Space product assurance - Manual soldering of high-reliability electrical connections

This Standard defines the technical requirements and quality assurance provisions for the manufacture and verification of manually-soldered, high-reliability electrical connections. The Standard defines acceptance and rejection criteria for high reliability manufacture of manually-soldered electrical connections intended to withstand normal terrestrial conditions and the vibrational g-loads and environment imposed by space flight. The proper tools, correct materials, design and workmanship are covered by this document. Workmanship standards are included to permit discrimination between proper and improper work. The assembly of surface-mount devices is covered in ECSS-Q-ST-70-38. Requirements related to printed circuit boards are contained in ECSS-Q-ST-70-10 and ECSS-Q-ST-70-11. Verification of manual soldering assemblies which are not described in this standard are performed by vibration and thermal cycling testing. The requirements for verification are given in this Standard. This standard does not cover the qualification and acceptance of EQM and FM equipment with hand soldered connections. The qualification and acceptance tests of equipment manufactured in accordance with this Standard are covered by ECSS-E-ST-10-03. The mounting and supporting of components, terminals and conductors prescribed herein applies to assemblies designed to operate within the temperature limits of -55 °C to +85 °C. For temperatures outside this normal range, special design, verification and qualification testing is performed to ensure the necessary environmental survival capability. Special thermal heat sinks are applied to devices having high thermal dissipation (e.g. junction temperatures of 110 °C, power transistors) in order to ensure that solder joints do not exceed 85 °C. This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Manuelles Löten von hoch-zuverlässigen elektrischen Verbindungen

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Soudage manuel des connexions électriques à fiabilité élevée

La présente norme définit les exigences techniques et les dispositions d'assurance qualité pour la fabrication et la vérification de connexions électriques de haute fiabilité brasées manuellement.
La norme définit les critères d'acceptabilité et de rejet pour la fabrication de haute fiabilité des connexions électriques brasées manuellement prévues pour résister à des conditions terrestres normales, et aux facteurs de charges vibratoires et à l’environnement imposés par le vol dans l’espace.
Le présent document décrit les outils et matériaux à utiliser, ainsi que les modes de conception et d'exécution à respecter. Il indique des normes d'exécution permettant de déterminer si un travail est correctement réalisé ou non.
L'assemblage des composants montés en surface est couvert par l'ECSS Q ST 70-38.
Les exigences relatives aux circuits imprimés figurent dans l'ECSS-Q-ST-70-10 et l'ECSS-Q-ST-70-11.
La vérification des ensembles brasés manuellement qui ne sont pas décrits dans la présente norme, est réalisée au moyen d'essais vibratoires et de cyclage thermique. Les exigences de vérification sont fournies dans la présente norme.
La présente norme ne couvre pas la qualification et l'acceptation des équipements MQI et FM dotés de connexions brasées manuellement.
Les essais de qualification et d'acceptation des équipements fabriqués conformément à la présente norme sont couverts par l'ECSS-E-ST-10-03.
Le montage et le support de composants, bornes et conducteurs prescrits dans les présentes s'appliquent aux ensembles conçus pour fonctionner dans les limites de température de 55 C à +85 C.
Pour les températures extérieures à cette plage normale, des essais de conception, de vérification et de qualification spéciaux sont réalisés pour assurer les capacités de résistance à l'environnement nécessaire.
Des dissipateurs thermiques spéciaux sont appliqués sur les appareils présentant une dissipation thermique élevée (par exemple, températures de jonction de 110 C, transistors de puissance) afin d'assurer que les joints de soudure ne dépassent pas 85 C.
La présente norme peut être adaptée aux caractéristiques et contraintes spécifiques d'un projet spatial, conformément à l'ECSS-S-ST-00.

Zagotavljanje varnih proizvodov v vesoljski tehniki - Ročno spajkanje visoko zanesljivih električnih spojev

Ta standard določa tehnične zahteve in določbe za zagotavljanje kakovosti za proizvodnjo in preverjanje ročno spajkanih visoko zanesljivih električnih spojev. Standard določa merila za sprejem ali zavrnitev za visoko zanesljivo proizvodnjo ročno spajkanih električnih spojev, ki naj bi prenesli običajne zemeljske pogoje in vibracijske obremenitve zaradi pospeška ter okolje, ki jih povzročijo vesoljski poleti. V tem dokumentu so obravnavani ustrezna orodja, pravilni materiali, zasnova in izvedba. Izvedbeni standardi so vključeni, da se omogoči ločevanje med primernim in neprimernim delom. Sestavljanje površinsko nameščenih naprav obravnava standard ECSS-Q-ST-70-38. Zahteve v zvezi s ploščami tiskanih vezij so podane v standardih ECSS-Q-ST-70-10 in ECSS-Q-ST-70-11. Preverjanje ročno spajkanih sestavov, ki niso opisani v tem standardu, se izvaja z vibracijskim in toplotnim cikličnim preskušanjem. Zahteve glede preverjanja so navedene v tem standardu. Ta standard ne obravnava kvalifikacije in sprejemljivosti opreme EQM in FM z ročno spajkanimi spoji. Kvalifikacijski in sprejemljivostni preskusi opreme, izdelane v skladu s tem standardom, so obravnavani v standardu ECSS-E-ST-10-03. Nameščanje in podpiranje komponent, terminalov in prevodnikov iz tega standarda se uporabljata za sestave, namenjene delovanju v okviru temperaturnega razpona –55 °C to +85 °C. Pri temperaturah zunaj tega običajnega razpona se izvede posebno preskušanje zasnove, preverjanja in kvalifikacij, da se zagotovi potrebna okoljska zmožnost preživetja. Posebni toplotni ponori se uporabljajo za naprave z visokim toplotnim odvajanjem (npr. temperature stika 110 °C, močnostni tranzistor), da se zagotovi, da spojeni spoji ne presegajo 85 °C. Ta standard se lahko prilagodi posebnim značilnostim in omejitvam vesoljskega projekta v skladu s standardom ECSS-S-ST-00.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Jul-2014
Publication Date
04-Mar-2015
Withdrawal Date
14-Nov-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
10-Nov-2022
Due Date
03-Dec-2022
Completion Date
15-Nov-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16602-70-08:2015
01-april-2015
=DJRWDYOMDQMHYDUQLKSURL]YRGRYYYHVROMVNLWHKQLNL5RþQRVSDMNDQMHYLVRNR
]DQHVOMLYLKHOHNWULþQLKVSRMHY

Space product assurance - Manual soldering of high-reliability electrical connections

Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Manuelles Löten von hoch-zuverlässigen elektrischen
Verbindungen

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Soudage manuel des connexions électriques à

fiabilité élevée
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16602-70-08:2015
ICS:
25.160.50 Trdo in mehko lotanje Brazing and soldering
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST EN 16602-70-08:2015 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-08:2015
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-08:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 16602-70-08
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
January 2015
ICS 25.160.50; 49.140
English version
Space product assurance - Manual soldering of high-reliability
electrical connections

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Soudage manuel Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Manuelles Löten von hoch-

des connexions électriques à fiabilité élevée zuverlässigen elektrischen Verbindungen

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 18 October 2014.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving

this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning

such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN and CENELEC

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre

has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 16602-70-08:2015 E

worldwide for CEN national Members and for CENELEC
Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 16602-70-08:2015
EN 16602-70-08:2015 (E)
Table of contents

Foreword .................................................................................................................... 9

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 10

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................... 11

2 Normative references ........................................................................................... 12

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 13

3.1 Terms from other standards .................................................................................... 13

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard ................................................................... 13

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 20

4 Principles of reliable soldered connections ....................................................... 22

5 Preparatory conditions ........................................................................................ 23

5.1 Calibration .............................................................................................................. 23

5.2 Facility cleanliness .................................................................................................. 23

5.3 Environmental conditions ........................................................................................ 23

5.4 Lighting requirements ............................................................................................. 24

5.5 Precautions against static discharges ..................................................................... 24

5.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 24

5.5.2 Precautions against ESD during manufacturing ........................................ 24

5.5.3 Protective Packaging and ESD Protection ................................................ 25

5.5.4 Packing and filler materials ....................................................................... 26

5.6 Equipment and tools ............................................................................................... 26

5.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 26

5.6.2 Brushes ..................................................................................................... 26

5.6.3 Cutters and pliers ...................................................................................... 26

5.6.4 Bending tools ............................................................................................ 27

5.6.5 Clinching tools ........................................................................................... 27

5.6.6 Insulation strippers .................................................................................... 28

5.6.7 Soldering irons and resistance soldering equipment ................................. 29

5.6.8 Soldering tools .......................................................................................... 30

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SIST EN 16602-70-08:2015
EN 16602-70-08:2015 (E)

6 Materials selection ............................................................................................... 31

6.1 General ................................................................................................................... 31

6.2 Solder ..................................................................................................................... 31

6.2.1 Form ......................................................................................................... 31

6.2.2 Composition .............................................................................................. 31

6.3 Flux ........................................................................................................................ 32

6.3.1 Rosin-based fluxes.................................................................................... 32

6.3.2 INH1 corrosive acid flux ............................................................................ 33

6.3.3 Application of flux ...................................................................................... 33

6.4 Solvents .................................................................................................................. 34

6.5 Flexible insulation materials .................................................................................... 34

6.6 Terminals ................................................................................................................ 35

6.6.1 Materials ................................................................................................... 35

6.6.2 Tin-, silver- and gold-plated terminals........................................................ 35

6.6.3 Shape of terminals .................................................................................... 35

6.7 Wires ...................................................................................................................... 35

6.8 PCBs ...................................................................................................................... 36

6.8.1 Boards ...................................................................................................... 36

6.8.2 Gold finish on conductors .......................................................................... 36

6.9 Component lead finishes ........................................................................................ 36

6.10 Adhesives (staking compounds and heat sinking), encapsulants and

conformal coatings .................................................................................................. 36

7 Preparation for soldering ..................................................................................... 38

7.1 General ................................................................................................................... 38

7.1.1 Tools ......................................................................................................... 38

7.1.2 Components.............................................................................................. 38

7.2 Preparation of conductors, terminals and solder cups ............................................. 38

7.2.1 Insulation removal ..................................................................................... 38

7.2.2 Surfaces to be soldered ............................................................................ 39

7.2.3 De-golding of gold-plated leads and terminals ........................................... 40

7.2.4 Constraints on degolding and pretinning methods ..................................... 41

7.2.5 Pretinning of stranded wires ...................................................................... 42

7.2.6 Pre-tinning of component leads and solid-wire conductors ........................ 42

7.3 Preparation of the soldering bit ............................................................................... 43

7.3.1 Fit .............................................................................................................. 43

7.3.2 Maintenance ............................................................................................. 43

7.3.3 Plated bits ................................................................................................. 43

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SIST EN 16602-70-08:2015
EN 16602-70-08:2015 (E)

7.3.4 Tip in operation ......................................................................................... 43

7.4 Maintenance of resistance-type soldering electrodes .............................................. 44

7.5 Handling (work station) ........................................................................................... 44

7.6 Storage (work station) ............................................................................................. 44

7.6.1 Components.............................................................................................. 44

7.6.2 PCBs......................................................................................................... 44

7.6.3 Materials requiring segregation ................................................................. 44

7.7 Preparation of PCBs for soldering ........................................................................... 45

7.7.1 Process ..................................................................................................... 45

7.7.2 Demoisturization methods ......................................................................... 45

7.7.3 Storage of prepared PCBs ........................................................................ 45

8 Mounting of components ..................................................................................... 46

8.1 General requirements ............................................................................................. 46

8.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 46

8.1.2 Heavy components ................................................................................... 46

8.1.3 Metal-case components ............................................................................ 46

8.1.4 Glass-encased components ...................................................................... 47

8.1.5 Stress relief of components with bendable leads ....................................... 47

8.1.6 Stress relief of components with non-bendable leads ................................ 48

8.1.7 Reinforced plated-through holes ............................................................... 50

8.1.8 Lead and conductor cutting ....................................................................... 50

8.1.9 Solid hook-up wire..................................................................................... 50

8.1.10 Location .................................................................................................... 50

8.1.11 Conformal coating, cementing and encapsulation ..................................... 50

8.2 Lead bending requirements .................................................................................... 51

8.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 51

8.2.2 Conductors terminating on both sides of a non-plated-through hole .......... 51

8.3 Mounting of terminals to PCBs................................................................................ 52

8.4 Lead attachment to PCBs ....................................................................................... 53

8.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 53

8.4.2 Clinched leads .......................................................................................... 53

8.4.3 Stud leads ................................................................................................. 55

8.4.4 Lapped round leads .................................................................................. 56

8.4.5 Lapped ribbon leads .................................................................................. 56

8.5 Mounting of components to terminals ..................................................................... 56

8.6 Mounting of connectors to PCBs ............................................................................. 58

9 Attachment of conductors to terminals, solder cups and cables .................... 59

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SIST EN 16602-70-08:2015
EN 16602-70-08:2015 (E)

9.1 General ................................................................................................................... 59

9.1.1 Conductors ............................................................................................... 59

9.1.2 Terminals .................................................................................................. 59

9.2 Wire termination ..................................................................................................... 59

9.2.1 Breakouts from cables .............................................................................. 59

9.2.2 Insulation clearance .................................................................................. 59

9.2.3 Solid hook-up wire..................................................................................... 60

9.2.4 Stress relief ............................................................................................... 60

9.3 Turret and straight-pin terminals ............................................................................. 60

9.3.1 Side route ................................................................................................. 60

9.3.2 Bottom route ............................................................................................. 60

9.4 Bifurcated terminals ................................................................................................ 61

9.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 61

9.4.2 Bottom route ............................................................................................. 61

9.4.3 Side route ................................................................................................. 62

9.4.4 Top route .................................................................................................. 63

9.4.5 Combination of top and bottom routes....................................................... 64

9.4.6 Combination of side and bottom routes ..................................................... 64

9.5 Hook terminals ........................................................................................................ 64

9.6 Pierced terminals .................................................................................................... 65

9.7 Solder cups (connector type) .................................................................................. 66

9.8 Insulation sleeving .................................................................................................. 66

9.9 Wire and cable interconnections ............................................................................. 67

9.9.1 General ..................................................................................................... 67

9.9.2 Preparation of wires .................................................................................. 67

9.9.3 Preparation of shielded wires and cables .................................................. 67

9.9.4 Pre-assembly ............................................................................................ 68

9.9.5 Soldering procedures ................................................................................ 68

9.9.6 Cleaning .................................................................................................... 69

9.9.7 Inspection ................................................................................................. 69

9.9.8 Workmanship ............................................................................................ 69

9.9.9 Sleeving of interconnections ..................................................................... 69

9.10 Connection of stranded wires to PCBs .................................................................... 70

10 Soldering to terminals and PCBs ...................................................................... 72

10.1 General ................................................................................................................... 72

10.1.1 Securing conductors ................................................................................. 72

10.1.2 Thermal shunts ......................................................................................... 72

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SIST EN 16602-70-08:2015
EN 16602-70-08:2015 (E)

10.1.3 High-voltage connections .......................................................................... 72

10.2 Solder application to terminals ................................................................................ 73

10.2.1 Soldering of swaged terminals onto PCBs ................................................ 73

10.2.2 Soldering of conductors onto terminals (except cup terminals) .................. 73

10.2.3 Soldering of conductors onto cup terminals ............................................... 74

10.3 Solder application to PCBs ..................................................................................... 74

10.3.1 Solder coverage ........................................................................................ 74

10.3.2 Solder fillets .............................................................................................. 74

10.3.3 Soldering of component leads to plated-through holes .............................. 74

10.3.4 Solder application ..................................................................................... 75

10.4 Wicking ................................................................................................................... 76

10.5 Solder rework ......................................................................................................... 76

10.6 Repair and modification .......................................................................................... 76

11 Cleaning of PCB assemblies ............................................................................. 77

11.1 General ................................................................................................................... 77

11.2 Ultrasonic cleaning ................................................................................................. 77

11.3 Monitoring for cleanliness ....................................................................................... 77

11.3.1 Cleanliness testing .................................................................................... 77

11.3.2 Testing frequency ..................................................................................... 78

11.3.3 Test limits .................................................................................................. 78

11.3.4 Test method .............................................................................................. 78

12 Final inspection .................................................................................................. 79

12.1 General ................................................................................................................... 79

12.2 Acceptance criteria ................................................................................................. 79

12.3 Visual rejection criteria ............................................................................................ 80

13 Verification procedure........................................................................................ 81

13.1 General ................................................................................................................... 81

13.2 Vibration ................................................................................................................. 81

13.3 Temperature cycling ............................................................................................... 84

13.4 Microsection ........................................................................................................... 84

14 Quality assurance ............................................................................................... 85

14.1 General ................................................................................................................... 85

14.2 Data ........................................................................................................................ 85

14.3 Nonconformance .................................................................................................... 85

14.4 Calibration .............................................................................................................. 85

14.5 Traceability ............................................................................................................. 86

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SIST EN 16602-70-08:2015
EN 16602-70-08:2015 (E)

14.6 Workmanship standards ......................................................................................... 86

14.7 Inspection ............................................................................................................... 86

14.8 Operator and inspector training and certification ..................................................... 86

15 Workmanship standards .................................................................................... 88

15.1 Soldered clinched terminals .................................................................................... 88

15.2 Soldered stud terminals .......................................................................................... 89

15.3 Soldered turret terminals......................................................................................... 90

15.4 Solder turret terminals ............................................................................................ 91

15.5 Soldered bifurcated terminals ................................................................................. 92

15.6 Soldered hook terminals ......................................................................................... 93

15.7 Soldered cup terminals ........................................................................................... 94

15.8 Soldered wire to shielded cable interconnections ................................................... 95

Annex A (normative) Report on manual soldering of high-reliability

electrical connections - DRD .............................................................................. 98

Annex B (informative) Solder melting temperatures and choice ...................... 102

Bibliography ........................................................................................................... 103

Figures

Figure 5-1: Profiles of correct and incorrect cutters for trimming leads ................................. 27

Figure 5-2 Examples of non-approved types of mechanical strippers .................................. 28

Figure 8-1: Assembly of underfilled TO-39 and TO-59, and adhesively staked CKR06 ............. 48

Figure 8-2: Methods for incorporating stress relief with components having bendable

leads .................................................................................................................. 49

Figure 8-3: Methods for attaching wire extensions to non-bendable leads ............................ 50

Figure 8-4: Minimum lead bend ............................................................................................ 51

Figure 8-5: Leads with solder termination on both sides ....................................................... 52

Figure 8-6: Types of terminal swaging .................................................................................. 53

Figure 8-7: Clinched-lead terminations - unsupported holes ................................................. 54

Figure 8-8: Clinched lead terminations - plated through-holes .............................................. 54

Figure 8-9: Stud terminations ............................................................................................... 55

Figure 8-10: Methods of through-hole lapped termination ..................................................... 57

Figure 8-11: Method of stress relieving parts attached to terminals ...................................... 57

Figure 9-1: Side- and bottom-route connections to turret terminals ...................................... 61

Figure 9-2: Bottom-route connections to bifurcated terminal ................................................. 62

Figure 9-3: Side-route connection to bifurcated terminal ....................................................... 63

Figure 9-4: Top-route connection to bifurcated terminal ........................................................ 64

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SIST EN 16602-70-08:2015
EN 16602-70-08:2015 (E)

Figure 9-5: Connections to hook terminals ........................................................................... 65

Figure 9-6: Connections to pierced terminals ....................................................................... 65

Figure 9-7: Connections to solder cups (connector type) ...................................................... 66

Figure 9-8: Methods for securing wires ................................................................................. 69

Figure 9-9: Connection of stranded wires to PCBs ............................................................... 71

Figure 10-1: High voltage connection ................................................................................... 73

Figure 10-2:Minimum acceptable wetting on component side............................................... 75

Figure 15-1:Soldered clinched terminals .............................................................................. 88

Figure 15-2: Soldered stud terminals .................................................................................... 89

Figure 15-3: Soldered turret terminals with twin conductors ................................................. 90

Figure 15-4: Soldered turret terminals with single conductors ............................................... 91

Figure 15-5: Soldered bifurcated terminals ........................................................................... 92

Figure 15-6 Soldered hook terminals ................................................................................... 93

Figure 15-7: Soldered cup terminals ..................................................................................... 94

Figure 15-8: Hand-soldered wire to shielded cable interconnections .................................... 95

Figure 15-9: Hand-soldered wire to shielded wire interconnections ...................................... 96

Figure 15-10: Hand-soldered wire inte
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST FprEN 16602-70-08:2014
01-julij-2014
=DJRWDYOMDQMHYDUQLKSURL]YRGRYYYHVROMVNLWHKQLNL5RþQRVSDMNDQMHYLVRNR
]DQHVOMLYLKHOHNWULþQLKVSRMHY

Space product assurance - Manual soldering of high-reliability electrical connections

Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Manuelles Löten von hoch-zuverlässigen elektrischen
Verbindungen

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Soudage manuel des connexions électriques à

fiabilité élevée
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprEN 16602-70-08
ICS:
25.160.50 Trdo in mehko lotanje Brazing and soldering
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
kSIST FprEN 16602-70-08:2014 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
kSIST FprEN 16602-70-08:2014
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
kSIST FprEN 16602-70-08:2014
EUROPEAN STANDARD
FINAL DRAFT
FprEN 16602-70-08
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2014
ICS
English version
Space product assurance - Manual soldering of high-reliability
electrical connections

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Soudage manuel Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Manuelles Löten von hoch-

des connexions électriques à fiabilité élevée zuverlässigen elektrischen Verbindungen

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for unique acceptance procedure. It has been drawn up by the Technical

Committee CEN/CLC/TC 5.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal

Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN and CENELEC in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any

other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to

provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice and

shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2014 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. FprEN 16602-70-08:2014 E

worldwide for CEN national Members and for CENELEC
Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
kSIST FprEN 16602-70-08:2014
FprEN 16602-70-08:2014 (E)
Table of contents

Foreword .................................................................................................................... 9

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 10

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................... 11

2 Normative references ........................................................................................... 12

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 13

3.1 Terms from other standards .................................................................................... 13

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard ................................................................... 13

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 20

4 Principles of reliable soldered connections ....................................................... 22

5 Preparatory conditions ........................................................................................ 23

5.1 Calibration .............................................................................................................. 23

5.2 Facility cleanliness .................................................................................................. 23

5.3 Environmental conditions ........................................................................................ 23

5.4 Lighting requirements ............................................................................................. 24

5.5 Precautions against static discharges ..................................................................... 24

5.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 24

5.5.2 Precautions against ESD during manufacturing ........................................ 24

5.5.3 Protective Packaging and ESD Protection ................................................ 25

5.5.4 Packing and filler materials ....................................................................... 26

5.6 Equipment and tools ............................................................................................... 26

5.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 26

5.6.2 Brushes ..................................................................................................... 26

5.6.3 Cutters and pliers ...................................................................................... 26

5.6.4 Bending tools ............................................................................................ 27

5.6.5 Clinching tools ........................................................................................... 27

5.6.6 Insulation strippers .................................................................................... 28

5.6.7 Soldering irons and resistance soldering equipment ................................. 29

5.6.8 Soldering tools .......................................................................................... 30

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6 Materials selection ............................................................................................... 31

6.1 General ................................................................................................................... 31

6.2 Solder ..................................................................................................................... 31

6.2.1 Form ......................................................................................................... 31

6.2.2 Composition .............................................................................................. 31

6.3 Flux ........................................................................................................................ 32

6.3.1 Rosin-based fluxes.................................................................................... 32

6.3.2 INH1 corrosive acid flux ............................................................................ 33

6.3.3 Application of flux ...................................................................................... 33

6.4 Solvents .................................................................................................................. 34

6.5 Flexible insulation materials .................................................................................... 34

6.6 Terminals ................................................................................................................ 35

6.6.1 Materials ................................................................................................... 35

6.6.2 Tin-, silver- and gold-plated terminals........................................................ 35

6.6.3 Shape of terminals .................................................................................... 35

6.7 Wires ...................................................................................................................... 35

6.8 PCBs ...................................................................................................................... 36

6.8.1 Boards ...................................................................................................... 36

6.8.2 Gold finish on conductors .......................................................................... 36

6.9 Component lead finishes ........................................................................................ 36

6.10 Adhesives (staking compounds and heat sinking), encapsulants and

conformal coatings .................................................................................................. 36

7 Preparation for soldering ..................................................................................... 38

7.1 General ................................................................................................................... 38

7.1.1 Tools ......................................................................................................... 38

7.1.2 Components.............................................................................................. 38

7.2 Preparation of conductors, terminals and solder cups ............................................. 38

7.2.1 Insulation removal ..................................................................................... 38

7.2.2 Surfaces to be soldered ............................................................................ 39

7.2.3 De-golding of gold-plated leads and terminals ........................................... 40

7.2.4 Constraints on degolding and pretinning methods ..................................... 41

7.2.5 Pretinning of stranded wires ...................................................................... 42

7.2.6 Pre-tinning of component leads and solid-wire conductors ........................ 42

7.3 Preparation of the soldering bit ............................................................................... 43

7.3.1 Fit .............................................................................................................. 43

7.3.2 Maintenance ............................................................................................. 43

7.3.3 Plated bits ................................................................................................. 43

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7.3.4 Tip in operation ......................................................................................... 43

7.4 Maintenance of resistance-type soldering electrodes .............................................. 44

7.5 Handling (work station) ........................................................................................... 44

7.6 Storage (work station) ............................................................................................. 44

7.6.1 Components.............................................................................................. 44

7.6.2 PCBs......................................................................................................... 44

7.6.3 Materials requiring segregation ................................................................. 44

7.7 Preparation of PCBs for soldering ........................................................................... 45

7.7.1 Process ..................................................................................................... 45

7.7.2 Demoisturization methods ......................................................................... 45

7.7.3 Storage of prepared PCBs ........................................................................ 45

8 Mounting of components ..................................................................................... 46

8.1 General requirements ............................................................................................. 46

8.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 46

8.1.2 Heavy components ................................................................................... 46

8.1.3 Metal-case components ............................................................................ 46

8.1.4 Glass-encased components ...................................................................... 47

8.1.5 Stress relief of components with bendable leads ....................................... 47

8.1.6 Stress relief of components with non-bendable leads ................................ 48

8.1.7 Reinforced plated-through holes ............................................................... 50

8.1.8 Lead and conductor cutting ....................................................................... 50

8.1.9 Solid hook-up wire..................................................................................... 50

8.1.10 Location .................................................................................................... 50

8.1.11 Conformal coating, cementing and encapsulation ..................................... 50

8.2 Lead bending requirements .................................................................................... 51

8.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 51

8.2.2 Conductors terminating on both sides of a non-plated-through hole .......... 51

8.3 Mounting of terminals to PCBs................................................................................ 52

8.4 Lead attachment to PCBs ....................................................................................... 53

8.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 53

8.4.2 Clinched leads .......................................................................................... 53

8.4.3 Stud leads ................................................................................................. 55

8.4.4 Lapped round leads .................................................................................. 56

8.4.5 Lapped ribbon leads .................................................................................. 56

8.5 Mounting of components to terminals ..................................................................... 56

8.6 Mounting of connectors to PCBs ............................................................................. 58

9 Attachment of conductors to terminals, solder cups and cables .................... 59

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9.1 General ................................................................................................................... 59

9.1.1 Conductors ............................................................................................... 59

9.1.2 Terminals .................................................................................................. 59

9.2 Wire termination ..................................................................................................... 59

9.2.1 Breakouts from cables .............................................................................. 59

9.2.2 Insulation clearance .................................................................................. 59

9.2.3 Solid hook-up wire..................................................................................... 60

9.2.4 Stress relief ............................................................................................... 60

9.3 Turret and straight-pin terminals ............................................................................. 60

9.3.1 Side route ................................................................................................. 60

9.3.2 Bottom route ............................................................................................. 60

9.4 Bifurcated terminals ................................................................................................ 61

9.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 61

9.4.2 Bottom route ............................................................................................. 61

9.4.3 Side route ................................................................................................. 62

9.4.4 Top route .................................................................................................. 63

9.4.5 Combination of top and bottom routes....................................................... 64

9.4.6 Combination of side and bottom routes ..................................................... 64

9.5 Hook terminals ........................................................................................................ 64

9.6 Pierced terminals .................................................................................................... 65

9.7 Solder cups (connector type) .................................................................................. 66

9.8 Insulation sleeving .................................................................................................. 66

9.9 Wire and cable interconnections ............................................................................. 67

9.9.1 General ..................................................................................................... 67

9.9.2 Preparation of wires .................................................................................. 67

9.9.3 Preparation of shielded wires and cables .................................................. 67

9.9.4 Pre-assembly ............................................................................................ 68

9.9.5 Soldering procedures ................................................................................ 68

9.9.6 Cleaning .................................................................................................... 69

9.9.7 Inspection ................................................................................................. 69

9.9.8 Workmanship ............................................................................................ 69

9.9.9 Sleeving of interconnections ..................................................................... 69

9.10 Connection of stranded wires to PCBs .................................................................... 70

10 Soldering to terminals and PCBs ...................................................................... 72

10.1 General ................................................................................................................... 72

10.1.1 Securing conductors ................................................................................. 72

10.1.2 Thermal shunts ......................................................................................... 72

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10.1.3 High-voltage connections .......................................................................... 72

10.2 Solder application to terminals ................................................................................ 73

10.2.1 Soldering of swaged terminals onto PCBs ................................................ 73

10.2.2 Soldering of conductors onto terminals (except cup terminals) .................. 73

10.2.3 Soldering of conductors onto cup terminals ............................................... 74

10.3 Solder application to PCBs ..................................................................................... 74

10.3.1 Solder coverage ........................................................................................ 74

10.3.2 Solder fillets .............................................................................................. 74

10.3.3 Soldering of component leads to plated-through holes .............................. 74

10.3.4 Solder application ..................................................................................... 75

10.4 Wicking ................................................................................................................... 76

10.5 Solder rework ......................................................................................................... 76

10.6 Repair and modification .......................................................................................... 76

11 Cleaning of PCB assemblies ............................................................................. 77

11.1 General ................................................................................................................... 77

11.2 Ultrasonic cleaning ................................................................................................. 77

11.3 Monitoring for cleanliness ....................................................................................... 77

11.3.1 Cleanliness testing .................................................................................... 77

11.3.2 Testing frequency ..................................................................................... 78

11.3.3 Test limits .................................................................................................. 78

11.3.4 Test method .............................................................................................. 78

12 Final inspection .................................................................................................. 79

12.1 General ................................................................................................................... 79

12.2 Acceptance criteria ................................................................................................. 79

12.3 Visual rejection criteria ............................................................................................ 80

13 Verification procedure........................................................................................ 81

13.1 General ................................................................................................................... 81

13.2 Vibration ................................................................................................................. 81

13.3 Temperature cycling ............................................................................................... 84

13.4 Microsection ........................................................................................................... 84

14 Quality assurance ............................................................................................... 85

14.1 General ................................................................................................................... 85

14.2 Data ........................................................................................................................ 85

14.3 Nonconformance .................................................................................................... 85

14.4 Calibration .............................................................................................................. 85

14.5 Traceability ............................................................................................................. 86

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14.6 Workmanship standards ......................................................................................... 86

14.7 Inspection ............................................................................................................... 86

14.8 Operator and inspector training and certification ..................................................... 86

15 Workmanship standards .................................................................................... 88

15.1 Soldered clinched terminals .................................................................................... 88

15.2 Soldered stud terminals .......................................................................................... 89

15.3 Soldered turret terminals......................................................................................... 90

15.4 Solder turret terminals ............................................................................................ 91

15.5 Soldered bifurcated terminals ................................................................................. 92

15.6 Soldered hook terminals ......................................................................................... 93

15.7 Soldered cup terminals ........................................................................................... 94

15.8 Soldered wire to shielded cable interconnections ................................................... 95

Annex A (normative) Report on manual soldering of high-reliability

electrical connections - DRD .............................................................................. 99

Annex B (informative) Solder melting temperatures and choice ........................ 103

Bibliography ........................................................................................................... 104

Figures

Figure 5-1: Profiles of correct and incorrect cutters for trimming leads ................................. 27

Figure 5-2 Examples of non-approved types of mechanical strippers .................................. 28

Figure 8-1: Assembly of underfilled TO-39 and TO-59, and adhesively staked CKR06 ............. 48

Figure 8-2: Methods for incorporating stress relief with components having bendable

leads .................................................................................................................. 49

Figure 8-3: Methods for attaching wire extensions to non-bendable leads ............................ 50

Figure 8-4: Minimum lead bend ............................................................................................ 51

Figure 8-5: Leads with solder termination on both sides ....................................................... 52

Figure 8-6: Types of terminal swaging .................................................................................. 53

Figure 8-7: Clinched-lead terminations - unsupported holes ................................................. 54

Figure 8-8: Clinched lead terminations - plated through-holes .............................................. 54

Figure 8-9: Stud terminations ............................................................................................... 55

Figure 8-10: Methods of through-hole lapped termination ..................................................... 57

Figure 8-11: Method of stress relieving parts attached to terminals ...................................... 57

Figure 9-1: Side- and bottom-route connections to turret terminals ...................................... 61

Figure 9-2: Bottom-route connections to bifurcated terminal ................................................. 62

Figure 9-3: Side-route connection to bifurcated terminal ....................................................... 63

Figure 9-4: Top-route connection to bifurcated terminal ........................................................ 64

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Figure 9-5: Connections to hook terminals ........................................................................... 65

Figure 9-6: Connections to pierced terminals ....................................................................... 65

Figure 9-7: Connections to solder cups (connector type) ...................................................... 66

Figure 9-8: Methods for securing wires ................................................................................. 69

Figure 9-9: Connection of stranded wires to PCBs ............................................................... 71

Figure 10-1: High voltage connection ................................................................................... 73

Figure 10-2:Minimum acceptable wetting on component side............................................... 75

Figure 15-1:Soldered clinched terminals .............................................................................. 88

Figure 15-2: Soldered stud terminals .................................................................................... 89

Figure 15-3: Soldered turret terminals with twin conductors ................................................. 90

Figure 15-4: Soldered turret terminals with single conductors ............................................... 91

Figure 15-5: Soldered bifurcated terminals ........................................................................... 92

Figure 15-6 Soldered hook terminals ...................................................

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

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