Space product assurance - Non-destructive testing

This standard specifies NDI requirements for flight parts, components and structures used for space missions. It covers the NDI methods and stipulates the certification levels for personnel. The qualification of such processes are also specified for non-standard NDI techniques or where complex components are concerned. This standard also identifies the best practice across the large range of international and national standards.
Visual inspection included in this standard is not intended to include incoming inspection of, for example, raw materials, damage during transport, storage and handling and parts procurement verification.
The minimum requirements for NDI documentation are specified in the DRDs of the Annexes.
This standard does not cover the acceptance criteria of components, structures and parts submitted to this examination; it is expected that these criteria are identified on specific program application documentation.
This Standard does not apply to EEE components.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung oder zerstörungsfreie Inspektion

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Essais non destructifs

La présente norme spécifie les exigences END pour les pièces, composants et structures de vol utilisés pour les missions spatiales. Elle traite des méthodes END et stipule les niveaux de certification du personnel. La qualification de ces procédés est également spécifiée pour les techniques END non standard, ou dans le cas de composants complexes. La présente norme identifie également la meilleure pratique sur toute l'étendue de la gamme des normes internationales et nationales. Lorsque des normes END internationales ou nationales sont référencées dans le présent document, d'autres normes équivalentes peuvent être considérées comme acceptables sous réserve de l'approbation du client.
L'examen visuel inclus dans la présente norme n'est pas censé comprendre le contrôle d'entrée pour, par exemple, les matières premières, les détériorations dues au transport, au stockage et à la manutention, et la vérification d'approvisionnement des pièces. De plus, les examens visuels réalisés dans le cadre des END (discontinuités, structure de surface) ne couvrent pas les examens visuels de la norme « Contrôle de la propreté et de la contamination ».
Les exigences minimales concernant la documentation d'END sont spécifiées dans les DRD des Annexes.
La présente norme ne traite pas des critères d'acceptation des composants, structures et pièces soumis à cet examen ; il est supposé que ces critères soient identifiés dans les documents spécifiques d'application du programme.
La présente norme ne s'applique pas aux composants EEE.
La présente norme peut être adaptée aux caractéristiques et contraintes spécifiques d'un projet spatial conformément à l'ECSS-S-ST-00.

Zagotavljanje kakovosti proizvodov v vesoljski tehniki - Neporušitvene preiskave

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
08-Sep-2018
Publication Date
12-Sep-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
09-Sep-2021
Due Date
14-Nov-2021
Completion Date
13-Sep-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16602-70-15:2021
01-november-2021
Zagotavljanje kakovosti proizvodov v vesoljski tehniki - Neporušitvene preiskave
Space product assurance - Non-destructive testing
Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung oder zerstörungsfreie Inspektion
Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Essais non destructifs
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16602-70-15:2021
ICS:
19.100 Neporušitveno preskušanje Non-destructive testing
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST EN 16602-70-15:2021 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16602-70-15:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-15:2021
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 16602-70-15
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
September 2021
ICS 19.100; 49.140
English version
Space product assurance - Non-destructive testing

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Essais non Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Zerstörungsfreie

destructifs Prüfung
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 9 May 2021.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for

giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical

references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to

any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 16602-70-15:2021 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-15:2021
EN 16602-70-15:2021 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword .............................................................................................. 8

Introduction ........................................................................................................... 9

1 Scope ................................................................................................................ 10

2 Normative references ...................................................................................... 11

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ..................................................... 14

3.1 Terms from other standards ............................................................................... 14

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard .............................................................. 14

3.3 Abbreviated terms and symbols ......................................................................... 16

3.4 Nomenclature .................................................................................................... 17

3.4.1 Formal verbs ........................................................................................ 17

3.4.2 Conventions ......................................................................................... 18

4 Principles ......................................................................................................... 19

5 Generic requirements...................................................................................... 20

5.1 General .............................................................................................................. 20

5.2 Discontinuities and cracks ................................................................................. 22

5.3 NDT drawing callouts ......................................................................................... 22

5.4 NDT process and configuration control .............................................................. 22

5.5 NDT procedure capability demonstration ........................................................... 23

5.6 Organizational guidelines and documentation requirement ................................ 24

5.7 NDT personnel qualification and certification ..................................................... 24

6 NDT methods ................................................................................................... 25

6.1 Visual testing ..................................................................................................... 25

6.1.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 25

6.1.1.1 General process for visual testing ...................................................... 25

6.1.1.2 Visual testing process variations ........................................................ 25

6.1.2 General visual testing requirements ..................................................... 25

6.1.3 Visual testing equipment ...................................................................... 26

6.1.3.1 Overview............................................................................................. 26

6.1.3.2 Requirements for visual testing equipment ........................................ 26

6.1.4 Visual testing application ...................................................................... 26

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SIST EN 16602-70-15:2021
EN 16602-70-15:2021 (E)

6.1.5 Visual testing documentation ............................................................... 27

6.1.6 Visual testing process control ............................................................... 27

6.1.7 Visual testing process limitations and peculiarities ............................... 27

6.2 Leak testing ....................................................................................................... 28

6.2.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 28

6.2.1.1 General process for leak testing ........................................................ 28

6.2.1.2 Leak testing process variations .......................................................... 28

6.2.2 General leak test requirements ............................................................ 29

6.2.3 Process application .............................................................................. 29

6.2.3.1 Leak test procedure ............................................................................ 29

6.2.3.2 Leak test documentation .................................................................... 30

6.3 Penetrant testing ............................................................................................... 30

6.3.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 30

6.3.1.1 General process for penetrant testing ................................................ 30

6.3.1.2 Penetrant testing process variations .................................................. 30

6.3.2 General penetrant testing requirements ............................................... 31

6.3.3 Penetrant testing equipment ................................................................ 32

6.3.3.1 Overview............................................................................................. 32

6.3.3.2 Requirements for penetrant testing equipment .................................. 32

6.3.4 Penetrant testing process application ................................................... 32

6.3.5 Penetrant testing documentation .......................................................... 34

6.3.6 Penetrant testing process control ......................................................... 34

6.3.7 Penetrant testing process limitations and peculiarities ......................... 34

6.3.7.1 Overview............................................................................................. 34

6.3.7.2 Etching requirements ......................................................................... 35

6.3.8 Standard penetrant fracture control NDT .............................................. 35

6.3.8.1 Overview............................................................................................. 35

6.3.8.2 Standard fracture control NDT requirements ..................................... 36

6.4 Eddy-current testing ........................................................................................... 36

6.4.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 36

6.4.1.1 General process for eddy-current testing ........................................... 36

6.4.1.2 Eddy-current process limitations and peculiarities ............................. 37

6.4.2 Eddy-current testing general requirements ........................................... 37

6.4.3 Eddy current testing process variations ................................................ 38

6.4.4 Eddy current equipment ....................................................................... 38

6.4.4.1 General ............................................................................................... 38

6.4.4.2 Instruments for the eddy-current testing ............................................ 38

6.4.4.3 Probes for the eddy-current testing .................................................... 38

6.4.4.4 Test-setup for the eddy current testing .............................................. 38

6.4.5 Eddy-current testing process application .............................................. 39

6.4.6 Eddy current testing documentation ..................................................... 39

6.4.7 Eddy current testing process control .................................................... 39

6.4.7.1 Overview............................................................................................. 39

6.4.7.2 Reference material blocks for the eddy-current testing ..................... 39

6.4.8 Standard eddy-current fracture control NDT ......................................... 40

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SIST EN 16602-70-15:2021
EN 16602-70-15:2021 (E)

6.4.8.1 Overview............................................................................................. 40

6.4.8.2 Standard eddy current testing requirements ...................................... 40

6.5 Magnetic particle testing .................................................................................... 41

6.5.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 41

6.5.1.1 General magnetic particle testing process ......................................... 41

6.5.1.2 Magnetic particle testing process variations ...................................... 41

6.5.2 General magnetic particle testing requirements ................................... 42

6.5.3 Magnetic particle testing equipment ..................................................... 42

6.5.3.1 General ............................................................................................... 42

6.5.3.2 Dry particles ....................................................................................... 42

6.5.3.3 Wet particles ....................................................................................... 42

6.5.3.4 Fluorescent particles .......................................................................... 43

6.5.4 Magnetic particle testing process application ....................................... 43

6.5.5 MT documentation ............................................................................... 44

6.5.6 MT process control ............................................................................... 44

6.5.7 MT process limitations and peculiarities ............................................... 44

6.5.8 Standard magnetic particle fracture control NDT .................................. 44

6.5.8.1 Overview............................................................................................. 44

6.5.8.2 Standard magnetic particle NDT requirements .................................. 45

6.6 X-ray radiographic testing .................................................................................. 45

6.6.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 45

6.6.1.1 General process ................................................................................. 45

6.6.1.2 X-ray radiographic testing process variations .................................... 45

6.6.2 General X-ray radiographic testing requirements ................................. 46

6.6.3 X-ray radiographic equipment .............................................................. 46

6.6.4 X-ray radiographic testing process application ..................................... 46

6.6.5 X-ray radiographic testing documentation ............................................ 47

6.6.6 X-ray radiographic testing process control ........................................... 47

6.6.7 Standard X-ray radiographic fracture control NDT ................................ 47

6.6.7.1 Overview............................................................................................. 47

6.6.7.2 X-ray radiographic testing requirements ............................................ 47

6.7 Ultrasonic testing ............................................................................................... 48

6.7.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 48

6.7.1.1 General process for ultrasonic testing ................................................ 48

6.7.1.2 Ultrasonic testing process variations .................................................. 48

6.7.2 General ................................................................................................ 52

6.7.3 Ultrasonic testing equipment ................................................................ 52

6.7.3.1 General requirements ......................................................................... 52

6.7.3.2 Couplants ........................................................................................... 52

6.7.3.3 Search units ....................................................................................... 53

6.7.4 Ultrasonic testing process application .................................................. 53

6.7.4.1 General ............................................................................................... 53

6.7.4.2 Scanning ............................................................................................ 53

6.7.4.3 Scanning index ................................................................................... 53

6.7.4.4 Qualification ........................................................................................ 54

6.7.4.5 Ultrasonic test documentation ............................................................ 54

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SIST EN 16602-70-15:2021
EN 16602-70-15:2021 (E)

6.7.5 Ultrasonic testing process control ......................................................... 54

6.7.5.1 Ultrasonic testing calibration sensitivity and limitations ..................... 54

6.7.5.2 Ultrasonic thickness gauge ................................................................ 55

6.7.5.3 Digital ultrasonic thickness gauge ...................................................... 55

6.7.5.4 Reference blocks ................................................................................ 55

6.7.6 Ultrasonic testing process limitations and peculiarities ......................... 56

6.7.6.1 Overview............................................................................................. 56

6.7.7 Standard ultrasonic fracture control NDT ............................................. 57

6.7.7.1 Overview............................................................................................. 57

6.7.7.2 Standard ultrasonic testing requirements ........................................... 57

6.8 Proof testing ...................................................................................................... 58

6.8.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 58

6.8.2 Proof testing requirements ................................................................... 58

7 Non-destructive testing of welds ................................................................... 59

8 Non-destructive testing of products .............................................................. 60

8.1 Overview ........................................................................................................... 60

8.2 General .............................................................................................................. 60

8.3 Wrought products .............................................................................................. 61

8.3.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 61

8.3.2 Raw material testing ............................................................................. 61

8.3.3 Common wrought discontinuities .......................................................... 62

8.4 Forgings ............................................................................................................ 62

8.4.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 62

8.4.2 Raw material testing ............................................................................. 62

8.4.3 Common forging discontinuities ........................................................... 63

8.5 Castings ............................................................................................................ 63

8.5.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 63

8.5.2 Raw material testing ............................................................................. 63

8.5.2.1 General ............................................................................................... 63

8.5.2.2 Penetrant testing of castings .............................................................. 63

8.5.2.3 Ultrasonic testing of castings ............................................................. 64

8.5.2.4 X-ray radiographic testing of castings ................................................ 64

8.5.2.5 X-Ray computed tomographic (CT) of castings ................................. 64

8.5.2.6 Common casting discontinuities ......................................................... 64

8.6 Laminated composite materials ......................................................................... 65

8.6.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 65

8.6.2 Raw material testing ............................................................................. 65

8.6.2.1 Overview............................................................................................. 65

8.6.2.2 Testing of intermediate products ........................................................ 66

8.6.3 Inspection techniques for composites................................................... 66

8.6.3.1 General ............................................................................................... 66

8.6.3.2 X-Ray Radiographic testing of composites ........................................ 66

8.6.3.3 X-ray Computed Tomographic (CT) Inspection of Composites ......... 66

8.6.3.4 Guided In-Plane Wave Inspection of Composites ............................. 67

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SIST EN 16602-70-15:2021
EN 16602-70-15:2021 (E)
8.6.3.5 Ultrasonic C-Scan and Phased Array (PAUT) of Composites ........... 67

8.6.3.6 Common discontinuities of Composites ............................................. 67

8.6.4 NDT for joining dissimilar materials ...................................................... 68

8.6.4.1 Overview............................................................................................. 68

8.6.4.2 Steps for specifying NDT for difficult features .................................... 68

8.6.4.3 NDT Coupled with Destructive Testing as Quality Control ................ 69

9 Non-destructive testing of PFCI ..................................................................... 70

9.1 General .............................................................................................................. 70

9.1.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 70

9.1.2 General requirements .......................................................................... 71

9.1.3 Capability demonstration ...................................................................... 72

9.1.4 Testing of raw material ......................................................................... 72

9.1.5 Testing of safe life finished parts .......................................................... 73

9.2 Non-destructive testing of metallic materials ...................................................... 73

9.2.1 General requirements .......................................................................... 73

9.2.2 NDT categories versus initial crack size ............................................... 74

9.2.2.1 Standard fracture control NDT ........................................................... 74

9.2.2.2 Special fracture control NDT .............................................................. 79

9.2.2.3 Crack screening proof test ................................................................. 81

9.2.3 Inspection procedure requirements for Standard fracture control NDT . 81

9.2.3.1 Overview............................................................................................. 81

9.2.3.2 Requirements ..................................................................................... 81

9.3 NDT for composites, bonded and sandwich parts .............................................. 82

9.3.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 82

9.3.2 Testing requirements ........................................................................... 82

9.3.2.1 General requirements ......................................................................... 82

9.3.2.2 Close visual testing ............................................................................ 82

9.3.2.3 NDT methods other than close visual testing..................................... 82

Annex A (normative) NDT plan - DRD ............................................................... 84

A.1 DRD identification .............................................................................................. 84

A.2 Expected response ............................................................................................ 84

Annex B (normative) NDT report - DRD ............................................................ 86

B.1 DRD identification .............................................................................................. 86

B.2 Expected response ............................................................................................ 86

Annex C (normative) NDT procedure - DRD ..................................................... 91

C.1 DRD identification .............................................................................................. 91

C.2 Expected response ............................................................................................ 91

Annex D (normative) Eddy-current testing instruction - DRD ........................ 92

D.1 DRD identification .............................................................................................. 92

D.2 Expected response ............................................................................................ 92

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SIST EN 16602-70-15:2021
EN 16602-70-15:2021 (E)

Annex E (informative) Catalogue of potential discontinuities ........................ 93

Annex F (informative) Example for POD evaluation , software and

documentation ................................................................................................ 95

F.1 Theory ............................................................................................................... 95

F.2 POD demonstration ........................................................................................... 96

Annex G (informative) Complementary material information ......................... 99

G.1 Overview ........................................................................................................... 99

G.2 Forgings and rolled products ............................................................................. 99

G.3 Castings .......................................................................................................... 101

G.4 Composite products ......................................................................................... 101

G.5 Ceramics ......................................................................................................... 103

Bibliography ...................................................................................................... 104

Figures

Figure 4-1: Flow chart showing steps to be taken for a part and choice of NDT method

and technique ............................................................................................... 19

Figure 6-1: A-Scan, typical display of ultrasonic signals .................................................. 49

Figure 6-2: B-Scan, typical display of ultrasonic signals .................................................. 50

Figure 6-3: C-Scan, typical display of ultrasonic signals .................................................. 50

Figure 6-4: S-Scan, typical display of ultrasonic signals .................................................. 51

Figure 9-1: Initial crack geometries for parts without holes .............................................. 77

Figure 9-2: Initial crack geometries for parts with holes ................................................... 78

Figure 9-3: Initial crack geometries for cylindrical parts ................................................... 78

Tables

Table 6-1: Examples of acceptance limits leak test rates ................................................. 29

Table 8-1: Thickness differences between sheet and plate ............................................. 61

Table 9-1: Initial crack size summary, Standard fracture control NDT .............................. 75

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SIST EN 16602-70-15:2021
EN 16602-70-15:2021 (E)
European Foreword

This document (EN 16602-70-15:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN-CENELEC/TC 5

“Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This standard (EN 16602-70-15:2021) originates from ECSS-Q-ST-70-15C.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2022, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a standardization request given to CEN by the European

Commission and the European Free Trade Association.

This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and has therefore precedence

over any EN covering the same scope but with a wider domain of applicability (e.g. : aerospace).

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-15:2021
EN 16602-70-15:2021 (E)
Introduction
This standard specifies general requirements for flight parts. It also covers
specific requirements for flight metallic components, structures and composite

parts used for space missions. It does not explicitly cover all the flight parts,

components, structures and techniques. Consequently, some techniques as
acou
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 16602-70-15:2018
01-september-2018
Zagotavljanje kakovosti proizvodov v vesoljski tehniki - Neporušitveni pregled
Space product assurance - Non-destructive inspection
Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung oder zerstörungsfreie Inspektion
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 16602-70-15
ICS:
19.100 Neporušitveno preskušanje Non-destructive testing
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
oSIST prEN 16602-70-15:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16602-70-15:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16602-70-15:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD
DRAFT
prEN 16602-70-15
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
June 2018
ICS 19.100; 49.140
English version
Space product assurance - Non-destructive inspection
Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung oder zerstörungsfreie
Inspektion

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for parallel enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical

Committee CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal

Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any

alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN and CENELEC in three official versions (English, French, German). A

version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own

language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany,

Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,

Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. prEN 16602-70-15:2018 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16602-70-15:2018
prEN 16602-70-15:2018 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................... 8

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 9

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................... 10

2 Normative references ........................................................................................... 11

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 15

3.1 Terms from other standards .................................................................................... 15

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard ................................................................... 15

3.3 Abbreviated terms and symbols .............................................................................. 17

3.4 Nomenclature ......................................................................................................... 18

3.4.1 Formal verbs ............................................................................................. 18

3.4.2 Conventions .............................................................................................. 19

4 Principles .............................................................................................................. 20

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 20

5 Generic requirements........................................................................................... 22

5.1 General ................................................................................................................... 22

5.2 Discontinuities and cracks ...................................................................................... 23

5.3 NDI drawing callouts ............................................................................................... 23

5.4 NDI process and configuration control .................................................................... 23

5.5 NDI procedure capability demonstration ................................................................. 24

5.6 Organizational guidelines and documentation requirement ..................................... 24

5.7 NDI personnel qualification and certification ........................................................... 25

6 NDI methods ......................................................................................................... 26

6.1 Visual inspection ..................................................................................................... 26

6.1.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 26

6.1.1.1 General process for visual inspection ........................................................... 26

6.1.1.2 Visual inspection process variations ............................................................. 26

6.1.2 General visual inspection requirements ..................................................... 26

6.1.3 Visual inspection equipment ...................................................................... 27

6.1.3.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 27

6.1.3.2 Requirements for visual inspection equipment ............................................. 27

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oSIST prEN 16602-70-15:2018
prEN 16602-70-15:2018 (E)

6.1.4 Visual inspection application ..................................................................... 27

6.1.5 Visual inspection documentation ............................................................... 28

6.1.6 Visual inspection process control .............................................................. 28

6.1.7 Visual inspection process limitations and peculiarities ............................... 28

6.2 Leak testing ............................................................................................................ 29

6.2.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 29

6.2.1.1 General process for leak testing ................................................................... 29

6.2.1.2 Leak testing process variations ..................................................................... 29

6.2.2 General leak test requirements ................................................................. 30

6.2.3 Process application ................................................................................... 30

6.2.3.1 Leak test procedure ....................................................................................... 30

6.2.3.2 Leak test documentation ............................................................................... 31

6.3 Proof testing ........................................................................................................... 31

6.3.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 31

6.3.2 Proof testing requirements ........................................................................ 31

6.4 Penetrant inspection ............................................................................................... 31

6.4.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 31

6.4.1.1 General process for penetrant inspection ..................................................... 31

6.4.1.2 Penetrant inspection process variations ....................................................... 32

6.4.2 General penetrant inspection requirements ............................................... 32

6.4.3 Penetrant inspection equipment ................................................................ 33

6.4.3.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 33

6.4.3.2 Requirements for penetrant inspection equipment ....................................... 33

6.4.4 Penetrant inspection process application .................................................. 33

6.4.5 Penetrant inspection documentation ......................................................... 35

6.4.6 Penetrant inspection process control ........................................................ 35

6.4.7 Penetrant inspection process limitations and peculiarities ......................... 35

6.4.7.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 35

6.4.7.2 Etching requirements .................................................................................... 36

6.4.8 Standard penetrant NDI ............................................................................ 36

6.4.8.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 36

6.4.8.2 Standard NDI requirements........................................................................... 36

6.5 Eddy-current inspection .......................................................................................... 37

6.5.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 37

6.5.1.1 General process for eddy-current inspection ................................................ 37

6.5.1.2 Eddy-current process limitations and peculiarities ........................................ 38

6.5.2 Eddy-current inspection general requirements .......................................... 38

6.5.3 Eddy current inspection process variations ............................................... 38

6.5.4 Eddy current equipment ............................................................................ 39

6.5.4.1 General .......................................................................................................... 39

6.5.4.2 Instruments for the eddy-current inspection .................................................. 39

6.5.4.3 Probes for the eddy-current inspection ......................................................... 39

6.5.4.4 Test-setup for the eddy current inspection .................................................... 39

6.5.5 Eddy-current inspection process application ............................................. 39

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6.5.6 Eddy current inspection documentation ..................................................... 40

6.5.7 Eddy current inspection process control .................................................... 40

6.5.7.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 40

6.5.7.2 Reference material blocks for the eddy-current inspection ........................... 40

6.5.8 Standard eddy-current NDI ....................................................................... 41

6.5.8.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 41

6.5.8.2 Standard eddy current inspection requirements ........................................... 41

6.6 Magnetic particle inspection .................................................................................... 42

6.6.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 42

6.6.1.1 General magnetic particle inspection process .............................................. 42

6.6.1.2 Magnetic particle inspection process variations ............................................ 42

6.6.2 General magnetic particle inspection requirements ................................... 43

6.6.3 Magnetic particle inspection equipment ..................................................... 43

6.6.3.1 General .......................................................................................................... 43

6.6.3.2 Dry particles .................................................................................................. 43

6.6.3.3 Wet particles .................................................................................................. 43

6.6.3.4 Fluorescent particles ..................................................................................... 44

6.6.4 Magnetic particle inspection process application ....................................... 44

6.6.5 MPI documentation ................................................................................... 45

6.6.6 MPI process control .................................................................................. 45

6.6.7 MPI process limitations and peculiarities ................................................... 45

6.6.8 Standard magnetic particle NDI................................................................. 46

6.6.8.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 46

6.6.8.2 Standard magnetic particle NDI requirements .............................................. 46

6.7 X-ray radiographic inspection ................................................................................. 46

6.7.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 46

6.7.1.1 General process ............................................................................................ 46

6.7.1.2 X-ray radiographic inspection process variations ......................................... 46

6.7.2 General X-ray radiographic inspection requirements ................................. 47

6.7.3 X-ray radiographic equipment ................................................................... 47

6.7.4 X-ray radiographic inspection process application ..................................... 47

6.7.5 X-ray radiographic inspection documentation ............................................ 48

6.7.6 X-ray radiographic inspection process control ........................................... 48

6.7.7 Standard X-ray radiographic NDI .............................................................. 48

6.7.7.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 48

6.7.7.2 X-ray radiographic inspection requirements.................................................. 49

6.8 Ultrasonic inspection ............................................................................................... 49

6.8.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 49

6.8.1.1 General process for ultrasonic inspection ..................................................... 49

6.8.1.2 Ultrasonic inspection process variations ....................................................... 49

6.8.2 General ..................................................................................................... 52

6.8.3 Ultrasonic inspection equipment ................................................................ 52

6.8.3.1 General requirements .................................................................................... 52

6.8.3.2 Couplants ...................................................................................................... 52

6.8.3.3 Search units .................................................................................................. 52

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6.8.4 Ultrasonic inspection process application .................................................. 52

6.8.4.1 General .......................................................................................................... 52

6.8.4.2 Scanning ....................................................................................................... 53

6.8.4.3 Scanning index .............................................................................................. 53

6.8.4.4 Qualification ................................................................................................... 53

6.8.4.5 Ultrasonic test documentation ....................................................................... 54

6.8.5 Ultrasonic inspection process control ........................................................ 54

6.8.5.1 Ultrasonice inspection calibration sensitivity and limitations ......................... 54

6.8.5.2 Ultrasonic inspection thickness gauge .......................................................... 54

6.8.5.3 Digital thickness gauge ................................................................................. 55

6.8.5.4 Reference standard blocks............................................................................ 55

6.8.6 Ultrasonice inspection process limitations and peculiarities ....................... 55

6.8.6.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 55

6.8.6.2 Requirements ................................................................................................ 56

6.8.7 Standard ultrasonic NDI ............................................................................ 56

6.8.7.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 56

6.8.7.2 Standard ultrasonic inspection requirements ................................................ 56

7 Welds inspection .................................................................................................. 57

8 Inspection of products ......................................................................................... 58

8.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 58

8.2 General ................................................................................................................... 58

8.3 Wrought products ................................................................................................... 59

8.3.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 59

8.3.2 Raw material inspection ............................................................................ 59

8.3.3 Common wrought defects ......................................................................... 60

8.4 Forgings ................................................................................................................. 60

8.4.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 60

8.4.2 Raw material inspection ............................................................................ 60

8.4.3 Common forging defects ........................................................................... 61

8.5 Castings ................................................................................................................. 61

8.5.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 61

8.5.2 Raw material inspection ............................................................................ 61

8.5.2.1 General .......................................................................................................... 61

8.5.2.2 Penetrant testing of castings ......................................................................... 61

8.5.3 Ultrasonic inspection of castings ............................................................... 62

8.5.3.1 General .......................................................................................................... 62

8.5.3.2 X-ray radiographic inspection of castings ..................................................... 62

8.5.3.3 X-Ray computed tomographic (CT) of castings ............................................ 62

8.5.3.4 Common casting defects ............................................................................... 62

9 Inspection of PFCI ................................................................................................ 64

9.1 General ................................................................................................................... 64

9.1.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 64

9.1.2 General requirements ............................................................................... 65

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9.1.3 Capability demonstration ........................................................................... 66

9.1.4 Inspection of raw material ......................................................................... 66

9.1.5 Inspection of safe life finished items .......................................................... 67

9.2 Non-destructive inspection of metallic materials ..................................................... 67

9.2.1 General requirements ............................................................................... 67

9.2.2 NDI categories versus initial crack size ..................................................... 68

9.2.2.1 Standard NDI ................................................................................................. 68

9.2.2.2 Special NDI ................................................................................................... 73

9.2.2.3 Crack screening proof test ............................................................................ 75

9.2.3 Inspection procedure requirements for Standard NDI ................................ 75

9.2.3.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 75

9.2.3.2 Requirements ................................................................................................ 75

9.3 NDI for composites, bonded and sandwich parts .................................................... 75

9.3.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 75

9.3.2 Inspection requirements ............................................................................ 76

9.3.2.1 General requirements .................................................................................... 76

Annex A (normative) NDI plan - DRD ...................................................................... 77

A.1 DRD identification ................................................................................................... 77

A.2 Expected response ................................................................................................. 77

Annex B (normative) NDI report - DRD.................................................................... 79

B.1 DRD identification ................................................................................................... 79

B.2 Expected response ................................................................................................. 79

Annex C (normative) NDI procedure - DRD ............................................................ 83

C.1 DRD identification ................................................................................................... 83

C.2 Expected response ................................................................................................. 83

Annex D (informative) Catalogue of potential defects ........................................... 84

Annex E (informative) POD evaluation example, software and

documentation ..................................................................................................... 86

E.1 Theory .................................................................................................................... 86

E.2 POD demonstration ................................................................................................ 87

Annex F (informative) Complementary material information ................................ 90

F.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 90

F.2 Forgings and rolled products .................................................................................. 90

F.3 Castings ................................................................................................................. 92

F.4 Composite products ................................................................................................ 92

F.5 Ceramics ................................................................................................................ 94

Bibliography ............................................................................................................. 95

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Figures

Figure 4-1: Flow chart showing steps to be taken for a part and choice of NDI method

and technique..................................................................................................... 21

Figure 6-1: A-Scan, typical displays of ultrasonic signals ...................................................... 50

Figure 6-2:B-Scan, typical displays of ultrasonic signals ....................................................... 50

Figure 6-3:C-Scan, typical displays of ultrasonic signals ...................................................... 51

Figure 6-4: S-Scan, typical displays of ultrasonic signals ...................................................... 51

Figure 9-1: Initial crack geometries for parts without holes ................................................... 71

Figure 9-2: Initial crack geometries for parts with holes ........................................................ 72

Figure 9-3: Initial crack geometries for cylindrical parts ........................................................ 72

Tables

Table 6-1: Examples of acceptance limits leak test rates ...................................................... 30

Table 8-1: Thickness differences between sheet and plate .................................................. 59

Table 9-1: Initial crack size summary, Standard NDI ............................................................ 69

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European Foreword
This document (prEN 16602-70-15:2018) has been prepared by Technical
Committee CEN/CLC/TC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN
(Germany).
This document (prEN 16602-70-15:2018) originates from ECSS-Q-ST-70-15C
DIR1.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN ENQUIRY.
This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and
will the-refore have precedence over any EN covering the same scope but
with a wider do-main of applicability (e.g.: aerospace).
This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the
European Commission and the European Free Trade Association
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Introduction
Non-destructive Inspection (NDI) covers a wide range of processes used in
quality control. The generic term NDI covers several sub processes such as Dye
Penetrant Inspection, Radiography, Ultrasonic and Eddy Current. The
processes are applied at the discretion of the design authority depending on the
criticality of the part or component and inherent risk of the manufacturing
process to create detrimental flaws. It is expected that every component used in
spaceflight is subjected to some level of NDI in accordance with the present
standard, which complements the ECSS-Q-ST-70-39C “Welding of metallic
materials for flight hardware”.
The lack of NDI control throughout the supply chain has been evident in all
space projects across the Europe. As no standard was in place at that time this

has resulted in inconsistency in the rationale and application for NDI selection.

NDI is generally applied for quality control to ensure that components are free
of defects and discontinuities. For some components the NDI methods used

form the basis of the fracture and fatigue verification and thus the assurance of

design margins. The level of NDI is expected to be decided based on the
manufacturing processes applied and the criticality of the part or component
and the impact if that part f
...

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