Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 6: Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection

The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zu Strukturmaterialien - Teil 6: Modellierung von Brüchen und Materialien - Fallstudien, Design, Integritätskontrolle, Inspektionen

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 6 : Modélisation des matériaux et de leur rupture, études de cas, inspections et contrôle de l’intégrité

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 6. del: Modeliranje zlomov in materialov, študije primerov ter načrtovanje in nadzor integritete in inšpekcijski pregled

Priročnik o strukturnih materialih, SMH, združuje informacije o materialih in oblikovanju uveljavljenih polimernih matričnih kompozitov z začasnimi informacijami o nastajajočih skupinah novejših naprednih materialov in njihovih kompozitov. Opisani so vidiki oblikovanja, skupaj z dejavniki združevanja in proizvodnje. Kjer je mogoče, so podani primeri ali študije primerov.
Priročnik o strukturnih materialih vsebuje 8 delov.
Slovar izrazov, opredelitve in okrajšave izrazov za te priročnike so v 8. delu.
Deli so:
1. del: Pregled in lastnosti materialov ter aplikacije                    Točke 1–9
2. del: Metode za izračun zasnove in splošni vidiki zasnove    Točke 10–22
3. del: Prenos obremenitve ter projektiranje spojev in konstrukcij    Točke 23–32
4. del: Nadzor integritete, smernice za preverjanje in proizvodnja    Točke 33–45
5. del: Novi napredni materiali, napredni kovinski materiali, splošni konstrukcijski vidiki ter prenos obremenitve in oblikovanje sklepov    Točke 46–63
6. del: Modeliranje zlomov in materialov, študije primerov, načrtovanje in nadzor integritete ter inšpekcijski pregled    Točke 64–81
7. del: Toplotna in okoljska celovitost, proizvodni vidiki, spremljanje stanja materialov v orbiti, mehki materiali, hibridni materiali in nanotehnologije   Točke 82–107
8. del: Slovar   
OPOMBA: Teh 8 delov je označenih s številkami od TR17603-32-01 do TR 17603-32-08.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
24-Oct-2021
Publication Date
01-Feb-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
31-Jan-2022
Due Date
07-Apr-2022
Completion Date
02-Feb-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-06:2022
01-marec-2022

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 6. del: Modeliranje zlomov

in materialov, študije primerov ter načrtovanje in nadzor integritete in inšpekcijski

pregled

Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 6: Fracture and material

modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zu Strukturmaterialien - Teil 6: Modellierung von Brüchen

und Materialien - Fallstudien, Design, Integritätskontrolle, Inspektionen

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 6 : Modélisation des

matériaux et de leur rupture, études de cas, inspections et contrôle de l’intégrité

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17603-32-06:2022
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-06:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-06:2022
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-06:2022
TECHNICAL REPORT CEN/TR 17603-32-06
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
January 2022
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part
6: Fracture and material modelling, case studies and
design and integrity control and inspection

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zu Strukturmaterialien -

- Partie 6 : Modélisation des matériaux et de leur Teil 6: Modellierung von Brüchen und Materialien -

rupture, études de cas, inspections et contrôle de Fallstudien, Design, Integritätskontrolle, Inspektionen

l'intégrité

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 29 November 2021. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. CEN/TR 17603-32-06:2022 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................. 25

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 26

64 Behaviour of advanced composites ................................................................. 27

64.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 27

64.2 Summary of material behaviour .............................................................................. 28

64.2.1 Metal matrix composites............................................................................ 28

64.2.2 Inorganic ceramic matrix composites ........................................................ 29

64.3 Significant behavioural characteristics .................................................................... 29

64.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 29

64.3.2 Modulus mismatch .................................................................................... 29

64.3.3 Matrix-to-reinforcement interface ............................................................... 30

64.3.4 In-situ fibre strength .................................................................................. 31

64.3.5 CTE mismatch .......................................................................................... 31

64.3.6 Thermal history and residual stresses ....................................................... 32

64.3.7 Multiple cracking ....................................................................................... 32

64.3.8 Thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) ............................................................ 32

64.4 Basic fracture characteristics .................................................................................. 32

64.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 32

64.4.2 Particulate reinforced MMC ....................................................................... 33

64.4.3 Fibre reinforced MMC ............................................................................... 34

64.4.4 Fibre reinforced CMC ................................................................................ 35

64.4.5 Defining design values .............................................................................. 35

64.5 Failure criteria for CMC ........................................................................................... 36

64.5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 36

64.5.2 Design aspects ......................................................................................... 36

64.6 References ............................................................................................................. 39

64.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 39

65 Particulate reinforced metals ............................................................................ 40

65.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 40

65.1.1 Materials ................................................................................................... 40

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65.1.2 Composites ............................................................................................... 40

65.1.3 Particulate reinforcement .......................................................................... 41

65.2 Damage mechanisms ............................................................................................. 42

65.2.1 Unnotched specimen ................................................................................ 42

65.2.2 Notched specimen .................................................................................... 43

65.2.3 Influence of particles ................................................................................. 43

65.2.4 Composite performance ............................................................................ 44

65.3 Failure modes and fracture behaviour..................................................................... 44

65.3.1 Matrix effects ............................................................................................. 44

65.3.2 Failure mode studies ................................................................................. 45

65.3.3 Particulate shape and aspect ratio ............................................................ 45

65.3.4 Particulate fracture .................................................................................... 47

65.3.5 Void nucleation and growth ....................................................................... 47

65.3.6 Fracture toughness ................................................................................... 48

65.4 Thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) and creep ......................................................... 49

65.4.1 Residual stresses ...................................................................................... 49

65.4.2 Temperature ............................................................................................. 49

65.4.3 Superplasticity ........................................................................................... 49

65.4.4 Applications............................................................................................... 49

65.5 References ............................................................................................................. 49

65.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 49

66 Fibre reinforced metals ...................................................................................... 52

66.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 52

66.1.1 Materials ................................................................................................... 52

66.2 Damage mechanisms ............................................................................................. 53

66.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 53

66.2.2 Effect of lay-up .......................................................................................... 53

66.3 Failure modes ......................................................................................................... 54

66.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 54

66.3.2 Matrix dominated failure ............................................................................ 54

66.3.3 Fibre-dominated damage .......................................................................... 54

66.3.4 Self-similar damage growth ....................................................................... 54

66.3.5 Fibre-matrix interfacial failures .................................................................. 55

66.4 Thermo-mechanical and creep response ................................................................ 55

66.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 55

66.4.2 Application ................................................................................................ 56

66.5 References ............................................................................................................. 56

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66.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 56

67 Inorganic ceramic matrix composites .............................................................. 58

67.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 58

67.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 58

67.1.2 Matrix ........................................................................................................ 59

67.1.3 Interface .................................................................................................... 59

67.1.4 Fibres ........................................................................................................ 59

67.2 Damage mechanisms ............................................................................................. 59

67.2.1 Material effects .......................................................................................... 59

67.2.2 Microcracking ............................................................................................ 59

67.2.3 Porosity ..................................................................................................... 61

67.2.4 Manufacturing and in-service effects ......................................................... 62

67.2.5 Crack propagation ..................................................................................... 62

67.3 Fracture behaviour .................................................................................................. 63

67.3.1 Toughness parameters ............................................................................. 63

67.3.2 Test specimens ......................................................................................... 68

67.3.3 'R' curves .................................................................................................. 68

67.4 References ............................................................................................................. 70

68 Modelling advanced materials ........................................................................... 71

68.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 71

68.1.1 Polymer composites .................................................................................. 71

68.1.2 Metal matrix composites............................................................................ 71

68.1.3 Inorganic ceramic matrix materials ............................................................ 71

68.1.4 Summary of models .................................................................................. 72

68.2 Particulate reinforced metals .................................................................................. 73

68.2.1 Use of models ........................................................................................... 73

68.3 Fibre reinforced metals ........................................................................................... 73

68.3.1 Use of models ........................................................................................... 73

68.4 Inorganic ceramic matrix composites ...................................................................... 74

68.4.1 Use of models ........................................................................................... 74

68.5 References ............................................................................................................. 77

68.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 77

69 High-temperature structures ............................................................................. 79

69.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 79

69.1.1 Applications............................................................................................... 79

69.1.2 Performance ............................................................................................. 79

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69.1.3 High-temperature materials ....................................................................... 79

69.1.4 Development approach ............................................................................. 80

69.2 Functions ................................................................................................................ 80

69.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 80

69.2.2 Aerodynamic heating ................................................................................ 81

69.2.3 Propulsive power generation ..................................................................... 82

69.3 Operating environments.......................................................................................... 83

69.4 Integration .............................................................................................................. 83

69.5 Heat management .................................................................................................. 84

69.6 Life expectancy ....................................................................................................... 84

69.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 84

69.6.2 Launcher ................................................................................................... 84

69.6.3 Spaceplane ............................................................................................... 84

69.6.4 Satellite ..................................................................................................... 85

69.7 Materials selection .................................................................................................. 85

69.8 Manufacturing ......................................................................................................... 85

69.9 Applications ............................................................................................................ 86

69.9.1 Future reusable launch vehicles ................................................................ 86

69.9.2 Flight-vehicle dependent ........................................................................... 87

69.9.3 Non-vehicle dependent ............................................................................. 91

69.9.4 Summary of European capabilities ............................................................ 94

69.10 References ............................................................................................................. 95

69.10.1 General ..................................................................................................... 95

70 Thermo-structural designs ................................................................................ 97

70.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 97

70.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 97

70.1.2 Single mission ........................................................................................... 97

70.1.3 Reusable vehicles ..................................................................................... 98

70.2 Spaceplanes ........................................................................................................... 98

70.2.1 Hermes ..................................................................................................... 98

70.2.2 HOPE........................................................................................................ 98

70.2.3 Single- and two-stage-to-orbit ................................................................... 99

70.3 Hermes ................................................................................................................... 99

70.4 HOPE ................................................................................................................... 100

70.5 HOTOL ................................................................................................................. 104

70.6 SÄNGER .............................................................................................................. 106

70.7 National aerospace plane (NASP) ........................................................................ 107

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70.8 Demonstrator panels ............................................................................................ 109

70.8.1 General ................................................................................................... 109

70.8.2 NASP ...................................................................................................... 109

70.9 Nose cones........................................................................................................... 109

70.9.1 General ................................................................................................... 109

70.9.2 Shuttle orbiter .......................................................................................... 109

70.9.3 Hermes ................................................................................................... 111

70.9.4 HOPE...................................................................................................... 113

70.9.5 NASP ...................................................................................................... 113

70.9.6 HOTOL ................................................................................................... 113

70.9.7 SÄNGER ................................................................................................. 114

70.9.8 X-38 ........................................................................................................ 114

70.10 Wing leading edges (WLE) ................................................................................... 115

70.10.1 General ................................................................................................... 115

70.10.2 Shuttle orbiter .......................................................................................... 115

70.10.3 Buran ...................................................................................................... 115

70.10.4 Hermes ................................................................................................... 117

70.10.5 HOPE...................................................................................................... 118

70.10.6 Others ..................................................................................................... 118

70.11 Box sections ......................................................................................................... 119

70.11.1 NASP ...................................................................................................... 119

70.11.2 Hermes ................................................................................................... 119

70.12 Cryogenic tanks .................................................................................................... 120

70.13 Heat shield designs .............................................................................................. 120

70.14 Air inlet-intakes ..................................................................................................... 123

70.15 Earth re-entry capsules ......................................................................................... 124

70.16 Manned re-entry vehicles ...................................................................................... 126

70.17 Deep space missions ............................................................................................ 127

70.17.1 CNSR ROSETTA: Earth return capsule .................................................. 127

70.18 Mars landers ......................................................................................................... 128

70.18.1 General ................................................................................................... 128

70.18.2 NASA Pathfinder/MESUR network landers ............................................. 128

70.18.3 MARSNET .............................................................................................. 129

70.19 Cassini-Huygens .................................................................................................. 129

70.19.1 General ................................................................................................... 129

70.19.2 C-C aerobrake (heat shield) .................................................................... 129

70.19.3 Nose cap front shield with AQ60 ............................................................. 130

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70.20 Planetary probes .................................................................................................. 130

70.21 Aerobrake designs ................................................................................................ 130

70.21.1 General ................................................................................................... 130

70.21.2 NASA/ESA Cassini-Huygens mission ..................................................... 130

70.22 PRORA: USV – unmanned space vehicle ............................................................ 132

70.22.1 Background ............................................................................................. 132

70.22.2 USV programme ..................................................................................... 133

70.22.3 USV systems and flight test beds ............................................................ 134

70.22.4 External configuration of FTB_1 and FTB_2............................................ 135

70.22.5 External configuration of FTB_3 .............................................................. 136

70.23 X-38 Body flap ...................................................................................................... 138

70.23.1 Background ............................................................................................. 138

70.23.2 Body flaps ............................................................................................... 140

70.23.3 Mechanical fasteners .............................................................................. 141

70.23.4 CMC to metal attachment ........................................................................ 142

70.23.5 Ceramic bearings .................................................................................... 143

70.23.6 Ceramic seals ......................................................................................... 144

70.24 X-38 Nose cap ...................................................................................................... 145

70.24.1 Background ............................................................................................. 145

70.24.2 Concept .................................................................................................. 146

70.24.3 Thermal profiles ...................................................................................... 146

70.24.4 Flexible insulation design ........................................................................ 147

70.24.5 Integration and qualification testing ......................................................... 148

70.24.6 Summary ................................................................................................ 150

70.25 Aerobrake: Deployable CMC decelerator .............................................................. 151

70.25.1 Background ............................................................................................. 151

70.25.2 Mars ISRU mission ‘in-situ resource unit’ ................................................ 152

70.25.3 Mars ISRU mission – Concept ................................................................ 152

70.25.4 Mars ISRU mission – Environmental aspects .......................................... 155

70.26 References ........................................................................................................... 155

70.26.1 General ................................................................................................... 155

71 Thermal protection systems ............................................................................ 160

71.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 160

71.1.1 Application .............................................................................................. 160

71.1.2 European development programmes ...................................................... 161

71.1.3 Concepts ................................................................................................. 162

71.1.4 Non load-carrying TPS ............................................................................ 164

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71.1.5 Load-carrying TPS .................................................................................. 164

71.1.6 Reusable structures ................................................................................ 165

71.2 Cooling modes ...................................................................................................... 166

71.2.1 General ................................................................................................... 166

71.2.2 Passive TPS ........................................................................................... 166

71.2.3 Active cooling concepts ........................................................................... 167

71.3 Early re-entry capsules ......................................................................................... 168

71.4 Ablative designs ................................................................................................... 170

71.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 170

71.4.2 Programmes ...........................
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-06:2021
01-oktober-2021

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 6. del: Modeliranje zlomov

in materialov, študije primerov ter načrtovanje in nadzor integritete in inšpekcijski

pregled

Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 6: Fracture and material

modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection
Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch Strukturwerkstoffe - Teil 6: Bruch- und

Materialmodellierung, Fallstudien und Design sowie Integritätskontrolle und -prüfung

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 6 : Modélisation des

matériaux et de leur rupture, études de cas, inspections et contrôle de l’intégrité

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TR 17603-32-06
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-06:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-06:2021
TECHNICAL REPORT
FINAL DRAFT
FprCEN/TR 17603-32-06
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
August 2021
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part
6: Fracture and material modelling, case studies and
design and integrity control and inspection

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch Strukturwerkstoffe -

- Partie 6 : Modélisation des matériaux et de leur Teil 6: Bruch- und Materialmodellierung, Fallstudien

rupture, études de cas, inspections et contrôle de und Design sowie Integritätskontrolle und -prüfung

l'intégrité

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. FprCEN/TR 17603-32-06:2021 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................. 25

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 26

64 Behaviour of advanced composites ................................................................. 27

64.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 27

64.2 Summary of material behaviour .............................................................................. 28

64.2.1 Metal matrix composites............................................................................ 28

64.2.2 Inorganic ceramic matrix composites ........................................................ 29

64.3 Significant behavioural characteristics .................................................................... 29

64.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 29

64.3.2 Modulus mismatch .................................................................................... 29

64.3.3 Matrix-to-reinforcement interface ............................................................... 30

64.3.4 In-situ fibre strength .................................................................................. 31

64.3.5 CTE mismatch .......................................................................................... 31

64.3.6 Thermal history and residual stresses ....................................................... 32

64.3.7 Multiple cracking ....................................................................................... 32

64.3.8 Thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) ............................................................ 32

64.4 Basic fracture characteristics .................................................................................. 32

64.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 32

64.4.2 Particulate reinforced MMC ....................................................................... 33

64.4.3 Fibre reinforced MMC ............................................................................... 34

64.4.4 Fibre reinforced CMC ................................................................................ 35

64.4.5 Defining design values .............................................................................. 35

64.5 Failure criteria for CMC ........................................................................................... 36

64.5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 36

64.5.2 Design aspects ......................................................................................... 36

64.6 References ............................................................................................................. 39

64.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 39

65 Particulate reinforced metals ............................................................................ 40

65.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 40

65.1.1 Materials ................................................................................................... 40

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65.1.2 Composites ............................................................................................... 40

65.1.3 Particulate reinforcement .......................................................................... 41

65.2 Damage mechanisms ............................................................................................. 42

65.2.1 Unnotched specimen ................................................................................ 42

65.2.2 Notched specimen .................................................................................... 43

65.2.3 Influence of particles ................................................................................. 43

65.2.4 Composite performance ............................................................................ 44

65.3 Failure modes and fracture behaviour..................................................................... 44

65.3.1 Matrix effects ............................................................................................. 44

65.3.2 Failure mode studies ................................................................................. 45

65.3.3 Particulate shape and aspect ratio ............................................................ 45

65.3.4 Particulate fracture .................................................................................... 47

65.3.5 Void nucleation and growth ....................................................................... 47

65.3.6 Fracture toughness ................................................................................... 48

65.4 Thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) and creep ......................................................... 49

65.4.1 Residual stresses ...................................................................................... 49

65.4.2 Temperature ............................................................................................. 49

65.4.3 Superplasticity ........................................................................................... 49

65.4.4 Applications............................................................................................... 49

65.5 References ............................................................................................................. 49

65.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 49

66 Fibre reinforced metals ...................................................................................... 52

66.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 52

66.1.1 Materials ................................................................................................... 52

66.2 Damage mechanisms ............................................................................................. 53

66.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 53

66.2.2 Effect of lay-up .......................................................................................... 53

66.3 Failure modes ......................................................................................................... 54

66.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 54

66.3.2 Matrix dominated failure ............................................................................ 54

66.3.3 Fibre-dominated damage .......................................................................... 54

66.3.4 Self-similar damage growth ....................................................................... 54

66.3.5 Fibre-matrix interfacial failures .................................................................. 55

66.4 Thermo-mechanical and creep response ................................................................ 55

66.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 55

66.4.2 Application ................................................................................................ 56

66.5 References ............................................................................................................. 56

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66.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 56

67 Inorganic ceramic matrix composites .............................................................. 58

67.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 58

67.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 58

67.1.2 Matrix ........................................................................................................ 59

67.1.3 Interface .................................................................................................... 59

67.1.4 Fibres ........................................................................................................ 59

67.2 Damage mechanisms ............................................................................................. 59

67.2.1 Material effects .......................................................................................... 59

67.2.2 Microcracking ............................................................................................ 59

67.2.3 Porosity ..................................................................................................... 61

67.2.4 Manufacturing and in-service effects ......................................................... 62

67.2.5 Crack propagation ..................................................................................... 62

67.3 Fracture behaviour .................................................................................................. 63

67.3.1 Toughness parameters ............................................................................. 63

67.3.2 Test specimens ......................................................................................... 68

67.3.3 'R' curves .................................................................................................. 68

67.4 References ............................................................................................................. 70

68 Modelling advanced materials ........................................................................... 71

68.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 71

68.1.1 Polymer composites .................................................................................. 71

68.1.2 Metal matrix composites............................................................................ 71

68.1.3 Inorganic ceramic matrix materials ............................................................ 71

68.1.4 Summary of models .................................................................................. 72

68.2 Particulate reinforced metals .................................................................................. 73

68.2.1 Use of models ........................................................................................... 73

68.3 Fibre reinforced metals ........................................................................................... 73

68.3.1 Use of models ........................................................................................... 73

68.4 Inorganic ceramic matrix composites ...................................................................... 74

68.4.1 Use of models ........................................................................................... 74

68.5 References ............................................................................................................. 77

68.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 77

69 High-temperature structures ............................................................................. 79

69.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 79

69.1.1 Applications............................................................................................... 79

69.1.2 Performance ............................................................................................. 79

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69.1.3 High-temperature materials ....................................................................... 79

69.1.4 Development approach ............................................................................. 80

69.2 Functions ................................................................................................................ 80

69.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 80

69.2.2 Aerodynamic heating ................................................................................ 81

69.2.3 Propulsive power generation ..................................................................... 82

69.3 Operating environments.......................................................................................... 83

69.4 Integration .............................................................................................................. 83

69.5 Heat management .................................................................................................. 84

69.6 Life expectancy ....................................................................................................... 84

69.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 84

69.6.2 Launcher ................................................................................................... 84

69.6.3 Spaceplane ............................................................................................... 84

69.6.4 Satellite ..................................................................................................... 85

69.7 Materials selection .................................................................................................. 85

69.8 Manufacturing ......................................................................................................... 85

69.9 Applications ............................................................................................................ 86

69.9.1 Future reusable launch vehicles ................................................................ 86

69.9.2 Flight-vehicle dependent ........................................................................... 87

69.9.3 Non-vehicle dependent ............................................................................. 91

69.9.4 Summary of European capabilities ............................................................ 94

69.10 References ............................................................................................................. 95

69.10.1 General ..................................................................................................... 95

70 Thermo-structural designs ................................................................................ 97

70.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 97

70.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 97

70.1.2 Single mission ........................................................................................... 97

70.1.3 Reusable vehicles ..................................................................................... 98

70.2 Spaceplanes ........................................................................................................... 98

70.2.1 Hermes ..................................................................................................... 98

70.2.2 HOPE........................................................................................................ 98

70.2.3 Single- and two-stage-to-orbit ................................................................... 99

70.3 Hermes ................................................................................................................... 99

70.4 HOPE ................................................................................................................... 100

70.5 HOTOL ................................................................................................................. 104

70.6 SÄNGER .............................................................................................................. 106

70.7 National aerospace plane (NASP) ........................................................................ 107

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70.8 Demonstrator panels ............................................................................................ 109

70.8.1 General ................................................................................................... 109

70.8.2 NASP ...................................................................................................... 109

70.9 Nose cones........................................................................................................... 109

70.9.1 General ................................................................................................... 109

70.9.2 Shuttle orbiter .......................................................................................... 109

70.9.3 Hermes ................................................................................................... 111

70.9.4 HOPE...................................................................................................... 113

70.9.5 NASP ...................................................................................................... 113

70.9.6 HOTOL ................................................................................................... 113

70.9.7 SÄNGER ................................................................................................. 114

70.9.8 X-38 ........................................................................................................ 114

70.10 Wing leading edges (WLE) ................................................................................... 115

70.10.1 General ................................................................................................... 115

70.10.2 Shuttle orbiter .......................................................................................... 115

70.10.3 Buran ...................................................................................................... 115

70.10.4 Hermes ................................................................................................... 117

70.10.5 HOPE...................................................................................................... 118

70.10.6 Others ..................................................................................................... 118

70.11 Box sections ......................................................................................................... 119

70.11.1 NASP ...................................................................................................... 119

70.11.2 Hermes ................................................................................................... 119

70.12 Cryogenic tanks .................................................................................................... 120

70.13 Heat shield designs .............................................................................................. 120

70.14 Air inlet-intakes ..................................................................................................... 123

70.15 Earth re-entry capsules ......................................................................................... 124

70.16 Manned re-entry vehicles ...................................................................................... 126

70.17 Deep space missions ............................................................................................ 127

70.17.1 CNSR ROSETTA: Earth return capsule .................................................. 127

70.18 Mars landers ......................................................................................................... 128

70.18.1 General ................................................................................................... 128

70.18.2 NASA Pathfinder/MESUR network landers ............................................. 128

70.18.3 MARSNET .............................................................................................. 129

70.19 Cassini-Huygens .................................................................................................. 129

70.19.1 General ................................................................................................... 129

70.19.2 C-C aerobrake (heat shield) .................................................................... 129

70.19.3 Nose cap front shield with AQ60 ............................................................. 130

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70.20 Planetary probes .................................................................................................. 130

70.21 Aerobrake designs ................................................................................................ 130

70.21.1 General ................................................................................................... 130

70.21.2 NASA/ESA Cassini-Huygens mission ..................................................... 130

70.22 PRORA: USV – unmanned space vehicle ............................................................ 132

70.22.1 Background ............................................................................................. 132

70.22.2 USV programme ..................................................................................... 133

70.22.3 USV systems and flight test beds ............................................................ 134

70.22.4 External configuration of FTB_1 and FTB_2............................................ 135

70.22.5 External configuration of FTB_3 .............................................................. 136

70.23 X-38 Body flap ...................................................................................................... 138

70.23.1 Background ............................................................................................. 138

70.23.2 Body flaps ............................................................................................... 140

70.23.3 Mechanical fasteners .............................................................................. 141

70.23.4 CMC to metal attachment ........................................................................ 142

70.23.5 Ceramic bearings .................................................................................... 143

70.23.6 Ceramic seals ......................................................................................... 144

70.24 X-38 Nose cap ...................................................................................................... 145

70.24.1 Background ............................................................................................. 145

70.24.2 Concept .................................................................................................. 146

70.24.3 Thermal profiles ...................................................................................... 146

70.24.4 Flexible insulation design ........................................................................ 147

70.24.5 Integration and qualification testing ......................................................... 148

70.24.6 Summary ................................................................................................ 150

70.25 Aerobrake: Deployable CMC decelerator .............................................................. 151

70.25.1 Background ............................................................................................. 151

70.25.2 Mars ISRU mission ‘in-situ resource unit’ ................................................ 152

70.25.3 Mars ISRU mission – Concept ................................................................ 152

70.25.4 Mars ISRU mission – Environmental aspects .......................................... 155

70.26 References ........................................................................................................... 155

70.26.1 General ................................................................................................... 155

71 Thermal protection systems ............................................................................ 160

71.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 160

71.1.1 Application .............................................................................................. 160

71.1.2 European development programmes ...................................................... 161

71.1.3 Concepts ................................................................................................. 162

71.1.4 Non load-carrying TPS ............................................................................ 164

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71.1.5 Load-carrying TPS .................................................................................. 164

71.1.6 Reusable structures ................................................................................ 165

71.2 Cooling modes ...................................................................................................... 166

71.2.1 General ................................................................................................... 166

71.2.2 Passive TPS ........................................................................................... 166

71.2.3 Active cooling concepts ..........................................................................

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