Alarm and electronic security systems - Part 11-2: Electronic access control systems - Application guidelines

This part of IEC 60839 defines the minimum requirements and guidance for the installation
and operation of electronic access control systems (EACS) and/or accessory equipment to
meet different levels of protection.
This standard includes requirements for planning, installation, commissioning, maintenance
and documentation for the application of EACS installed in and around buildings and areas.
The equipment functions are defined in the IEC 60839-11-1.
When the EACS includes functions relating to hold-up or the detection of intruders, the
requirements in standards relating to intrusion and hold-up are also applicable.
This standard provides application guidelines intended to assist those responsible for
establishing an EACS to ascertain the appropriate design and planning of the EACS, both in
terms of levels of protection and levels of performance necessary to provide the degree of
access control and protection considered appropriate for each installation. This is achieved by
scaling or classifying the features of electronic access control systems related to the security
functionality (e.g. recognition, access point actuation, access point monitoring, duress
signaling and system self-protection) in line with the known or perceived threat conditions.
This standard does not cover the methods and procedures for conducting a risk assessment.

Alarmanlagen - Teil 11-2: Elektronische Zutrittskontrollanlagen - Anwendungsregeln

Systèmes d'alarme et de sécurité électroniques - Partie 11-2: Systèmes de contrôle d'accès électronique - Lignes directrices d'application

L'IEC 60839-11-2:2014 définit les exigences et les lignes directrices minimales concernant l'installation et le fonctionnement des systèmes de contrôle d'accès électronique (EACS) et/ou des équipements annexes pour satisfaire à différents niveaux de protection. La présente norme inclut des exigences en matière de planification, d'installation, de mise en service, de maintenance et de documentation pour l'application d'EACS installés à l'intérieur et autour des bâtiments et des zones. Les fonctions des équipements sont définies dans l'IEC 60839-11-1.

Alarmni sistemi - 11-2. del: Elektronski sistemi nadzora dostopa - Smernice za uporabo (IEC 60839-11-2:2014)

Ta standard določa minimalne zahteve in smernice za namestitev in upravljanje elektronskih sistemov nadzora dostopa in/ali dodatne opreme za izpolnjevanje različnih stopenj zaščite. Ta standard vključuje zahteve za načrtovanje, vgradnjo, zagon, vzdrževanje in dokumentiranje za uporabo elektronskih sistemov nadzora dostopa, nameščenih v stavbah in na površinah ter okoli njih. Funkcije opreme so opredeljene v IEC 60839-11-1. Če elektronski sistemi nadzora dostopa vključujejo funkcije, povezane z ropom ali zaznavanjem vsiljivcev, se uporabljajo tudi zahteve v standardih glede javljanja vloma in ropa. Ta standard zagotavlja smernice za uporabo, namenjene za pomoč pristojnim za vzpostavljanje elektronskega sistema nadzora dostopa, da se zagotovi ustrezno projektiranje in načrtovanje elektronskega sistema nadzora dostopa, kar zadeva raven zaščite in raven učinkovitosti, ki sta potrebni za zagotavljanje stopnje nadzora dostopa in zaščite, primerne za vsako namestitev. To se doseže z razvrščanjem ali klasifikacijo funkcij elektronskih sistemov nadzora dostopa v zvezi s funkcionalnostjo varnosti (npr. prepoznavanje, proženje dostopne točke, nadzor dostopne točke, signaliziranje stiske in samozaščita sistema) v skladu z znanimi ali zaznanimi pogoji grožnje. Ta standard ne zajema metod in postopkov za izvajanje ocen tveganja.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-May-2015
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
13-May-2015
Due Date
18-Jul-2015
Completion Date
18-May-2015

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 60839-11-2:2015
01-junij-2015
Alarmni sistemi - 11-2. del: Elektronski sistemi nadzora dostopa - Smernice za
uporabo (IEC 60839-11-2:2014)

Alarm and electronic security systems - Part 11-2: Electronic access control systems -

Application guidelines

Alarmanlagen - Teil 11-2: Elektronische Zutrittskontrollanlagen - Anwendungsregeln

Systèmes d'alarme et de sécurité électroniques - Partie 11-2: Systèmes de contrôle

d'accès électronique - Lignes directrices d'application
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 60839-11-2:2015
ICS:
13.320 Alarmni in opozorilni sistemi Alarm and warning systems
SIST EN 60839-11-2:2015 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 60839-11-2:2015
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SIST EN 60839-11-2:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 60839-11-2
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2015
ICS 13.320
English Version
Alarm and electronic security systems - Part 11-2: Electronic
access control systems - Application guidelines
(IEC 60839-11-2:2014)

Systèmes d'alarme et de sécurité électroniques - Partie 11- Alarmanlagen - Teil 11-2: Elektronische

2: Systèmes de contrôle d'accès électronique - Lignes Zutrittskontrollanlagen - Anwendungsregeln

directrices d'application (IEC 60839-11-2:2014)
(IEC 60839-11-2:2014)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2015-04-07. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 60839-11-2:2015 E
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SIST EN 60839-11-2:2015
EN 60839-11-2:2015 - 2 -
Foreword

This document (EN 60839-11-2:2015) consists of the text of IEC 60839-11-2:2014 prepared by

IEC/TC 79 "Alarm and electronic security systems".
The following dates are fixed:
(dop) 2016-04-13
• latest date by which the document has to be
implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement
• latest date by which the national standards conflicting (dow) 2018-04-13
with the document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60839-11-2:2014 was approved by CENELEC as a

European Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60950-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60950-1.
IEC 61000-6-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61000-6-1.
IEC 61000-6-3 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61000-6-3
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SIST EN 60839-11-2:2015
- 3 - EN 60839-11-2:2015
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60839-11-1 2013 Alarm and electronic security systems - EN 60839-11-1 2013
Part 11-1: Electronic access control
systems - System and components
requirements
- - +AC 2013
- - +AC 2015
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SIST EN 60839-11-2:2015
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SIST EN 60839-11-2:2015
IEC 60839-11-2
Edition 1.0 2014-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Alarm and electronic security systems –
Part 11-2: Electronic access control systems – Application guidelines
Systèmes d'alarme et de sécurité électroniques –
Partie 11-2: Systèmes de contrôle d'accès électronique – Lignes directrices
d'application
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX U
ICS 13.320 ISBN 978-2-8322-1774-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 60839-11-2:2015
– 2 – IEC 60839-11-2:2014 © IEC 2014
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Abbreviations .................................................................................................................. 8

5 System architecture ......................................................................................................... 8

6 Environmental and EMC considerations ........................................................................... 9

6.1 General ................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Environmental Class I – Equipment situated in indoor but restricted to

residential/office environment ................................................................................. 9

6.3 Environmental Class II – Equipment situated indoor in general .................................. 9

6.4 Environmental Class III – Equipment situated outdoor – Sheltered or indoor

extreme conditions ................................................................................................ 10

6.5 Environmental Class IV – Equipment situated outdoor – General .......................... 10

6.6 EMC ..................................................................................................................... 10

7 System planning ............................................................................................................ 10

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10

7.2 Risk assessment and security grading .................................................................. 11

7.3 System design ...................................................................................................... 12

7.3.1 System and components selection ................................................................. 12

7.3.2 Operational considerations ............................................................................ 14

8 System installation ........................................................................................................ 16

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 16

8.2 Installation planning .............................................................................................. 17

8.2.1 Equipment ..................................................................................................... 17

8.2.2 Cabling .......................................................................................................... 19

9 Commissioning and system handover ............................................................................ 19

9.1 Commissioning ..................................................................................................... 19

9.2 System handover .................................................................................................. 20

10 System operation and maintenance ............................................................................... 20

10.1 System operation .................................................................................................. 20

10.2 System maintenance ............................................................................................. 21

11 Documentation .............................................................................................................. 21

11.1 General ................................................................................................................. 21

11.2 Documentation for planning .................................................................................. 21

11.3 Documentation for commissioning/system handover ............................................. 22

11.4 Documentation for maintenance ............................................................................ 22

Annex A (normative) Allowed exceptions for installed systems ............................................. 23

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 23

A.2 Claims of compliance ............................................................................................ 23

A.3 Allowed exceptions ............................................................................................... 23

Annex B (informative) Standby battery capacity calculations ................................................ 27

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 29

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SIST EN 60839-11-2:2015
IEC 60839-11-2:2014 © IEC 2014 – 3 –

Figure 1 – Typical arrangement of components and interfaces of an EACS ............................. 9

Figure 2 – Risk assessment chart ......................................................................................... 11

Figure 3 – Example of system grade selection ...................................................................... 13

Figure 4 – Equipment location versus security grade of protected area ................................. 17

Table 1 – Security grading .................................................................................................... 12

Table 2 – Power supply requirements for installed EACS ...................................................... 18

Table A.1 – Allowed exceptions for access point interface requirements ............................... 24

Table A.2 – Allowed exceptions for indication and annunciation requirements ....................... 24

Table A.3 – Allowed exceptions for recognition requirements ................................................ 25

Table A.4 – Duress signalling requirements .......................................................................... 25

Table A.5 – Overriding requirements ..................................................................................... 25

Table A.6 – Communication requirements ............................................................................. 25

Table A.7 – Allowed exceptions for system self-protection requirements ............................... 25

Table A.8 – Allowed exceptions for power supply requirements ............................................ 26

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SIST EN 60839-11-2:2015
– 4 – IEC 60839-11-2:2014 © IEC 2014
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ALARM AND ELECTRONIC SECURITY SYSTEMS –
Part 11-2: Electronic access control systems –
Application guidelines
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60839-11-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 79:

Alarm and electronic security systems.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
79/476/FDIS 79/489/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 60839-11-2:2015
IEC 60839-11-2:2014 © IEC 2014 – 5 –

A list of all parts in the IEC 60839 series, published under the general title Alarm and

electronic security systems, can be found on the IEC website.

Future standards in this series will carry the new general title as cited above. Titles of existing

standards in this series will be updated at the time of the next edition.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
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SIST EN 60839-11-2:2015
– 6 – IEC 60839-11-2:2014 © IEC 2014
INTRODUCTION

This standard is part of the IEC 60839 series, written to include the following parts:

Part 11-1: Electronic access control systems – System and components requirements

Part 11-2: Electronic access control systems – Application guidelines

This part of IEC 60839 describes the general requirements for planning, installation, operation,

maintenance and documentation for the application of electronic access control systems

(EACS).

The performance of the EACS is determined by the security grades allocated to the access

points. A risk assessment that identifies the risks and perceived threats should first be carried

out in order to establish the appropriate security grades.

Four security grades are available based upon the knowledge and tools available to a person

intent upon gaining unauthorised access and the type of application, taking into account

specific organizational aspects and the value of the assets.

Separate guidance is provided for each activity along with recommendations for the

documentation needed. A brief description of each section covering the activities is provided

below:

System planning: this section is intended to assist the designer with the selection of an

electronic access control system (EACS) that provides the control of access and security

integrity commensurate with the value of the assets requiring protection and the associated

risks. See Clause 7.

System design should minimise potential vulnerabilities that could be exploited to circumvent

the access control measures. It is recommended that safeguards are incorporated to give

early warning of attempts to circumvent the access control measures. See 7.3.

System installation: this section is intended to help those responsible for installing the EACS

by identifying issues which should be considered prior to commencing the installation and

during the installation of the system in order to ensure the EACS is correctly implemented as

specified during system planning. See Clause 8.

Commissioning and system handover: this section provides guidance to ensure the level of

performance required in the system planning is obtained and that the end user is provided

with the necessary documentation, records and operating instructions during the handover of

the EACS. See Clause 9.

System operation and maintenance: includes information regarding the responsibilities of the

end user of the EACS to ensure the system is operated correctly and adequately maintained.

It covers inspection, service and the use of remote diagnostics in order that the level of

performance determined during the system planning stages can be maintained. See Clause

10.
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SIST EN 60839-11-2:2015
IEC 60839-11-2:2014 © IEC 2014 – 7 –
ALARM AND ELECTRONIC SECURITY SYSTEMS –
Part 11-2: Electronic access control systems –
Application guidelines
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60839 defines the minimum requirements and guidance for the installation

and operation of electronic access control systems (EACS) and/or accessory equipment to

meet different levels of protection.

This standard includes requirements for planning, installation, commissioning, maintenance

and documentation for the application of EACS installed in and around buildings and areas.

The equipment functions are defined in the IEC 60839-11-1.

When the EACS includes functions relating to hold-up or the detection of intruders, the

requirements in standards relating to intrusion and hold-up are also applicable.

This standard provides application guidelines intended to assist those responsible for

establishing an EACS to ascertain the appropriate design and planning of the EACS, both in

terms of levels of protection and levels of performance necessary to provide the degree of

access control and protection considered appropriate for each installation. This is achieved by

scaling or classifying the features of electronic access control systems related to the security

functionality (e.g. recognition, access point actuation, access point monitoring, duress

signaling and system self-protection) in line with the known or perceived threat conditions.

This standard does not cover the methods and procedures for conducting a risk assessment.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.

IEC 60839-11-1:2013, Alarm and electronic security systems – Part 11-1: Electronic access

control systems – System and components requirements
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document the terms and definitions given in IEC 60839-11-1, as well

as the following, apply.
3.1
area zone
part of a protected area which has its own set of access levels

Note 1 to entry: It may have a different security grade than other area zones within the same protected area.

3.2
competent organization

organization possessing sufficient resources and staff with adequate expertise and training in

the maintenance of EACS
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SIST EN 60839-11-2:2015
– 8 – IEC 60839-11-2:2014 © IEC 2014
3.3
fail-safe
fail-open
locking device designed to automatically release upon power failure
3.4
fail-secure
fail-locked
locking device designed to remain secure upon power failure
3.5
protected area
controlled area

area defined by a physical boundary, through which passage is controlled by means of one or

more access points/portals

Note 1 to entry: It may contain several separate area zones with the same or different security grades. Refer to

the area zone definition in 3.1.
3.6
system owner

person or group of people that make the decision about what is appropriate for the respective

premises to be used in order to get the desired access control/protection/price/etc.

4 Abbreviations

For the purposes of this document, the abbreviations given in IEC 60839-11-1, as well as the

following apply.
ACU Access control unit
EACS Electronic access control system
EMC Electromagnetic compatibility
REX Request to exit
5 System architecture

An access control system comprises all the constructional and organizational facilities

together with equipment required for controlling access. Refer to Figure 1 for an example of a

typical arrangement of components and interfaces of an EACS.

The physical protection and mechanical strength of actuators, sensors, etc., should be

commensurate for the security grade of each access point. Consideration should be given to

the physical strength of the surrounding building (e.g. walls, door construction, etc).

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SIST EN 60839-11-2:2015
IEC 60839-11-2:2014 © IEC 2014 – 9 –
Other EACS Other systems
User interface
User
(e.g. readers)
Access point(s)
- actuators Access control system
- sensors
ACU
REX
System
Power supply
management
Mains
IEC

IEC 60839-11-1:2013, Table 8, states that: “The access control unit shall be provided with standby power source

capable of operating the unit and its accessories under specified full load condition for the period of time” required

according to the security grade of the EACS. It is recommended that monitored standby power sources be provided

to all actuators and monitoring console(s).
Figure 1 – Typical arrangement of components and interfaces of an EACS
6 Environmental and EMC considerations
6.1 General

Each component of an EACS is expected to operate correctly in its service environment and

that it will continue to do so for a reasonable time. Components shall be suitable for one of

the following environmental classes.
6.2 Environmental Class I – Equipment situated in indoor but restricted to
residential/office environment

Environmental Class I comprises environmental influences normally experienced indoors

when the temperature is well maintained (e.g. in a residential or commercial property).

NOTE Temperatures can be expected to vary between +5 °C and +40 °C.
6.3 Environmental Class II – Equipment situated indoor in general

Environmental Class II comprises environmental influences normally experienced indoors

when the temperature is not well maintained (e.g. in corridors, halls or staircases and where

condensation can occur on windows and in unheated storage areas or warehouses where

heating is intermittent).
NOTE Temperatures can be expected to vary between –10 °C and +55 °C.
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SIST EN 60839-11-2:2015
– 10 – IEC 60839-11-2:2014 © IEC 2014
6.4 Environmental Class III – Equipment situated outdoor – Sheltered or indoor
extreme conditions

Environmental Class III comprises environmental influences normally experienced out of

doors when the EACS components are not fully exposed to the weather or indoors where

environmental conditions are extreme.
NOTE Temperatures can be expected to vary between –25 °C and +55 °C.
6.5 Environmental Class IV – Equipment situated outdoor – General

Environmental Class IV comprises environmental influences normally experienced out of

doors when the EACS components are fully exposed to the weather.

NOTE Temperatures can be expected to vary between –25 °C and +70 °C depending on the region. The

temperature range can be extended to plus and/or minus for different geographical or climatic zones.

6.6 EMC

It is recommended that installation good practice be followed to reduce the unwanted effects

of electrical interference, e.g. interconnection wiring should not be run in the same conduit or

trunking as cables carrying mains supplies, or network and data cables carrying high

frequency signals unless they are physically separated and/or suitably screened so as to

prevent cross interference.

Additional filtering and/or screening of interconnecting cables might be necessary for

applications known to have high levels of conducted or radiated electrical interference, e.g. an

industrial plant operating high power electrical equipment.

The manufacturers’ guidelines for electromagnetic compatibility should be followed.

7 System planning
7.1 General

The objectives of the system planning stage are to determine the extent of EACS, to select

components of the appropriate functionality/performance criteria, security grade and

environmental classification and to prepare a system design proposal.

An access control system comprises all the logical functionality, constructional and

organizational facilities together with the physical equipment required for controlling access.

Particular care should be taken to minimize inconvenience to authorized users.

The implementation of an access control system should be in accordance with the following

sequence:
a) risk assessment and security grading;
b) system and components selection;
c) operational considerations;
d) system installation;
e) system handover;
f) system operation and maintena
...

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