................................................................38

9.2 AM supervisor ................................................................................................38

9.3 Qualification and certification of AM operators ............................................... 38

9.3.1 Laser based Powder Bed Fusion processes .................................... 38

9.3.2 Electron Beam based Powder Bed Fusion processes ...................... 39

9.4 Qualification and certification of personnel for NDT ....................................... 39

9.5 Safety of Personnel .......................................................................................39

10 Equipment and facilities ........................................................................... 40

10.1 Overview .......................................................................................................40

10.2 Conditions for facilities ...................................................................................40

10.3 Laser based equipment calibration ................................................................40

10.4 Electron beam based equipment calibration .................................................. 40

10.4.1 Frequency ........................................................................................40

10.4.2 Calibration protocol description ........................................................ 40

10.5 Maintenance and repair .................................................................................41

10.5.1 Maintenance of laser based machines ............................................. 41

10.5.2 Maintenance of electron beam based machines .............................. 42

10.5.3 Repair ..............................................................................................43

10.6 Materials and consumables ...........................................................................44

10.6.1 Management of powder ................................................................... 44

10.6.2 Tooling and features ........................................................................44

10.6.3 Gases ..............................................................................................44

10.6.4 Cleaning of machines .......................................................................45

11 Quality assurance ...................................................................................... 46

11.1 Configuration control ......................................................................................46

11.2 Maintenance of AM procedure .......................................................................46

11.2.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 46

11.2.2 Requirements ...................................................................................46

11.3 Statistical Process Control .............................................................................46

11.3.1 Materials Properties Database (MPD) .............................................. 46

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SIST EN 16602-70-80:2022
EN 16602-70-80:2021 (E)

11.4 Quality control ................................................................................................47

11.4.1 Reference and witness samples....................................................... 47

11.4.2 Documentation of manufacturing ...................................................... 47

11.4.3 Anomalies and non-conformances occurring during the AM

process ............................................................................................ 47

11.5 Auditing .........................................................................................................47

11.6 End Item Data Pack .......................................................................................47

12 Testing of AM materials and parts ........................................................... 48

12.1 Overview .......................................................................................................48

12.2 Powder capture sample .................................................................................48

12.2.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 48

12.2.2 Requirement ....................................................................................48

12.3 NDT for AM....................................................................................................48

12.4 Density testing ...............................................................................................49

12.4.1 Overview ..........................................................................................49

12.4.2 Requirements ...................................................................................50

12.5 Destructive testing .........................................................................................50

12.5.1 Metallography ..................................................................................50

12.5.2 Tensile testing ..................................................................................52

12.5.3 Fatigue testing .................................................................................53

13 Powders ...................................................................................................... 54

13.1 Testing of powders ........................................................................................54

13.2 Procurement ..................................................................................................55

13.3 Safe Handling ................................................................................................56

13.4 Storage ..........................................................................................................56

13.5 Loading ..........................................................................................................56

13.6 Recycling .......................................................................................................56

13.7 Blending ........................................................................................................57

13.8 Disposal .........................................................................................................57

Annex A (normative) Preliminary Manufacturing Concept Review (PMCR) -

DRD ............................................................................................................. 58

A.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 58

A.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 58

A.1.2 Purpose and objective ......................................................................58

A.2 Expected response ........................................................................................58

A.2.1 Scope and content ...........................................................................58

A.2.2 Special remarks ...............................................................................58

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-80:2022
EN 16602-70-80:2021 (E)
Annex B (normative) Additive Manufacturing Procedure (AMP) - DRD ..... 59

B.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 59

B.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 59

B.1.2 Purpose and objective ......................................................................59

B.2 Expected response ........................................................................................59

B.2.1 Scope and content ...........................................................................59

B.2.2 Additional requirements for various AM processes ........................... 60

B.2.3 Special remarks ...............................................................................61

Annex C (normative) AM verification plan (AMVP) - DRD ........................... 62

C.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 62

C.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 62

C.1.2 Purpose and objective ......................................................................62

C.2 Expected response ........................................................................................62

C.2.1 Scope and content ...........................................................................62

C.2.2 Special remarks ...............................................................................62

Annex D (normative) AM Verification Report (AMVR) – DRD ..................... 63

D.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 63

D.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 63

D.1.2 Purpose and objective ......................................................................63

D.2 Expected response ........................................................................................63

D.2.1 Scope and content ...........................................................................63

D.2.2 Special remarks ...............................................................................63

Annex E (normative) Hardware Fabrication Procedure (HFP) - DRD ......... 64

E.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 64

E.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 64

E.1.2 Purpose and objective ......................................................................64

E.2 Expected response ........................................................................................64

E.2.1 Scope and content ...........................................................................64

E.2.2 Special remarks ...............................................................................64

Annex F (normative) Hardware Production Report (HPR) - DRD ............... 65

F.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 65

F.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 65

F.1.2 Purpose and objective ......................................................................65

F.2 Expected response ........................................................................................65

F.2.1 Scope and content ...........................................................................65

F.2.2 Special remarks ...............................................................................65

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-80:2022
EN 16602-70-80:2021 (E)

Annex G (normative) Prototype Verification Plan (PVP) - DRD .................. 66

G.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 66

G.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 66

G.1.2 Purpose and objective ......................................................................66

G.2 Expected response ........................................................................................66

G.2.1 Scope and content ...........................................................................66

G.2.2 Special remarks ...............................................................................66

Annex H (normative) Prototype Verification Report (PVR) - DRD .............. 67

H.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 67

H.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 67

H.1.2 Purpose and objective ......................................................................67

H.2 Expected response ........................................................................................67

H.2.1 Scope and content ...........................................................................67

H.2.2 Special remarks ...............................................................................67

Annex I (normative) Powder Management Plan (PMP) - DRD ..................... 68

I.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 68

I.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 68

I.1.2 Purpose and objective ......................................................................68

I.2 Expected response ........................................................................................68

I.2.1 Scope and content ...........................................................................68

I.2.2 Special remarks ...............................................................................68

Annex J (informative) Template for auditing ................................................ 69

J.1.2 Special remarks ...............................................................................74

Annex K (informative) Example of a Materials Properties Database

(MPD) ........................................................................................................... 75

Bibliography .................................................................................................... 76

Figures

Figure 4-1: Flow chart showing the steps required to establish a verified metallic

Powder Bed Fusion process and consequently to produce hardware ........ 18

Figure 5-1 Definition of coordinate system [source: EN ISO ASTM 52921:2016] ......... 19

Figure 12-1: Melt pool measurement concept [Image and concept: adopted from NASA

MSFC-SPEC-3717] ...................................................................................52

Tables

Table 5-1: Safety classes ............................................................................................ 20

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SIST EN 16602-70-80:2022
EN 16602-70-80:2021 (E)

Table 7-1: Pre-verification test matrix ..........................................................................25

Table 7-2: Test methods for class 1.1, 1.2, and class 2 parts ...................................... 27

Table 7-3: Test methods for prototypes, and witness samples for safety classes 1.1,

1.2, and 2 ..................................................................................................29

Table 7-4: Test methods for prototypes, and witness specimens for safety class 3 ..... 30

Table 8-1: Overview of witness samples to be produced with hardware ...................... 33

Table 8-2: Overview of non-destructive tests for AM hardware .................................... 36

Table J-1 : Audit template ............................................................................................ 69

Table K-1 : Example of a Materials Properties Database ............................................. 75

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-80:2022
EN 16602-70-80:2021 (E)
European Foreword
This document (EN 16602-70-80:2021) has been prepared by Technical
Committee CEN-CENELEC/TC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by
DIN.
This standard (EN 16602-70-80:2021) originates from ECSS-Q-ST-70-80C.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either

by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2022,

and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by June 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document
may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held
responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This document has been prepared under a standardization request given to CEN
by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association.
This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and has
therefore precedence over any EN covering the same scope but with a wider
domain of applicability (e.g. : aerospace).
According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards
organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European
Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United
Kingdom.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-80:2022
EN 16602-70-80:2021 (E)
Introduction
This Standard specifies the processing and quality assurance requirements for
the different types of Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) Additive Manufacturing

processes for Metallic Materials for space flight applications. It can also be used

for Additive Manufacturing activities on space related ground equipment and
development activities for flight hardware. The Standard covers all Powder Bed
Additive Manufacturing processes using Laser or Electron Beam as melting
source.

This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constraints of a

space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-80:2022
EN 16602-70-80:2021 (E)
Scope
This Standard defines requirements for processing and quality assurance of
powder bed fusion technologies for space applications.
Within this standard a set of phases are specified, each to be followed when
defining, verifying and manufacturing parts using metallic powder bed fusion
technologies. In addition, requirements for operating and supervision personnel
and equipment facilities are described.
This Standard does no
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 16602-70-80:2021
01-april-2021
Zagotavljanje kakovosti proizvodov v vesoljski tehniki - Zahteve za obdelavo in
zagotavljanje kakovosti za fuzijske tehnologije kovinskega prahu za uporabo v
vesoljski tehniki

Space product assurance - Processing and quality assurance requirements for metallic

powder bed fusion technologies for space applications

Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Verarbeitungs- und Qualitätssicherungsanforderungen für

metallische Pulver-Bett-Fusions-Technologien für Weltraumanwendungen

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Exigences de traitement et d'assurance qualité

pour les technologies de fusion sur lit de poudre métallique pour applications spatiales

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 16602-70-80
ICS:
03.120.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi s Other standards related to
kakovostjo quality
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
oSIST prEN 16602-70-80:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16602-70-80:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16602-70-80:2021
EUROPEAN STANDARD DRAFT
prEN 16602-70-80
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
January 2021
ICS 49.025.99; 49.140
English version
Space product assurance - Processing and quality assurance
requirements for metallic powder bed fusion technologies for
space applications

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Exigences de Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Verarbeitungs- und

traitement et d'assurance qualité pour les technologies Qualitätssicherungsanforderungen für metallische

de fusion sur lit de poudre métallique pour Pulver-Bett-Fusions-Technologien für
applications spatiales Weltraumanwendungen

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal

Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any

alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN and CENELEC in three official versions (English, French, German). A

version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own

language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification

of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. prEN 16602-70-80:2021 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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oSIST prEN 16602-70-80:2021
prEN 16602-70-80:2021 (E)
Table of contents

European foreword ........................................................................................... 9

Introduction ....................................................................................................... 9

1 Scope ............................................................................................................ 11

2 Normative references .................................................................................. 12

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................. 14

3.1 Terms from other standards ........................................................................... 14

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard .......................................................... 14

3.3 Abbreviated terms.......................................................................................... 16

3.4 Nomenclature ................................................................................................ 17

4 Principles ..................................................................................................... 19

4.1 General .......................................................................................................... 19

5 General ......................................................................................................... 21

5.1 Referential axis definition ............................................................................... 21

5.2 Safety classification of AM parts .................................................................... 21

5.2.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 21

5.2.2 Definition of AM safety classes......................................................... 22

5.2.3 Requirement .................................................................................... 22

5.3 Multiple laser systems ................................................................................... 22

5.4 Family of parts ............................................................................................... 23

5.4.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 23

5.4.2 Requirements ................................................................................... 23

5.5 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 23

6 AM definition phase .................................................................................... 24

6.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 24

6.2 Input for AM definition phase ......................................................................... 24

6.2.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 24

6.2.2 Requirement .................................................................................... 24

6.3 Preliminary Manufacturing Concept Review (PMCR) ..................................... 25

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7 Verification phase ........................................................................................ 26

7.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 26

7.2 Establishment of pAMP ................................................................................. 26

7.2.1 Feedstock ........................................................................................ 26

7.2.2 Establishment of work processing windows including post

processing ....................................................................................... 26

7.2.3 Preliminary Additive Manufacturing Procedure (pAMP) .................... 27

7.3 Verification on specimen- (AMP), and prototype-level (HFP) ......................... 27

7.4 Additive Manufacturing Verification Plan (AMVP) .......................................... 28

7.4.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 28

7.4.2 Safety class 1.1, 1.2, and class 2 ..................................................... 28

7.4.3 Safety class 3 ................................................................................... 29

7.4.4 Reporting ......................................................................................... 30

7.5 Prototype verification Plan (PVP) ................................................................... 30

7.5.1 General ............................................................................................ 30

7.5.2 Safety classes 1.1, 1.2, and 2 .......................................................... 30

7.5.3 Safety class 3 ................................................................................... 32

7.5.4 Reporting ......................................................................................... 32

7.6 Re- verification of AM machines .................................................................... 32

7.6.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 32

7.6.2 Requirements ................................................................................... 32

7.7 Machine pause .............................................................................................. 33

7.8 Repair ............................................................................................................ 33

7.9 Manufacturing supports ................................................................................. 33

7.10 Parts cleaning ................................................................................................ 33

7.11 Documentation .............................................................................................. 34

7.12 Manufacturing Readiness Review (MRR) ...................................................... 34

8 Hardware production................................................................................... 35

8.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 35

8.2 Requirements for flight hardware production.................................................. 35

8.2.1 General ............................................................................................ 35

8.2.2 Process interruption ......................................................................... 35

8.2.3 Manufacture of hardware and witness samples ................................ 35

8.3 Testing of witness samples ............................................................................ 36

8.3.1 Tensile testing .................................................................................. 36

8.3.2 Full height blanks ............................................................................. 36

8.3.3 Powder capture sample ................................................................... 37

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8.4 Inspection of hardware .................................................................................. 37

8.4.1 Non-destructive techniques .............................................................. 37

8.5 Reporting ....................................................................................................... 38

9 AM operation and supervision personnel ................................................. 39

9.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 39

9.2 AM supervisor ................................................................................................ 39

9.3 Qualification and certification of AM operators ............................................... 39

9.3.1 Laser based Powder Bed Fusion processes .................................... 39

9.3.2 Electron Beam based Powder Bed Fusion processes ...................... 40

9.4 Qualification and certification of personnel for NDI ......................................... 40

9.5 Safety of Personnel ....................................................................................... 40

10 Equipment and facilities ........................................................................... 41

10.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 41

10.2 Conditions for facilities ................................................................................... 41

10.3 Laser based equipment calibration ................................................................ 41

10.4 Electron beam based equipment calibration .................................................. 41

10.4.1 Frequency ........................................................................................ 41

10.4.2 Calibration protocol description ........................................................ 41

10.5 Maintenance and repair ................................................................................. 42

10.5.1 Maintenance of laser based machines ............................................. 42

10.5.2 Maintenance of electron beam based machines .............................. 43

10.5.3 Repair .............................................................................................. 44

10.6 Materials and consumables ........................................................................... 45

10.6.1 Management of powder ................................................................... 45

10.6.2 Tooling and features ........................................................................ 45

10.6.3 Gases .............................................................................................. 45

10.6.4 Cleaning of machines ....................................................................... 45

11 Quality assurance ...................................................................................... 46

11.1 Configuration control ...................................................................................... 46

11.2 Maintenance of AM procedure ....................................................................... 46

11.2.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 46

11.2.2 Requirements ................................................................................... 46

11.3 Statistical Process Control ............................................................................. 46

11.3.1 Materials Properties Database (MPD) .............................................. 46

11.4 Quality control ................................................................................................ 47

11.4.1 Reference and witness samples....................................................... 47

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11.4.2 Documentation of manufacturing ...................................................... 47

11.4.3 Anomalies and non-conformances occurring during the AM

process ............................................................................................ 47

11.5 Auditing ......................................................................................................... 47

11.6 End Item Data Pack ....................................................................................... 47

12 Testing of AM materials and parts ........................................................... 48

12.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 48

12.2 Powder capture sample ................................................................................. 48

12.2.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 48

12.2.2 Requirement .................................................................................... 48

12.3 NDI for AM ..................................................................................................... 48

12.4 Density testing ............................................................................................... 49

12.4.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 49

12.4.2 Requirements ................................................................................... 49

12.5 Destructive testing ......................................................................................... 50

12.5.1 Metallography .................................................................................. 50

12.5.2 Tensile testing .................................................................................. 52

12.5.3 Fatigue testing ................................................................................. 52

13 Powders ...................................................................................................... 53

13.1 Testing of powders ........................................................................................ 53

A.1.1 Procurement .................................................................................... 54

A.1.2 Safe Handling .................................................................................. 54

A.1.3 Storage ............................................................................................ 55

A.1.4 Loading ............................................................................................ 55

A.1.5 Recycling ......................................................................................... 55

A.1.6 Blending ........................................................................................... 55

A.1.7 Disposal ........................................................................................... 56

Annex B (normative) Preliminary Manufacturing Concept Review (PMCR) -

DRD ............................................................................................................. 57

B.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 57

B.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 57

B.1.2 Purpose and objective ...................................................................... 57

B.2 Expected response ........................................................................................ 57

B.2.1 Scope and content ........................................................................... 57

B.2.2 Special remarks ............................................................................... 57

Annex C (normative) Additive Manufacturing Procedure (AMP) - DRD ..... 58
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C.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 58

C.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 58

C.1.2 Purpose and objective ...................................................................... 58

C.2 Expected response ........................................................................................ 58

C.2.1 Scope and content ........................................................................... 58

C.2.2 Additional requirements for various AM processes ........................... 59

C.2.3 Special remarks ............................................................................... 59

Annex D (normative) AM verification plan (AMVP) - DRD ........................... 60

D.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 60

D.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 60

D.1.2 Purpose and objective ...................................................................... 60

D.2 Expected response ........................................................................................ 60

D.2.1 Scope and content ........................................................................... 60

D.2.2 Special remarks ............................................................................... 60

Annex E (normative) AM Verification Report (AMVR) – DRD ...................... 61

E.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 61

E.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 61

E.1.2 Purpose and objective ...................................................................... 61

E.2 Expected response ........................................................................................ 61

E.2.1 Scope and content ........................................................................... 61

E.2.2 Special remarks ............................................................................... 61

Annex F (normative) Hardware Fabrication Procedure (HFP) - DRD ......... 62

F.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 62

F.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 62

F.1.2 Purpose and objective ...................................................................... 62

F.2 Expected response ........................................................................................ 62

F.2.1 Scope and content ........................................................................... 62

F.2.2 Special remarks ............................................................................... 62

Annex G (normative) Hardware Production Report (HPR) - DRD ............... 63

G.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 63

G.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 63

G.1.2 Purpose and objective ...................................................................... 63

G.2 Expected response ........................................................................................ 63

G.2.1 Scope and content ........................................................................... 63

G.2.2 Special remarks ............................................................................... 63

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Annex H (normative) Prototype Verification Plan (PVP) - DRD .................. 64

H.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 64

H.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 64

H.1.2 Purpose and objective ...................................................................... 64

H.2 Expected response ........................................................................................ 64

H.2.1 Scope and content ........................................................................... 64

H.2.2 Special remarks ............................................................................... 64

Annex I (normative) Prototype Verification Report (PVR) - DRD ................ 65

I.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 65

I.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 65

I.1.2 Purpose and objective ...................................................................... 65

I.2 Expected response ........................................................................................ 65

I.2.1 Scope and content ........................................................................... 65

I.2.2 Special remarks ............................................................................... 65

Annex J (normative) Powder Management Plan (PMP) - DRD .................... 66

J.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 66

J.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 66

J.1.2 Purpose and objective ...................................................................... 66

J.2 Expected response ........................................................................................ 66

J.2.1 Scope and content ........................................................................... 66

J.2.2 Special remarks ............................................................................... 66

Annex K (informative) Template for auditing ............................................... 67

K.1.2 Special remarks ............................................................................... 73

Annex L (informative) Example of a Materials Properties Database

(MPD) ........................................................................................................... 74

Bibliography .................................................................................................... 75

Figures

Figure 4-1: Flow chart showing the steps required to establish a verified metallic

Powder Bed Fusion process and consequently to produce hardware ........ 20

Figure 5-1 Definition of coordinate system [source: EN ISO ASTM 52921:2016] ......... 21

Figure 12-1: Melt pool measurement concept [Image and concept: adopted by NASA

MSFC-SPEC-3717] ................................................................................... 52

Tables

Table 5-1: Safety classes ............................................................................................ 22

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Table 7-1: Pre-verification test matrix .......................................................................... 27

Table 7-2: Test methods for class 1.1, 1.2, and class 2 parts ...................................... 29

Table 7-3: Test methods for prototypes, demonstrators, and witness samples for safety

classes 1.1, 1.2, and 2 .............................................................................. 31

Table 7-4: Test methods for prototypes, demonstrators, and witness specimens for

safety class 3 ............................................................................................ 32

Table 8-1: Overview of witness samples to be produced with hardware ...................... 35

Table 8-2: Overview of non-destructive tests for AM hardware .................................... 38

Table K-1 : Audit template ........................................................................................... 68

Table L-1 : Example of a Materials Properties Database ............................................ 74

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oSIST prEN 16602-70-80:2021
prEN 16602-70-80:2021 (E)
European Foreword
This document (prEN 16602-70-80:2021) has been prepared by Technical
Committee CEN/CLC/TC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN
(Germany).
This document (prEN 16602-70-80:2021) originates from ECSS-Q-ST-70-80C
DIR1.
This document is currently submitted to the Enquiry.
This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and will
therefore have precedence over any EN covering the same scope but with a wider
do-main of applicability (e.g. : aerospace).
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oSIST prEN 16602-70-80:2021
prEN 16602-70-80:2021 (E)
Introduction
This Standard specifies the processing and quality assurance requirements for
the different types of Powder Bed Additive Manufacturing for Metallic Materials
for space flight applications. It can also be used for Additive Manufacturing
activities on space related ground equipment and development models for flight
hardware. The Standard covers all Powder Bed Additive Manufacturing
processes using Laser or Electron Beam as melting source. This includes, but is
not limited to:
 Selective Laser Melting (SLM)
 Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS)
 Laser Sintering in Solid Phase (LSSP)
 Laser Beam Melting (LBM)
 Electron Beam Melting (EBM)

This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constraints of a

space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.
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oSIST prEN 16602-70-80:2021
prEN 16602-70-80:2021 (E)
Scope
This Standard defines requirements for processing and quality assurance of
powder bed fusion technologies for space applications.
Within this standard a set of phases are specified, each to be followed when
defining, verifying and manufacturing parts using metallic powder bed fusion
technologies. In addition, requirements for operating and supervision personnel
and equipment facilities are described.
This Standard does not aim to prescribe process parameters relevant to the
fabrication using metallic powder bed fusion technologies.
Although this standard is developed for powder bed fusion based techniques, its
principles can also be used for other metal-based and polymer-based processes.
These include Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM), Laser Powder Build
up Welding (LPBW), Stereolithography (with metals), Binder Jetting, but also
Selective Laser Sintering, Stereolithography (with polymers), Fused Deposition
Modelling (FDM), and oth
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 16602-70-80:2021
01-april-2021
Zagotavljanje kakovosti proizvodov v vesoljski tehniki - Zahteve za obdelavo in
zagotavljanje kakovosti za fuzijske tehnologije kovinskega prahu za uporabo v
vesoljski tehniki

Space product assurance - Processing and quality assurance requirements for metallic

powder bed fusion technologies for space applications

Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Verarbeitungs- und Qualitätssicherungsanforderungen für

metallische Pulver-Bett-Fusions-Technologien für Weltraumanwendungen

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Exigences de traitement et d'assurance qualité

pour les technologies de fusion sur lit de poudre métallique pour applications spatiales

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 16602-70-80
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
oSIST prEN 16602-70-80:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 16602-70-80:2021
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oSIST prEN 16602-70-80:2021
EUROPEAN STANDARD DRAFT
prEN 16602-70-80
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
January 2021
ICS 49.025.99; 49.140
English version
Space product assurance - Processing and quality assurance
requirements for metallic powder bed fusion technologies for
space applications

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Exigences de Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Verarbeitungs- und

traitement et d'assurance qualité pour les technologies Qualitätssicherungsanforderungen für metallische

de fusion sur lit de poudre métallique pour Pulver-Bett-Fusions-Technologien für
applications spatiales Weltraumanwendungen

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal

Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any

alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN and CENELEC in three official versions (English, French, German). A

version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own

language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification

of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. prEN 16602-70-80:2021 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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oSIST prEN 16602-70-80:2021
prEN 16602-70-80:2021 (E)
Table of contents

European foreword ........................................................................................... 9

Introduction ....................................................................................................... 9

1 Scope ............................................................................................................ 11

2 Normative references .................................................................................. 12

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................. 14

3.1 Terms from other standards ........................................................................... 14

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard .......................................................... 14

3.3 Abbreviated terms.......................................................................................... 16

3.4 Nomenclature ................................................................................................ 17

4 Principles ..................................................................................................... 19

4.1 General .......................................................................................................... 19

5 General ......................................................................................................... 21

5.1 Referential axis definition ............................................................................... 21

5.2 Safety classification of AM parts .................................................................... 21

5.2.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 21

5.2.2 Definition of AM safety classes......................................................... 22

5.2.3 Requirement .................................................................................... 22

5.3 Multiple laser systems ................................................................................... 22

5.4 Family of parts ............................................................................................... 23

5.4.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 23

5.4.2 Requirements ................................................................................... 23

5.5 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 23

6 AM definition phase .................................................................................... 24

6.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 24

6.2 Input for AM definition phase ......................................................................... 24

6.2.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 24

6.2.2 Requirement .................................................................................... 24

6.3 Preliminary Manufacturing Concept Review (PMCR) ..................................... 25

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7 Verification phase ........................................................................................ 26

7.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 26

7.2 Establishment of pAMP ................................................................................. 26

7.2.1 Feedstock ........................................................................................ 26

7.2.2 Establishment of work processing windows including post

processing ....................................................................................... 26

7.2.3 Preliminary Additive Manufacturing Procedure (pAMP) .................... 27

7.3 Verification on specimen- (AMP), and prototype-level (HFP) ......................... 27

7.4 Additive Manufacturing Verification Plan (AMVP) .......................................... 28

7.4.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 28

7.4.2 Safety class 1.1, 1.2, and class 2 ..................................................... 28

7.4.3 Safety class 3 ................................................................................... 29

7.4.4 Reporting ......................................................................................... 30

7.5 Prototype verification Plan (PVP) ................................................................... 30

7.5.1 General ............................................................................................ 30

7.5.2 Safety classes 1.1, 1.2, and 2 .......................................................... 30

7.5.3 Safety class 3 ................................................................................... 32

7.5.4 Reporting ......................................................................................... 32

7.6 Re- verification of AM machines .................................................................... 32

7.6.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 32

7.6.2 Requirements ................................................................................... 32

7.7 Machine pause .............................................................................................. 33

7.8 Repair ............................................................................................................ 33

7.9 Manufacturing supports ................................................................................. 33

7.10 Parts cleaning ................................................................................................ 33

7.11 Documentation .............................................................................................. 34

7.12 Manufacturing Readiness Review (MRR) ...................................................... 34

8 Hardware production................................................................................... 35

8.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 35

8.2 Requirements for flight hardware production.................................................. 35

8.2.1 General ............................................................................................ 35

8.2.2 Process interruption ......................................................................... 35

8.2.3 Manufacture of hardware and witness samples ................................ 35

8.3 Testing of witness samples ............................................................................ 36

8.3.1 Tensile testing .................................................................................. 36

8.3.2 Full height blanks ............................................................................. 36

8.3.3 Powder capture sample ................................................................... 37

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8.4 Inspection of hardware .................................................................................. 37

8.4.1 Non-destructive techniques .............................................................. 37

8.5 Reporting ....................................................................................................... 38

9 AM operation and supervision personnel ................................................. 39

9.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 39

9.2 AM supervisor ................................................................................................ 39

9.3 Qualification and certification of AM operators ............................................... 39

9.3.1 Laser based Powder Bed Fusion processes .................................... 39

9.3.2 Electron Beam based Powder Bed Fusion processes ...................... 40

9.4 Qualification and certification of personnel for NDI ......................................... 40

9.5 Safety of Personnel ....................................................................................... 40

10 Equipment and facilities ........................................................................... 41

10.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 41

10.2 Conditions for facilities ................................................................................... 41

10.3 Laser based equipment calibration ................................................................ 41

10.4 Electron beam based equipment calibration .................................................. 41

10.4.1 Frequency ........................................................................................ 41

10.4.2 Calibration protocol description ........................................................ 41

10.5 Maintenance and repair ................................................................................. 42

10.5.1 Maintenance of laser based machines ............................................. 42

10.5.2 Maintenance of electron beam based machines .............................. 43

10.5.3 Repair .............................................................................................. 44

10.6 Materials and consumables ........................................................................... 45

10.6.1 Management of powder ................................................................... 45

10.6.2 Tooling and features ........................................................................ 45

10.6.3 Gases .............................................................................................. 45

10.6.4 Cleaning of machines ....................................................................... 45

11 Quality assurance ...................................................................................... 46

11.1 Configuration control ...................................................................................... 46

11.2 Maintenance of AM procedure ....................................................................... 46

11.2.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 46

11.2.2 Requirements ................................................................................... 46

11.3 Statistical Process Control ............................................................................. 46

11.3.1 Materials Properties Database (MPD) .............................................. 46

11.4 Quality control ................................................................................................ 47

11.4.1 Reference and witness samples....................................................... 47

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11.4.2 Documentation of manufacturing ...................................................... 47

11.4.3 Anomalies and non-conformances occurring during the AM

process ............................................................................................ 47

11.5 Auditing ......................................................................................................... 47

11.6 End Item Data Pack ....................................................................................... 47

12 Testing of AM materials and parts ........................................................... 48

12.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 48

12.2 Powder capture sample ................................................................................. 48

12.2.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 48

12.2.2 Requirement .................................................................................... 48

12.3 NDI for AM ..................................................................................................... 48

12.4 Density testing ............................................................................................... 49

12.4.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 49

12.4.2 Requirements ................................................................................... 49

12.5 Destructive testing ......................................................................................... 50

12.5.1 Metallography .................................................................................. 50

12.5.2 Tensile testing .................................................................................. 52

12.5.3 Fatigue testing ................................................................................. 52

13 Powders ...................................................................................................... 53

13.1 Testing of powders ........................................................................................ 53

A.1.1 Procurement .................................................................................... 54

A.1.2 Safe Handling .................................................................................. 54

A.1.3 Storage ............................................................................................ 55

A.1.4 Loading ............................................................................................ 55

A.1.5 Recycling ......................................................................................... 55

A.1.6 Blending ........................................................................................... 55

A.1.7 Disposal ........................................................................................... 56

Annex B (normative) Preliminary Manufacturing Concept Review (PMCR) -

DRD ............................................................................................................. 57

B.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 57

B.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 57

B.1.2 Purpose and objective ...................................................................... 57

B.2 Expected response ........................................................................................ 57

B.2.1 Scope and content ........................................................................... 57

B.2.2 Special remarks ............................................................................... 57

Annex C (normative) Additive Manufacturing Procedure (AMP) - DRD ..... 58
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C.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 58

C.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 58

C.1.2 Purpose and objective ...................................................................... 58

C.2 Expected response ........................................................................................ 58

C.2.1 Scope and content ........................................................................... 58

C.2.2 Additional requirements for various AM processes ........................... 59

C.2.3 Special remarks ............................................................................... 59

Annex D (normative) AM verification plan (AMVP) - DRD ........................... 60

D.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 60

D.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 60

D.1.2 Purpose and objective ...................................................................... 60

D.2 Expected response ........................................................................................ 60

D.2.1 Scope and content ........................................................................... 60

D.2.2 Special remarks ............................................................................... 60

Annex E (normative) AM Verification Report (AMVR) – DRD ...................... 61

E.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 61

E.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 61

E.1.2 Purpose and objective ...................................................................... 61

E.2 Expected response ........................................................................................ 61

E.2.1 Scope and content ........................................................................... 61

E.2.2 Special remarks ............................................................................... 61

Annex F (normative) Hardware Fabrication Procedure (HFP) - DRD ......... 62

F.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 62

F.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 62

F.1.2 Purpose and objective ...................................................................... 62

F.2 Expected response ........................................................................................ 62

F.2.1 Scope and content ........................................................................... 62

F.2.2 Special remarks ............................................................................... 62

Annex G (normative) Hardware Production Report (HPR) - DRD ............... 63

G.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 63

G.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 63

G.1.2 Purpose and objective ...................................................................... 63

G.2 Expected response ........................................................................................ 63

G.2.1 Scope and content ........................................................................... 63

G.2.2 Special remarks ............................................................................... 63

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Annex H (normative) Prototype Verification Plan (PVP) - DRD .................. 64

H.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 64

H.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 64

H.1.2 Purpose and objective ...................................................................... 64

H.2 Expected response ........................................................................................ 64

H.2.1 Scope and content ........................................................................... 64

H.2.2 Special remarks ............................................................................... 64

Annex I (normative) Prototype Verification Report (PVR) - DRD ................ 65

I.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 65

I.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 65

I.1.2 Purpose and objective ...................................................................... 65

I.2 Expected response ........................................................................................ 65

I.2.1 Scope and content ........................................................................... 65

I.2.2 Special remarks ............................................................................... 65

Annex J (normative) Powder Management Plan (PMP) - DRD .................... 66

J.1 DRD identification .......................................................................................... 66

J.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ............................. 66

J.1.2 Purpose and objective ...................................................................... 66

J.2 Expected response ........................................................................................ 66

J.2.1 Scope and content ........................................................................... 66

J.2.2 Special remarks ............................................................................... 66

Annex K (informative) Template for auditing ............................................... 67

K.1.2 Special remarks ............................................................................... 73

Annex L (informative) Example of a Materials Properties Database

(MPD) ........................................................................................................... 74

Bibliography .................................................................................................... 75

Figures

Figure 4-1: Flow chart showing the steps required to establish a verified metallic

Powder Bed Fusion process and consequently to produce hardware ........ 20

Figure 5-1 Definition of coordinate system [source: EN ISO ASTM 52921:2016] ......... 21

Figure 12-1: Melt pool measurement concept [Image and concept: adopted by NASA

MSFC-SPEC-3717] ................................................................................... 52

Tables

Table 5-1: Safety classes ............................................................................................ 22

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Table 7-1: Pre-verification test matrix .......................................................................... 27

Table 7-2: Test methods for class 1.1, 1.2, and class 2 parts ...................................... 29

Table 7-3: Test methods for prototypes, demonstrators, and witness samples for safety

classes 1.1, 1.2, and 2 .............................................................................. 31

Table 7-4: Test methods for prototypes, demonstrators, and witness specimens for

safety class 3 ............................................................................................ 32

Table 8-1: Overview of witness samples to be produced with hardware ...................... 35

Table 8-2: Overview of non-destructive tests for AM hardware .................................... 38

Table K-1 : Audit template ........................................................................................... 68

Table L-1 : Example of a Materials Properties Database ............................................ 74

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European Foreword
This document (prEN 16602-70-80:2021) has been prepared by Technical
Committee CEN/CLC/TC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN
(Germany).
This document (prEN 16602-70-80:2021) originates from ECSS-Q-ST-70-80C
DIR1.
This document is currently submitted to the Enquiry.
This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and will
therefore have precedence over any EN covering the same scope but with a wider
do-main of applicability (e.g. : aerospace).
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Introduction
This Standard specifies the processing and quality assurance requirements for
the different types of Powder Bed Additive Manufacturing for Metallic Materials
for space flight applications. It can also be used for Additive Manufacturing
activities on space related ground equipment and development models for flight
hardware. The Standard covers all Powder Bed Additive Manufacturing
processes using Laser or Electron Beam as melting source. This includes, but is
not limited to:
 Selective Laser Melting (SLM)
 Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS)
 Laser Sintering in Solid Phase (LSSP)
 Laser Beam Melting (LBM)
 Electron Beam Melting (EBM)

This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constraints of a

space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.
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Scope
This Standard defines requirements for processing and quality assurance of
powder bed fusion technologies for space applications.
Within this standard a set of phases are specified, each to be followed when
defining, verifying and manufacturing parts using metallic powder bed fusion
technologies. In addition, requirements for operating and supervision personnel
and equipment facilities are described.
This Standard does not aim to prescribe process parameters relevant to the
fabrication using metallic powder bed fusion technologies.
Although this standard is developed for powder bed fusion based techniques, its
principles can also be used for other metal-based and polymer-based processes.
These include Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM), Laser Powder Build
up Welding (LPBW), Stereolithography (with metals), Binder Jetting, but also
Selective Laser Sintering, Stereolithography (with polymers), Fused Deposition
Modelling (FDM), and others.
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oSIST prEN 166
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