Method of sampling insulating liquids

IEC 60475:2011 is applicable to the procedure to be used for insulating liquids in delivery containers and in electrical equipment such as power and instrument transformers, reactors, bushings, oil-filled cables, oil-filled tank-type capacitors, switchgear and load tap changers. The main changes with respect to the previous edition are as follows: - withdrawal of askarels; - addition of recommendations concerning general health, safety and environmental protection; - additional details regarding the sampling of oil from electrical equipment, using various types of sampling devices appropriate for the different types of oil tests to be performed in the laboratory.

Verfahren zur Probennahme von Isolierflüssigkeiten

Méthode d'échantillonnage des liquides isolants

La CEI 60475:2011 décrit le mode opératoire d'échantillonnage à utiliser dans des liquides isolants dans les récipients de livraison et les appareils électriques tels que les transformateurs de puissance et de mesure, les réacteurs, les traversées de transformateurs, les câbles à huile fluide, les condensateurs de puissance, l'appareillage de connexion et les changeurs de prise en charge. Les modifications principales par rapport à l'édition précédente sont les suivantes: - retrait des askarels; - ajout de recommandations en matière de protection générale de la santé, de la sécurité et de l'environnement on été ajoutées en tant qu'Introduction; détails supplémentaires concernant l'échantillonnage de l'huile dans les appareils électriques, à l'aide de différents types de matériels d'échantillonnage correspondant aux différents types d'essais à l'huile à réaliser en laboratoire.

Metoda vzorčenja izolacijskih tekočin

Ta mednarodni standard se uporablja za postopek za izolacijske tekočine v transportnih vsebnikih in električni opremi, kot so močnostni in instrumentni transformatorji, dušilke, skoznjiki, oljni tlačni kabli, oljni kondenzatorji za nihajni krog, stikalne naprave in bremenski odcepni preklopniki (LTC). Ta standard se uporablja za tekočine z viskoznostjo, ki je pri temperaturi vzorčenja manjša od 1500 mm2/s (ali cSt). Uporablja se za mineralna in nemineralna olja (kot so sintetični estri, naravni estri, rastlinska olja ali silikoni).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Jan-2012
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
11-Jan-2012
Due Date
17-Mar-2012
Completion Date
17-Jan-2012

Buy Standard

Standard
SIST EN 60475:2012
English language
29 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 60475:2012
01-marec-2012
0HWRGDY]RUþHQMDL]RODFLMVNLKWHNRþLQ
Method of sampling insulating liquids
Verfahren zur Probennahme von Isolierflüssigkeiten
Méthode d'échantillonnage des liquides isolants
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 60475:2011
ICS:
29.040.01 Izolacijski fluidi na splošno Insulating fluids in general
SIST EN 60475:2012 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 60475:2012
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 60475:2012
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 60475
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2011
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 29.040
English version
Method of sampling insulating liquids
(IEC 60475:2011)
Méthode d'échantillonnage des liquides Verfahren zur Probennahme von
isolants Isolierflüssigkeiten
(CEI 60475:2011) (IEC 60475:2011)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2011-11-24. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,

Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B - 1000 Brussels

© 2011 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 60475:2011 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 60475:2012
EN 60475:2011 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 10/848/FDIS, future edition 2 of IEC 60475, prepared by IEC/TC 10 "Fluids for

electrotechnical applications" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by

CENELEC as EN 60475:2011.
The following dates are fixed:
(dop) 2012-08-24
• latest date by which the document has
to be implemented at national level by
publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
(dow) 2014-11-24
• latest date by which the national
standards conflicting with the
document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60475:2011 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 60475:2012
- 3 - EN 60475:2011
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60567 2011 Oil-filled electrical equipment - Sampling of EN 60567 2011
gases and analysis of free and dissolved
gases - Guidance
IEC 60970 - Insulating liquids - Methods for counting and EN 60970 -
sizing particles
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 60475:2012
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 60475:2012
IEC 60475
Edition 2.0 2011-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Method of sampling insulating liquids
Méthode d'échantillonnage des liquides isolants
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX U
ICS 29.040 ISBN 978-2-88912-767-2
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 60475:2012
– 2 – 60475 © IEC:2011
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................... 6

4 General principles for the sampling of insulating liquids .................................................... 7

4.1 New insulating liquids in delivery containers ............................................................ 7

4.1.1 Place of sampling ........................................................................................ 7

4.1.2 Quantity of sample to be taken .................................................................... 7

4.1.3 Sampling equipment .................................................................................... 7

4.1.4 Sampling procedure................................................................................... 11

4.2 Sampling of oil from oil-filled equipment ................................................................ 13

4.2.1 General remarks ........................................................................................ 13

4.2.2 Sampling of oil by syringe .......................................................................... 19

4.2.3 Sampling of oil by ampoule ........................................................................ 20

4.2.4 Sampling of oil by flexible metal bottles ..................................................... 21

4.2.5 Sampling of oil by glass and rigid metal bottles ......................................... 22

4.2.6 Sampling of oil by plastic bottles ................................................................ 23

4.3 Storage and transportation of samples .................................................................. 23

4.4 Labelling of samples .............................................................................................. 23

Annex A (informative) Procedure for sampling at intermediate levels (making up of the

average sample) ................................................................................................................... 25

Annex B (informative) Procedure for testing the integrity of the syringes .............................. 26

Figure 1 – Thief dipper ............................................................................................................ 8

Figure 2 – Cream dipper ......................................................................................................... 9

Figure 3 – Pipette ................................................................................................................. 10

Figure 4 – Siphon ................................................................................................................. 10

Figure 5 – Sampling of oil by syringe .................................................................................... 15

Figure 6 – Sampling of oil by ampoule .................................................................................. 16

Figure 7 – Sampling of oil by bottle ....................................................................................... 17

Table 1 – Types of samples of new insulating liquids ............................................................ 11

Table 2 – Sample containers for oil tests (Y = Yes) ............................................................... 18

Table 3 – Information required on oil sample labels .............................................................. 24

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 60475:2012
60475 © IEC:2011 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
METHOD OF SAMPLING INSULATING LIQUIDS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60475 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 10: Fluids

for electrotechnical applications.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition, published in 1974, and constitutes

a technical revision.
The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below:

– since the publication of the first edition of this standard, askarels have been banned and

therefore have been withdrawn from this second edition;

– recommendations concerning general health, safety and environmental protection have

been added as an Introduction;

– the first edition was mainly about sampling from drums and tank cars. This second edition

addresses in more detail the sampling of oil from electrical equipment, using various types

of sampling devices appropriate for the different types of oil tests to be performed in the

laboratory, including dissolved gas analysis (DGA).
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 60475:2012
– 4 – 60475 © IEC:2011
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
10/848/FDIS 10/871/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 60475:2012
60475 © IEC:2011 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION
General caution, health, safety and environmental protection

This International Standard does not purport to address all the safety problems associated

with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of the standard to establish appropriate health

and safety practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

The insulating oils which are the subject of this standard should be handled with due regard to

personal hygiene. Direct contact with the eyes may cause irritation. In the case of eye

contact, irrigation with copious quantities of clean running water should be carried out and

medical advice sought. Some of the tests specified in this standard involve the use of

processes that could lead to a hazardous situation. Attention is drawn to the relevant standard

for guidance.
Environment

This standard is applicable to mineral oils and non-mineral oils, chemicals and used sample

containers.

Attention is drawn to the fact that, some mineral oils in service may still be contaminated to

some degree by PCBs. If this is the case, safety countermeasures should be taken to avoid

risks to workers, the public and the environment during the life of the equipment, by strictly

controlling spills and emissions. Disposal or decontamination of these oils should be carried

out strictly according to local regulations. Every precaution should be taken to prevent release

of mineral oil and non-mineral oil into the environment.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 60475:2012
– 6 – 60475 © IEC:2011
METHOD OF SAMPLING INSULATING LIQUIDS
1 Scope

This International Standard is applicable to the procedure to be used for insulating liquids in

delivery containers and in electrical equipment such as power and instrument transformers,

reactors, bushings, oil-filled cables, oil-filled tank-type capacitors, switchgear and load tap

changers (LTCs).

This standard applies to liquids the viscosity of which at the sampling temperature is less than

1 500 mm /s (or cSt). It applies to mineral oils and non-mineral oils (such as synthetic esters,

natural esters, vegetable oils or silicones).
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.

IEC 60567:2011, Oil-filled electrical equipment – Sampling of gases and analysis of free and

dissolved gases – Guidance
IEC 60970, Insulating liquids – Methods for counting and sizing particles
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
delivery containers

containers such as drums, rail tankers, road tankers or flexible plastic bags used to store,

transport and deliver batches of oil
3.2
electrical equipment

equipment filled with insulating oil such as power and instrument transformers, reactors,

bushings, oil-filled cables, oil-filled tank-type capacitors, switchgear and load tap changers

(LTCs)
3.3
sampling equipment

equipment used for sampling oil from delivery containers (e.g. sampling probes, such as

dippers or siphons) and from electrical equipment (e.g. connecting tubing and drain valve

adapters)

NOTE This also includes sample containers, waste oil containers and other accessories.

3.4
sample containers

containers such as syringes, bottles, ampoules or other devices used to store and transport

samples of oil for analysis
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 60475:2012
60475 © IEC:2011 – 7 –

NOTE This includes accessories such as valves, tubing or caps attached to the container.

4 General principles for the sampling of insulating liquids
4.1 New insulating liquids in delivery containers
4.1.1 Place of sampling

The sample shall be taken from the part of the delivery container where the insulating liquid is

likely to be most heavily contaminated. To evaluate the quality of a consignment, two types of

samples may be normally taken:

a) composite sample: mixture of samples taken at the same level in several containers;

b) individual sample: sample or mixture of samples taken at the same level in one container.

From a delivery, individual samples of 1 l may be taken from different containers for the

electric strength test. Further tests may be carried out on these samples and a complete

examination on the mixture of these (composite sample).

In certain cases, it may be useful to constitute an average sample within the container. An

average sample is a mixture of samples taken at different levels in one container.

1) tankers: samples should be taken from each tanker as described in 4.1.4.2 below;

2) drums: samples should be taken as described in 4.1.4.3 below.
In the case of a single drum, this shall be sampled.

In case there is more than one drum of a lot of oil, sampling procedures should be negotiated

between supplier and user. For example, samples can be taken from 10 % of drums or at

least 2 drums, whichever the largest.
4.1.2 Quantity of sample to be taken
This depends on the tests to be performed and the procedures used.
Typically, 2 l are taken.
4.1.3 Sampling equipment
4.1.3.1 General

Since the results of the tests included in IEC requirements for insulating liquids can greatly

depend on the impurities in the sample, it is essential to observe the following precautions:

– separate sampling equipment shall be reserved exclusively for each type of liquid. All

seals and tubing used should be compatible with the insulating liquid to be sampled;

– the equipment shall be clean and dry, following the cleaning procedures described in

4.2.1.6. Particular care should be taken to ensure the absence of any traces of solid

impurities, such as dust, fibres, etc. The use of rags for cleaning is not permitted.

4.1.3.2 Sampling probes

As examples, four types of sampling probes are described below. Other probes may also be

used, provided they do not introduce any contamination. Stainless steel and aluminium are

suitable.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 60475:2012
– 8 – 60475 © IEC:2011
a) Sampling from tankers

The thief dipper shown in Figure 1 is suitable for taking samples at the bottom of the

container. This is a dipper constructed of stainless steel or aluminium tubes and castings,

machine-finished all over. It shall be sufficiently heavy to sink in the liquid. It should

always be suspended by means of a metal wire or chain. String or other fibrous materials

shall not be used.

The cream dipper is used for taking top samples of insulating liquids. This probe shall be

constructed as shown in Figure 2 and shall be of stainless steel.
Dimensions in millimetres
Loop for chain
Thread
∅38
∅76
∅89
∅20 4 lugs 6 (high)
IEC 2474/11
Figure 1 – Thief dipper
267 100
203
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN 60475:2012
60475 © IEC:2011 – 9 –
Dimensions in millimetres
9,5
Valve
IEC 2475/11
Figure 2 – Cream dipper
b) Sampling from drums

The pipette shown in Figure 3 enables samples to be taken at the bottom of drums. This

pipette has a capacity of about 500 ml.

Another probe to take samples at the bottom is shown in Figure 4; it is a siphon with a

glass, stainless steel or aluminium tube having an internal diameter of about 13 mm for

taking off the sample liquid, and a metal tube (internal diameter 5 mm) for applying

pressure. Both tubes are set in an oil-resistant bung whose dimensions correspond to the

diameter of the bung hole in the drum. Commercial versions of this equipment are

available. When possible, glass is preferable for probes illustrated in Figures 3 and 4.

The cream dipper (Figure 2) may be used for taking top samples.
127
406
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN 60475:2012
– 10 – 60475 © IEC:2011
Dimensions in millimetres
∅10
∅35
Glass tubing
tapered at
both ends
∅10
IEC 2476/11
Figure 3 – Pipette
Air bulb
Sample bottle
Metal tube
Drum
Glass tube
∅13
IEC 2477/11
Figure 4 – Siphon
965
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN 60475:2012
60475 © IEC:2011 – 11 –
4.1.3.3 Sample containers

For storing and transporting samples, depending on the oil test to be performed, sample

containers of appropriate volume shall be used. Different types of sample containers are

indicated in 4.2.1.5.

For the mixing of different samples, a special sample container made of glass with a capacity

of at least 6 l shall be used. These special sample containers shall be closed in a manner that

allows them to be sealed, by means of oil-resistant plastic or compatible rubber tubing or

screw caps equipped with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) lining. Natural rubber tubing

and/or seals are not permitted. PTFE and polypropylene (PP) seals are acceptable.

Each sample container shall have a label on which are marked all the indications necessary

to identify the contents, i.e. the markings of the drums or tanks, date of sampling and the

name of the recipient.
4.1.3.4 Cleaning of sampling equipment

Sampling equipment shall be cleaned following the procedures described in 4.2.1.6.

4.1.4 Sampling procedure
4.1.4.1 General remarks

According to general principles for sampling (see 4.1.1), samples of new insulating liquid

shall be taken from the bottom of the delivery container, where the contamination is likely to

be the greatest. But in certain cases, an average sample is also of interest.

NOTE 1 To obtain an average sample, samples are taken at intermediate levels in tanks or drums. Examples of

procedure are given in Annex A. A procedure is indicated in the NOTE in 4.1.4.2 a) for obtaining the equivalent of

an average sample.
In Table 1 different cases are considered:
Table 1 – Types of samples of new insulating liquids
Type of delivery Recommended Equipment to be used Procedure Recommended
sampling quantity
Drums Composite Pipette (Figure 3) 4.1.4.2
3 × 2 l
or
Individual Siphon (Figure 4) 4.1.4.2
1 or 2 l
Thief dipper (Figure 1) 4.1.4.1 b)
3 × 2 l
Tankers Individual or
None (valve) 4.1.4.1 a)
Pipette
Drums Average or Annex A
Siphon (Figs 3 and 4)
3 × 2 l
Thief dipper (Figure 1)
Tankers Average or
none (valve) 4.1.4.1 a)

NOTE 2 Before sampling from tankers, sufficient oil should be pumped from the end of the delivery pipe, as

required by 4.1.4.2.

Every precaution shall be taken during sampling in order to avoid contamination of the

insulating liquids. Outdoor sampling of insulating liquids in rain, fog or high wind is only

permitted if all precautions have been taken to avoid contamination of the liquid. In this

special case, the use of a cover is necessary.
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
SIST EN 60475:2012
– 12 – 60475 © IEC:2011

Condensation shall be avoided by warming the sampling equipment so as to be above the

ambient air temperature. Before use, the equipment shall be rinsed with the liquid being

sampled. The operator shall be warned not to permit his hands to come in contact with the

surfaces of sampling equipment subsequently in contact with the oil. The insulating liquids

shall be protected against light irradiation during transportation and storage.

On arrival at the laboratory, the sampling container shall not be opened immediately. It is

necessary to wait until the temperature of the sample is the same as the room temperature.

4.1.4.2 Sampling from tankers

Insulating liquids may be sampled either through the tank outlet or by a thief dipper or by a

cream dipper.
a) Sampling through the tank outlet

By this procedure, it is possible to obtain a sample representative of the bottom of the

tank after this has been allowed to stand for at least 1 h after the vehicle has arrived.

NOTE It may be possible, by this procedure, to obtain the equivalent of an average sample, if the sampling

is done directly after the vehicle has arrived.
In this case, the sampling procedure shall be as follows:
– remove the outlet valve shield, if fitted;

– remove all visible dirt and dust from the valve by means of lint-free clean cloths or oil-

resistant synthetic sponges;

– the outlet system (pump, delivery pipe), if incorporated, shall be started or opened as

appropriate in order to get a sample;

– open the valve and allow to flow, slowly, at least 10 l of insulating liquid into a waste

oil container. In any case, discard at least an amount of oil equivalent to the volume of

pipe;
– rinse sampling bottles with the insulating liquid;
– fill sampling bottles at constant flow to avoid turbulence.
b) Sampling with a thief dipper or a cream dipper

This sampling should be carried out after the tank has been allowed to stand for at least

1 h after the vehicle has arrived.
1) Procedure with the thief dipper (Figure 1) (bottom samples)

For taking bottom samples (i.e. within 1 cm to 2 cm from the bottom of the tank) the

dipper is lowered until the projecting stem of the valve rod strikes the bottom of the

tank. The dipper then fills. Filling is complete when no more air bubbles escape. The

dipper is then withdrawn and its contents poured into the sample container (in the

case of an individual sample) or into the special glass sample container for collecting

and mixing the various samples taken (in the case of a composite sample). In this

latter case, the sample container(s) is (are) filled with the mixture so obtained. During

pouring of the liquid, avoid forming air bubbles by pouring too fast.
2) Procedure with the cream dipper (Figure 2) (top samples)

With the valve closed, fill the cream dipper by slowly immersing it in the liquid to be

sampled until the rim is just below the surface of the liquid so that it will flow slowly

into the dipper. Discard the first filling. Refill the dipper as above and transfer the

sample to the sample container by allowing it to flow from the bottom orifice against

the side of the sample container and not in a stream into the bottom of the sample

---------------------- Page: 18 ----------------------
SIST EN 60475:2012
60475 © IEC:2011 – 13 –

container. Repeat the operation until sufficient liquid is obtained to fill the sample

container (individual sample) or the special glass sample container used for mixing

samples depending on the type of sample to be obtained.
4.1.4.3 Sampling from drums

Samples should be taken after the drums have been allowed to stand for at least 8 h with the

bung uppermost, protected against rain and rainwater. For sampling the bottom (i.e. 3 mm

up), the pipette (Figure 3) or the siphon pressure thief (Figure 4) may be used.

For taking a sample from the surface layer of the liquid, the cream dipper (Figure 2) may be

used.
Examples of procedure:
a) Use of pipette (Figure 3) (bottom samples)

– block the upper orifice of the pipette with the thumb, and then immerse the pipette in

the liquid to the bottom of the drum;
– remove the thumb to allow liquid to enter the pipette;

– again close the upper end of the pipette with the thumb and withdraw the pipette;

– the first filling is used for rinsing the pipette; transfer the next fillings into either a

sample c
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.