CYBER - Cyber Security for Consumer Internet of Things: Baseline Requirements

The present document specifies high-level security and data protection provisions for consumer IoT devices that are
connected to network infrastructure (such as the Internet or home network) and their interactions with associated
services. The associated services are out of scope. A non-exhaustive list of examples of consumer IoT devices includes:
• connected children's toys and baby monitors;
• connected smoke detectors, door locks and window sensors;
• IoT gateways, base stations and hubs to which multiple devices connect;
• smart cameras, TVs and speakers;
• wearable health trackers;
• connected home automation and alarm systems, especially their gateways and hubs;
• connected appliances, such as washing machines and fridges; and
• smart home assistants.
Moreover, the present document addresses security considerations specific to constrained devices.
EXAMPLE: Window contact sensors, flood sensors and energy switches are typically constrained devices.
The present document provides basic guidance through examples and explanatory text for organizations involved in the
development and manufacturing of consumer IoT on how to implement those provisions. Table B.1 provides a schema
for the reader to give information about the implementation of the provisions.
Devices that are not consumer IoT devices, for example those that are primarily intended to be used in manufacturing,
healthcare or other industrial applications, are not in scope of the present document.
The present document has been developed primarily to help protect consumers, however, other users of consumer IoT
equally benefit from the implementation of the provisions set out here.
Annex A (informative) of the present document has been included to provide context to clauses 4, 5 and 6 (normative).
Annex A contains examples of device and reference architectures and an example model of device states including data
storage for each state.

CYBER - Kibernetska varnost za porabniški internet stvari: osnovne zahteve

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
23-Feb-2020
Publication Date
26-Jul-2020
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Jul-2020
Due Date
10-Sep-2020
Completion Date
27-Jul-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
01-september-2020
CYBER - Kibernetska varnost za porabniški internet stvari: osnovne zahteve
CYBER - Cyber Security for Consumer Internet of Things: Baseline Requirements
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
ICS:
35.030 Informacijska varnost IT Security
SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
EUROPEAN STANDARD
CYBER;
Cyber Security for Consumer Internet of Things:
Baseline Requirements
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
2 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
Reference
REN/CYBER-0048
Keywords
cybersecurity, IoT, privacy
ETSI
650 Route des Lucioles
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Siret N° 348 623 562 00017 - NAF 742 C
Association à but non lucratif enregistrée à la
Sous-Préfecture de Grasse (06) N° 7803/88
Important notice
The present document can be downloaded from:
http://www.etsi.org/standards-search

The present document may be made available in electronic versions and/or in print. The content of any electronic and/or

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Copyright Notification

No part may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying

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The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© ETSI 2020.
All rights reserved.

DECT™, PLUGTESTS™, UMTS™ and the ETSI logo are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP™ and LTE™ are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

oneM2M™ logo is a trademark of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the oneM2M Partners.
GSM and the GSM logo are trademarks registered and owned by the GSM Association.
ETSI
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SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
3 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 4

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 4

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 6

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 6

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 7

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 9

3.1 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

3.2 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 11

3.3 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 12

4 Reporting implementation ...................................................................................................................... 12

5 Cyber security provisions for consumer IoT .......................................................................................... 13

5.1 No universal default passwords ........................................................................................................................ 13

5.2 Implement a means to manage reports of vulnerabilities ................................................................................. 14

5.3 Keep software updated ..................................................................................................................................... 15

5.4 Securely store sensitive security parameters .................................................................................................... 18

5.5 Communicate securely ..................................................................................................................................... 19

5.6 Minimize exposed attack surfaces .................................................................................................................... 20

5.7 Ensure software integrity .................................................................................................................................. 21

5.8 Ensure that personal data is secure ................................................................................................................... 22

5.9 Make systems resilient to outages .................................................................................................................... 22

5.10 Examine system telemetry data ........................................................................................................................ 23

5.11 Make it easy for users to delete user data ......................................................................................................... 23

5.12 Make installation and maintenance of devices easy ......................................................................................... 24

5.13 Validate input data............................................................................................................................................ 24

6 Data protection provisions for consumer IoT ......................................................................................... 24

Annex A (informative): Basic concepts and models ............................................................................ 26

A.1 Architecture ............................................................................................................................................ 26

A.2 Device states ........................................................................................................................................... 28

Annex B (informative): Implementation conformance statement pro forma ................................... 31

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 34

ETSI
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SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
4 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents

IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Trademarks

The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.

ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no

right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does

not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.

Foreword

This European Standard (EN) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Cyber Security (CYBER).

National transposition dates
Date of adoption of this EN: 19 June 2020
Date of latest announcement of this EN (doa): 30 September 2020
Date of latest publication of new National Standard
or endorsement of this EN (dop/e): 31 March 2021
Date of withdrawal of any conflicting National Standard (dow): 31 March 2021
Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

Introduction

As more devices in the home connect to the Internet, the cyber security of the Internet of Things (IoT) becomes a

growing concern. People entrust their personal data to an increasing number of online devices and services. Products

and appliances that have traditionally been offline are now connected and need to be designed to withstand cyber

threats.

The present document brings together widely considered good practice in security for Internet-connected consumer

devices in a set of high-level outcome-focused provisions. The objective of the present document is to support all

parties involved in the development and manufacturing of consumer IoT with guidance on securing their products.

ETSI
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SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
5 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)

The provisions are primarily outcome-focused, rather than prescriptive, giving organizations the flexibility to innovate

and implement security solutions appropriate for their products.

The present document is not intended to solve all security challenges associated with consumer IoT. It also does not

focus on protecting against attacks that are prolonged/sophisticated or that require sustained physical access to the

device. Rather, the focus is on the technical controls and organizational policies that matter most in addressing the most

significant and widespread security shortcomings. Overall, a baseline level of security is considered; this is intended to

protect against elementary attacks on fundamental design weaknesses (such as the use of easily guessable passwords).

The present document provides a set of baseline provisions applicable to all consumer IoT devices. It is intended to be

complemented by other standards defining more specific provisions and fully testable and/or verifiable requirements for

specific devices which, together with the present document, will facilitate the development of assurance schemes.

Many consumer IoT devices and their associated services process and store personal data, the present document can

help in ensuring that these are compliant with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) [i.7]. Security by design

is an important principle that is endorsed by the present document.

ETSI TS 103 701 [i.19] provides guidance on how to assess and assure IoT products against provisions within the

present document.

The provisions in the present document have been developed following a review of published standards,

recommendations and guidance on IoT security and privacy, including: ETSI TR 103 305-3 [i.1], ETSI

TR 103 309 [i.2], ENISA Baseline Security Recommendations [i.8], UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media and

Sport (DCMS) Secure by Design Report [i.9], IoT Security Foundation Compliance Framework [i.10], GSMA IoT

Security Guidelines and Assessment [i.11], ETSI TR 103 533 [i.12], DIN SPEC 27072 [i.20] and OWASP Internet of

Things [i.23].

NOTE: Mappings of the landscape of IoT security standards, recommendations and guidance are available in

ENISA Baseline Security Recommendations for IoT - Interactive Tool [i.15] and in Copper Horse

Mapping Security & Privacy in the Internet of Things [i.14].

As consumer IoT products become increasingly secure, it is envisioned that future revisions of the present document

will mandate provisions that are currently recommendations in the present document.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
6 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
1 Scope

The present document specifies high-level security and data protection provisions for consumer IoT devices that are

connected to network infrastructure (such as the Internet or home network) and their interactions with associated

services. The associated services are out of scope. A non-exhaustive list of examples of consumer IoT devices includes:

• connected children's toys and baby monitors;
• connected smoke detectors, door locks and window sensors;
• IoT gateways, base stations and hubs to which multiple devices connect;
• smart cameras, TVs and speakers;
• wearable health trackers;

• connected home automation and alarm systems, especially their gateways and hubs;

• connected appliances, such as washing machines and fridges; and
• smart home assistants.

Moreover, the present document addresses security considerations specific to constrained devices.

EXAMPLE: Window contact sensors, flood sensors and energy switches are typically constrained devices.

The present document provides basic guidance through examples and explanatory text for organizations involved in the

development and manufacturing of consumer IoT on how to implement those provisions. Table B.1 provides a schema

for the reader to give information about the implementation of the provisions.

Devices that are not consumer IoT devices, for example those that are primarily intended to be used in manufacturing,

healthcare or other industrial applications, are not in scope of the present document.

The present document has been developed primarily to help protect consumers, however, other users of consumer IoT

equally benefit from the implementation of the provisions set out here.

Annex A (informative) of the present document has been included to provide context to clauses 4, 5 and 6 (normative).

Annex A contains examples of device and reference architectures and an example model of device states including data

storage for each state.
2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference/.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

Not applicable.
ETSI
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SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
7 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] ETSI TR 103 305-3: "CYBER; Critical Security Controls for Effective Cyber Defence; Part 3:

Service Sector Implementations".

[i.2] ETSI TR 103 309: "CYBER; Secure by Default - platform security technology".

[i.3] NIST Special Publication 800-63B: "Digital Identity Guidelines - Authentication and Lifecycle

Management".

NOTE: Available at https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-63b.pdf.

[i.4] ISO/IEC 29147: "Information technology - Security techniques - Vulnerability Disclosure".

NOTE: Available at https://www.iso.org/standard/45170.html.
[i.5] OASIS: "CSAF Common Vulnerability Reporting Framework (CVRF)".

NOTE: Available at http://docs.oasis-open.org/csaf/csaf-cvrf/v1.2/csaf-cvrf-v1.2.html.

[i.6] ETSI TR 103 331: "CYBER; Structured threat information sharing".

[i.7] Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the

protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free

movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation).

[i.8] ENISA: "Baseline Security Recommendations for IoT in the context of Critical Information

Infrastructures", November 2017, ISBN: 978-92-9204-236-3, doi: 10.2824/03228.

NOTE: Available at https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/c37f8196-d96f-11e7-a506-

01aa75ed71a1/language-en/format-PDF/source-117211901.

[i.9] UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport: "Secure by Design: Improving the cyber

security of consumer Internet of Things Report", March 2018.
NOTE: Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/secure-by-design.

[i.10] IoT Security Foundation: "IoT Security Compliance Framework", Release 2 December 2018.

NOTE: Available at https://www.iotsecurityfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/IoTSF-IoT-Security-

Compliance-Framework-Release-2.0-December-2018.pdf.
[i.11] GSMA: "GSMA IoT Security Guidelines and Assessment".

NOTE: Available at https://www.gsma.com/iot/iot-security/iot-security-guidelines/.

[i.12] ETSI TR 103 533: "SmartM2M; Security; Standards Landscape and best practices".

[i.13] Commission Notice: The "Blue Guide" on the implementation of EU products rules 2016 (Text

with EEA relevance), 2016/C 272/01.

NOTE: Available in the Official Journal of the European Union, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-

content/EN/ALL/?uri=OJ:C:2016:272:TOC.
[i.14] Copper Horse: "Mapping Security & Privacy in the Internet of Things".
NOTE: Available at https://iotsecuritymapping.uk/.
ETSI
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SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
8 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
[i.15] ENISA: "Baseline Security Recommendations for IoT - Interactive Tool".

NOTE: Available at https://www.enisa.europa.eu/topics/iot-and-smart-infrastructures/iot/baseline-security-

recommendations-for-iot-interactive-tool.

[i.16] IoT Security Foundation: "Understanding the Contemporary Use of Vulnerability Disclosure in

Consumer Internet of Things Product Companies".

NOTE: Available at https://www.iotsecurityfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Vulnerability-

Disclosure-Design-v4.pdf.

[i.17] F-Secure: "IoT threats: Explosion of 'smart' devices filling up homes leads to increasing risks".

NOTE: Available at https://blog.f-secure.com/iot-threats/.
[i.18] W3C: "Web of Things at W3C".
NOTE: Available at https://www.w3.org/WoT/.

[i.19] ETSI TS 103 701: "CYBER; Cybersecurity assessment for consumer IoT products".

NOTE: It is under development.

[i.20] DIN SPEC 27072: "Information Technology - IoT capable devices - Minimum requirements for

Information security".
[i.21] GSMA: "Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure (CVD) Programme".

NOTE: Available at https://www.gsma.com/security/gsma-coordinated-vulnerability-disclosure-programme/.

[i.22] IoT Security Foundation: "Vulnerability Disclosure - Best Practice Guidelines".

NOTE: Available at https://www.iotsecurityfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Vulnerability-

Disclosure_WG4_2017.pdf.
[i.23] OWASP Internet of Things (IoT) Top 10 2018.

NOTE: Available at https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Internet_of_Things_Project#tab=IoT_Top_10.

[i.24] IEEE 802.15.4™-2015: "IEEE Standard for Low-Rate Wireless Networks".

NOTE: Available at https://standards.ieee.org/content/ieee-standards/en/standard/802_15_4-2015.html.

[i.25] ETSI TS 102 221: "Smart Cards; UICC-Terminal interface; Physical and logical characteristics".

[i.26] GSMA: "SGP.22 Technical Specification v2.2.1".

[i.27] ISO/IEC 27005:2018: "Information technology - Security techniques - Information security risk

management".
NOTE: Available at https://www.iso.org/standard/75281.html.
[i.28] Microsoft Corporation: "The STRIDE Threat Model".

NOTE: Available at https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee823878(v=cs.20).aspx.

[i.29] ETSI TR 121 905: "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications (3GPP

TR 21.905)".
ETSI
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SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
9 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms
For the purposes of the present document, the following terms apply:

administrator: user who has the highest-privilege level possible for a user of the device, which can mean they are able

to change any configuration related to the intended functionality

associated services: digital services that, together with the device, are part of the overall consumer IoT product and that

are typically required to provide the product's intended functionality

EXAMPLE 1: Associated services can include mobile applications, cloud computing/storage and third party

Application Programming Interfaces (APIs).

EXAMPLE 2: A device transmits telemetry data to a third-party service chosen by the device manufacturer. This

service is an associated service.
authentication mechanism: method used to prove the authenticity of an entity
NOTE: An "entity" can be either a user or machine.

EXAMPLE: An authentication mechanism can be the requesting of a password, scanning a QR code, or use of a

biometric fingerprint scanner.

authentication value: individual value of an attribute used by an authentication mechanism

EXAMPLE: When the authentication mechanism is to request a password, the authentication value can be a

character string. When the authentication mechanism is a biometric fingerprint recognition, the

authentication value can be the index fingerprint of the left hand.

best practice cryptography: cryptography that is suitable for the corresponding use case and has no indications of a

feasible attack with current readily available techniques

NOTE 1: This does not refer only to the cryptographic primitives used, but also implementation, key generation and

handling of keys.

NOTE 2: Multiple organizations, such as SDOs and public authorities, maintain guides and catalogues of

cryptographic methods that can be used.

EXAMPLE: The device manufacturer uses a communication protocol and cryptographic library provided with

the IoT platform and where that library and protocol have been assessed against feasible attacks,

such as replay.

constrained device: device which has physical limitations in either the ability to process data, the ability to

communicate data, the ability to store data or the ability to interact with the user, due to restrictions that arise from its

intended use

NOTE 1: Physical limitations can be due to power supply, battery life, processing power, physical access, limited

functionality, limited memory or limited network bandwidth. These limitations can require a constrained

device to be supported by another device, such as a base station or companion device.

EXAMPLE 1: A window sensor's battery cannot be charged or changed by the user; this is a constrained device.

EXAMPLE 2: The device cannot have its software updated due to storage limitations, resulting in hardware

replacement or network isolation being the only options to manage a security vulnerability.

EXAMPLE 3: A low-powered device uses a battery to enable it to be deployed in a range of locations.

Performing high power cryptographic operations would quickly reduce the battery life, so it relies

on a base station or hub to perform validations on updates.

EXAMPLE 4: The device has no display screen to validate binding codes for Bluetooth pairing.

EXAMPLE 5: The device has no ability to input, such as via a keyboard, authentication information.

ETSI
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SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
10 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)

NOTE 2: A device that has a wired power supply and can support IP-based protocols and the cryptographic

primitives used by those protocols is not constrained.

EXAMPLE 6: A device is mains powered and communicates primarily using TLS (Transport Layer Security).

consumer: natural person who is acting for purposes that are outside her/his trade, business, craft or profession

NOTE: Organizations, including businesses of any size, use consumer IoT. For example, Smart TVs are

frequently deployed in meeting rooms, and home security kits can protect the premises of small

businesses.

consumer IoT device: network-connected (and network-connectable) device that has relationships to associated

services and are used by the consumer typically in the home or as electronic wearables

NOTE 1: Consumer IoT devices are commonly also used in business contexts. These devices remain classified as

consumer IoT devices.

NOTE 2: Consumer IoT devices are often available for the consumer to purchase in retail environments. Consumer

IoT devices can also be commissioned and/or installed professionally.

critical security parameter: security-related secret information whose disclosure or modification can compromise the

security of a security module

EXAMPLE: Secret cryptographic keys, authentication values such as passwords, PINs, private components of

certificates.

debug interface: physical interface used by the manufacturer to communicate with the device during development or to

perform triage of issues with the device and that is not used as part of the consumer-facing functionality

EXAMPLE: Test points, UART, SWD, JTAG.

defined support period: minimum length of time, expressed as a period or by an end-date, for which a manufacturer

will provide security updates

NOTE: This definition focuses on security aspects and not other aspects related to product support such as

warranty.

device manufacturer: entity that creates an assembled final consumer IoT product, which is likely to contain the

products and components of many other suppliers

factory default: state of the device after factory reset or after final production/assembly

NOTE: This includes the physical device and software (including firmware) that is present on it after assembly.

initialization: process that activates the network connectivity of the device for operation and optionally sets

authentication features for a user or for network access
initialized state: state of the device after initialization
IoT product: consumer IoT device and its associated services

isolable: able to be removed from the network it is connected to, where any functionality loss caused is related only to

that connectivity and not to its main function; alternatively, able to be placed in a self-contained environment with other

devices if and only if the integrity of devices within that environment can be ensured

EXAMPLE: A Smart Fridge has a touchscreen-based interface that is network-connected. This interface can be

removed without stopping the fridge from keeping the contents chilled.

logical interface: software implementation that utilizes a network interface to communicate over the network via

channels or ports
ETSI
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SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
11 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)

manufacturer: relevant economic operator in the supply chain (including the device manufacturer)

NOTE: This definition ackno
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
01-september-2020
CYBER - Kibernetska varnost za uporabnike interneta stvari: osnovne zahteve
CYBER - Cyber Security for Consumer Internet of Things: Baseline Requirements
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
ICS:
35.030 Informacijska varnost IT Security
SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
EUROPEAN STANDARD
CYBER;
Cyber Security for Consumer Internet of Things:
Baseline Requirements
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
2 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
Reference
REN/CYBER-0048
Keywords
cybersecurity, IoT, privacy
ETSI
650 Route des Lucioles
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Siret N° 348 623 562 00017 - NAF 742 C
Association à but non lucratif enregistrée à la
Sous-Préfecture de Grasse (06) N° 7803/88
Important notice
The present document can be downloaded from:
http://www.etsi.org/standards-search

The present document may be made available in electronic versions and/or in print. The content of any electronic and/or

print versions of the present document shall not be modified without the prior written authorization of ETSI. In case of any

existing or perceived difference in contents between such versions and/or in print, the prevailing version of an ETSI

deliverable is the one made publicly available in PDF format at www.etsi.org/deliver.

Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at

https://portal.etsi.org/TB/ETSIDeliverableStatus.aspx

If you find errors in the present document, please send your comment to one of the following services:

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Copyright Notification

No part may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying

and microfilm except as authorized by written permission of ETSI.

The content of the PDF version shall not be modified without the written authorization of ETSI.

The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© ETSI 2020.
All rights reserved.

DECT™, PLUGTESTS™, UMTS™ and the ETSI logo are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP™ and LTE™ are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

oneM2M™ logo is a trademark of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the oneM2M Partners.
GSM and the GSM logo are trademarks registered and owned by the GSM Association.
ETSI
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SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
3 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 4

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 4

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 6

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 6

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 7

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 9

3.1 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

3.2 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 11

3.3 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 12

4 Reporting implementation ...................................................................................................................... 12

5 Cyber security provisions for consumer IoT .......................................................................................... 13

5.1 No universal default passwords ........................................................................................................................ 13

5.2 Implement a means to manage reports of vulnerabilities ................................................................................. 14

5.3 Keep software updated ..................................................................................................................................... 15

5.4 Securely store sensitive security parameters .................................................................................................... 18

5.5 Communicate securely ..................................................................................................................................... 19

5.6 Minimize exposed attack surfaces .................................................................................................................... 20

5.7 Ensure software integrity .................................................................................................................................. 21

5.8 Ensure that personal data is secure ................................................................................................................... 22

5.9 Make systems resilient to outages .................................................................................................................... 22

5.10 Examine system telemetry data ........................................................................................................................ 23

5.11 Make it easy for users to delete user data ......................................................................................................... 23

5.12 Make installation and maintenance of devices easy ......................................................................................... 24

5.13 Validate input data............................................................................................................................................ 24

6 Data protection provisions for consumer IoT ......................................................................................... 24

Annex A (informative): Basic concepts and models ............................................................................ 26

A.1 Architecture ............................................................................................................................................ 26

A.2 Device states ........................................................................................................................................... 28

Annex B (informative): Implementation conformance statement pro forma ................................... 31

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 34

ETSI
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SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
4 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents

IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Trademarks

The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.

ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no

right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does

not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.

Foreword

This European Standard (EN) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Cyber Security (CYBER).

National transposition dates
Date of adoption of this EN: 19 June 2020
Date of latest announcement of this EN (doa): 30 September 2020
Date of latest publication of new National Standard
or endorsement of this EN (dop/e): 31 March 2021
Date of withdrawal of any conflicting National Standard (dow): 31 March 2021
Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

Introduction

As more devices in the home connect to the Internet, the cyber security of the Internet of Things (IoT) becomes a

growing concern. People entrust their personal data to an increasing number of online devices and services. Products

and appliances that have traditionally been offline are now connected and need to be designed to withstand cyber

threats.

The present document brings together widely considered good practice in security for Internet-connected consumer

devices in a set of high-level outcome-focused provisions. The objective of the present document is to support all

parties involved in the development and manufacturing of consumer IoT with guidance on securing their products.

ETSI
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SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
5 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)

The provisions are primarily outcome-focused, rather than prescriptive, giving organizations the flexibility to innovate

and implement security solutions appropriate for their products.

The present document is not intended to solve all security challenges associated with consumer IoT. It also does not

focus on protecting against attacks that are prolonged/sophisticated or that require sustained physical access to the

device. Rather, the focus is on the technical controls and organizational policies that matter most in addressing the most

significant and widespread security shortcomings. Overall, a baseline level of security is considered; this is intended to

protect against elementary attacks on fundamental design weaknesses (such as the use of easily guessable passwords).

The present document provides a set of baseline provisions applicable to all consumer IoT devices. It is intended to be

complemented by other standards defining more specific provisions and fully testable and/or verifiable requirements for

specific devices which, together with the present document, will facilitate the development of assurance schemes.

Many consumer IoT devices and their associated services process and store personal data, the present document can

help in ensuring that these are compliant with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) [i.7]. Security by design

is an important principle that is endorsed by the present document.

ETSI TS 103 701 [i.19] provides guidance on how to assess and assure IoT products against provisions within the

present document.

The provisions in the present document have been developed following a review of published standards,

recommendations and guidance on IoT security and privacy, including: ETSI TR 103 305-3 [i.1], ETSI

TR 103 309 [i.2], ENISA Baseline Security Recommendations [i.8], UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media and

Sport (DCMS) Secure by Design Report [i.9], IoT Security Foundation Compliance Framework [i.10], GSMA IoT

Security Guidelines and Assessment [i.11], ETSI TR 103 533 [i.12], DIN SPEC 27072 [i.20] and OWASP Internet of

Things [i.23].

NOTE: Mappings of the landscape of IoT security standards, recommendations and guidance are available in

ENISA Baseline Security Recommendations for IoT - Interactive Tool [i.15] and in Copper Horse

Mapping Security & Privacy in the Internet of Things [i.14].

As consumer IoT products become increasingly secure, it is envisioned that future revisions of the present document

will mandate provisions that are currently recommendations in the present document.

ETSI
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SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
6 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
1 Scope

The present document specifies high-level security and data protection provisions for consumer IoT devices that are

connected to network infrastructure (such as the Internet or home network) and their interactions with associated

services. The associated services are out of scope. A non-exhaustive list of examples of consumer IoT devices includes:

• connected children's toys and baby monitors;
• connected smoke detectors, door locks and window sensors;
• IoT gateways, base stations and hubs to which multiple devices connect;
• smart cameras, TVs and speakers;
• wearable health trackers;

• connected home automation and alarm systems, especially their gateways and hubs;

• connected appliances, such as washing machines and fridges; and
• smart home assistants.

Moreover, the present document addresses security considerations specific to constrained devices.

EXAMPLE: Window contact sensors, flood sensors and energy switches are typically constrained devices.

The present document provides basic guidance through examples and explanatory text for organizations involved in the

development and manufacturing of consumer IoT on how to implement those provisions. Table B.1 provides a schema

for the reader to give information about the implementation of the provisions.

Devices that are not consumer IoT devices, for example those that are primarily intended to be used in manufacturing,

healthcare or other industrial applications, are not in scope of the present document.

The present document has been developed primarily to help protect consumers, however, other users of consumer IoT

equally benefit from the implementation of the provisions set out here.

Annex A (informative) of the present document has been included to provide context to clauses 4, 5 and 6 (normative).

Annex A contains examples of device and reference architectures and an example model of device states including data

storage for each state.
2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference/.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

Not applicable.
ETSI
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SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
7 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] ETSI TR 103 305-3: "CYBER; Critical Security Controls for Effective Cyber Defence; Part 3:

Service Sector Implementations".

[i.2] ETSI TR 103 309: "CYBER; Secure by Default - platform security technology".

[i.3] NIST Special Publication 800-63B: "Digital Identity Guidelines - Authentication and Lifecycle

Management".

NOTE: Available at https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-63b.pdf.

[i.4] ISO/IEC 29147: "Information technology - Security techniques - Vulnerability Disclosure".

NOTE: Available at https://www.iso.org/standard/45170.html.
[i.5] OASIS: "CSAF Common Vulnerability Reporting Framework (CVRF)".

NOTE: Available at http://docs.oasis-open.org/csaf/csaf-cvrf/v1.2/csaf-cvrf-v1.2.html.

[i.6] ETSI TR 103 331: "CYBER; Structured threat information sharing".

[i.7] Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the

protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free

movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation).

[i.8] ENISA: "Baseline Security Recommendations for IoT in the context of Critical Information

Infrastructures", November 2017, ISBN: 978-92-9204-236-3, doi: 10.2824/03228.

NOTE: Available at https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/c37f8196-d96f-11e7-a506-

01aa75ed71a1/language-en/format-PDF/source-117211901.

[i.9] UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport: "Secure by Design: Improving the cyber

security of consumer Internet of Things Report", March 2018.
NOTE: Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/secure-by-design.

[i.10] IoT Security Foundation: "IoT Security Compliance Framework", Release 2 December 2018.

NOTE: Available at https://www.iotsecurityfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/IoTSF-IoT-Security-

Compliance-Framework-Release-2.0-December-2018.pdf.
[i.11] GSMA: "GSMA IoT Security Guidelines and Assessment".

NOTE: Available at https://www.gsma.com/iot/iot-security/iot-security-guidelines/.

[i.12] ETSI TR 103 533: "SmartM2M; Security; Standards Landscape and best practices".

[i.13] Commission Notice: The "Blue Guide" on the implementation of EU products rules 2016 (Text

with EEA relevance), 2016/C 272/01.

NOTE: Available in the Official Journal of the European Union, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-

content/EN/ALL/?uri=OJ:C:2016:272:TOC.
[i.14] Copper Horse: "Mapping Security & Privacy in the Internet of Things".
NOTE: Available at https://iotsecuritymapping.uk/.
ETSI
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SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
8 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
[i.15] ENISA: "Baseline Security Recommendations for IoT - Interactive Tool".

NOTE: Available at https://www.enisa.europa.eu/topics/iot-and-smart-infrastructures/iot/baseline-security-

recommendations-for-iot-interactive-tool.

[i.16] IoT Security Foundation: "Understanding the Contemporary Use of Vulnerability Disclosure in

Consumer Internet of Things Product Companies".

NOTE: Available at https://www.iotsecurityfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Vulnerability-

Disclosure-Design-v4.pdf.

[i.17] F-Secure: "IoT threats: Explosion of 'smart' devices filling up homes leads to increasing risks".

NOTE: Available at https://blog.f-secure.com/iot-threats/.
[i.18] W3C: "Web of Things at W3C".
NOTE: Available at https://www.w3.org/WoT/.

[i.19] ETSI TS 103 701: "CYBER; Cybersecurity assessment for consumer IoT products".

NOTE: It is under development.

[i.20] DIN SPEC 27072: "Information Technology - IoT capable devices - Minimum requirements for

Information security".
[i.21] GSMA: "Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure (CVD) Programme".

NOTE: Available at https://www.gsma.com/security/gsma-coordinated-vulnerability-disclosure-programme/.

[i.22] IoT Security Foundation: "Vulnerability Disclosure - Best Practice Guidelines".

NOTE: Available at https://www.iotsecurityfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Vulnerability-

Disclosure_WG4_2017.pdf.
[i.23] OWASP Internet of Things (IoT) Top 10 2018.

NOTE: Available at https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Internet_of_Things_Project#tab=IoT_Top_10.

[i.24] IEEE 802.15.4™-2015: "IEEE Standard for Low-Rate Wireless Networks".

NOTE: Available at https://standards.ieee.org/content/ieee-standards/en/standard/802_15_4-2015.html.

[i.25] ETSI TS 102 221: "Smart Cards; UICC-Terminal interface; Physical and logical characteristics".

[i.26] GSMA: "SGP.22 Technical Specification v2.2.1".

[i.27] ISO/IEC 27005:2018: "Information technology - Security techniques - Information security risk

management".
NOTE: Available at https://www.iso.org/standard/75281.html.
[i.28] Microsoft Corporation: "The STRIDE Threat Model".

NOTE: Available at https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee823878(v=cs.20).aspx.

[i.29] ETSI TR 121 905: "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications (3GPP

TR 21.905)".
ETSI
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SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
9 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms
For the purposes of the present document, the following terms apply:

administrator: user who has the highest-privilege level possible for a user of the device, which can mean they are able

to change any configuration related to the intended functionality

associated services: digital services that, together with the device, are part of the overall consumer IoT product and that

are typically required to provide the product's intended functionality

EXAMPLE 1: Associated services can include mobile applications, cloud computing/storage and third party

Application Programming Interfaces (APIs).

EXAMPLE 2: A device transmits telemetry data to a third-party service chosen by the device manufacturer. This

service is an associated service.
authentication mechanism: method used to prove the authenticity of an entity
NOTE: An "entity" can be either a user or machine.

EXAMPLE: An authentication mechanism can be the requesting of a password, scanning a QR code, or use of a

biometric fingerprint scanner.

authentication value: individual value of an attribute used by an authentication mechanism

EXAMPLE: When the authentication mechanism is to request a password, the authentication value can be a

character string. When the authentication mechanism is a biometric fingerprint recognition, the

authentication value can be the index fingerprint of the left hand.

best practice cryptography: cryptography that is suitable for the corresponding use case and has no indications of a

feasible attack with current readily available techniques

NOTE 1: This does not refer only to the cryptographic primitives used, but also implementation, key generation and

handling of keys.

NOTE 2: Multiple organizations, such as SDOs and public authorities, maintain guides and catalogues of

cryptographic methods that can be used.

EXAMPLE: The device manufacturer uses a communication protocol and cryptographic library provided with

the IoT platform and where that library and protocol have been assessed against feasible attacks,

such as replay.

constrained device: device which has physical limitations in either the ability to process data, the ability to

communicate data, the ability to store data or the ability to interact with the user, due to restrictions that arise from its

intended use

NOTE 1: Physical limitations can be due to power supply, battery life, processing power, physical access, limited

functionality, limited memory or limited network bandwidth. These limitations can require a constrained

device to be supported by another device, such as a base station or companion device.

EXAMPLE 1: A window sensor's battery cannot be charged or changed by the user; this is a constrained device.

EXAMPLE 2: The device cannot have its software updated due to storage limitations, resulting in hardware

replacement or network isolation being the only options to manage a security vulnerability.

EXAMPLE 3: A low-powered device uses a battery to enable it to be deployed in a range of locations.

Performing high power cryptographic operations would quickly reduce the battery life, so it relies

on a base station or hub to perform validations on updates.

EXAMPLE 4: The device has no display screen to validate binding codes for Bluetooth pairing.

EXAMPLE 5: The device has no ability to input, such as via a keyboard, authentication information.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
10 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)

NOTE 2: A device that has a wired power supply and can support IP-based protocols and the cryptographic

primitives used by those protocols is not constrained.

EXAMPLE 6: A device is mains powered and communicates primarily using TLS (Transport Layer Security).

consumer: natural person who is acting for purposes that are outside her/his trade, business, craft or profession

NOTE: Organizations, including businesses of any size, use consumer IoT. For example, Smart TVs are

frequently deployed in meeting rooms, and home security kits can protect the premises of small

businesses.

consumer IoT device: network-connected (and network-connectable) device that has relationships to associated

services and are used by the consumer typically in the home or as electronic wearables

NOTE 1: Consumer IoT devices are commonly also used in business contexts. These devices remain classified as

consumer IoT devices.

NOTE 2: Consumer IoT devices are often available for the consumer to purchase in retail environments. Consumer

IoT devices can also be commissioned and/or installed professionally.

critical security parameter: security-related secret information whose disclosure or modification can compromise the

security of a security module

EXAMPLE: Secret cryptographic keys, authentication values such as passwords, PINs, private components of

certificates.

debug interface: physical interface used by the manufacturer to communicate with the device during development or to

perform triage of issues with the device and that is not used as part of the consumer-facing functionality

EXAMPLE: Test points, UART, SWD, JTAG.

defined support period: minimum length of time, expressed as a period or by an end-date, for which a manufacturer

will provide security updates

NOTE: This definition focuses on security aspects and not other aspects related to product support such as

warranty.

device manufacturer: entity that creates an assembled final consumer IoT product, which is likely to contain the

products and components of many other suppliers

factory default: state of the device after factory reset or after final production/assembly

NOTE: This includes the physical device and software (including firmware) that is present on it after assembly.

initialization: process that activates the network connectivity of the device for operation and optionally sets

authentication features for a user or for network access
initialized state: state of the device after initialization
IoT product: consumer IoT device and its associated services

isolable: able to be removed from the network it is connected to, where any functionality loss caused is related only to

that connectivity and not to its main function; alternatively, able to be placed in a self-contained environment with other

devices if and only if the integrity of devices within that environment can be ensured

EXAMPLE: A Smart Fridge has a touchscreen-based interface that is network-connected. This interface can be

removed without stopping the fridge from keeping the contents chilled.

logical interface: software implementation that utilizes a network interface to communicate over the network via

channels or ports
ETSI
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SIST EN 303 645 V2.1.1:2020
11 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)

manufacturer: relevant economic operator in the supply chain (including the device manufacturer)

NOTE: This definition ackn
...

ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
EUROPEAN STANDARD
CYBER;
Cyber Security for Consumer Internet of Things:
Baseline Requirements
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
2 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
Reference
REN/CYBER-0048
Keywords
cybersecurity, IoT, privacy
ETSI
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Important notice
The present document can be downloaded from:
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The present document may be made available in electronic versions and/or in print. The content of any electronic and/or

print versions of the present document shall not be modified without the prior written authorization of ETSI. In case of any

existing or perceived difference in contents between such versions and/or in print, the prevailing version of an ETSI

deliverable is the one made publicly available in PDF format at www.etsi.org/deliver.

Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at

https://portal.etsi.org/TB/ETSIDeliverableStatus.aspx

If you find errors in the present document, please send your comment to one of the following services:

https://portal.etsi.org/People/CommiteeSupportStaff.aspx
Copyright Notification

No part may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying

and microfilm except as authorized by written permission of ETSI.

The content of the PDF version shall not be modified without the written authorization of ETSI.

The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© ETSI 2020.
All rights reserved.

DECT™, PLUGTESTS™, UMTS™ and the ETSI logo are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP™ and LTE™ are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

oneM2M™ logo is a trademark of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the oneM2M Partners.
GSM and the GSM logo are trademarks registered and owned by the GSM Association.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
3 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 4

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 4

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 6

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 6

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 7

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 9

3.1 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

3.2 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 11

3.3 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 12

4 Reporting implementation ...................................................................................................................... 12

5 Cyber security provisions for consumer IoT .......................................................................................... 13

5.1 No universal default passwords ........................................................................................................................ 13

5.2 Implement a means to manage reports of vulnerabilities ................................................................................. 14

5.3 Keep software updated ..................................................................................................................................... 15

5.4 Securely store sensitive security parameters .................................................................................................... 18

5.5 Communicate securely ..................................................................................................................................... 19

5.6 Minimize exposed attack surfaces .................................................................................................................... 20

5.7 Ensure software integrity .................................................................................................................................. 21

5.8 Ensure that personal data is secure ................................................................................................................... 22

5.9 Make systems resilient to outages .................................................................................................................... 22

5.10 Examine system telemetry data ........................................................................................................................ 23

5.11 Make it easy for users to delete user data ......................................................................................................... 23

5.12 Make installation and maintenance of devices easy ......................................................................................... 24

5.13 Validate input data............................................................................................................................................ 24

6 Data protection provisions for consumer IoT ......................................................................................... 24

Annex A (informative): Basic concepts and models ............................................................................ 26

A.1 Architecture ............................................................................................................................................ 26

A.2 Device states ........................................................................................................................................... 28

Annex B (informative): Implementation conformance statement pro forma ................................... 31

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 34

ETSI
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4 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents

IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Trademarks

The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.

ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no

right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does

not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.

Foreword

This European Standard (EN) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Cyber Security (CYBER).

National transposition dates
Date of adoption of this EN: 19 June 2020
Date of latest announcement of this EN (doa): 30 September 2020
Date of latest publication of new National Standard
or endorsement of this EN (dop/e): 31 March 2021
Date of withdrawal of any conflicting National Standard (dow): 31 March 2021
Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

Introduction

As more devices in the home connect to the Internet, the cyber security of the Internet of Things (IoT) becomes a

growing concern. People entrust their personal data to an increasing number of online devices and services. Products

and appliances that have traditionally been offline are now connected and need to be designed to withstand cyber

threats.

The present document brings together widely considered good practice in security for Internet-connected consumer

devices in a set of high-level outcome-focused provisions. The objective of the present document is to support all

parties involved in the development and manufacturing of consumer IoT with guidance on securing their products.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
5 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)

The provisions are primarily outcome-focused, rather than prescriptive, giving organizations the flexibility to innovate

and implement security solutions appropriate for their products.

The present document is not intended to solve all security challenges associated with consumer IoT. It also does not

focus on protecting against attacks that are prolonged/sophisticated or that require sustained physical access to the

device. Rather, the focus is on the technical controls and organizational policies that matter most in addressing the most

significant and widespread security shortcomings. Overall, a baseline level of security is considered; this is intended to

protect against elementary attacks on fundamental design weaknesses (such as the use of easily guessable passwords).

The present document provides a set of baseline provisions applicable to all consumer IoT devices. It is intended to be

complemented by other standards defining more specific provisions and fully testable and/or verifiable requirements for

specific devices which, together with the present document, will facilitate the development of assurance schemes.

Many consumer IoT devices and their associated services process and store personal data, the present document can

help in ensuring that these are compliant with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) [i.7]. Security by design

is an important principle that is endorsed by the present document.

ETSI TS 103 701 [i.19] provides guidance on how to assess and assure IoT products against provisions within the

present document.

The provisions in the present document have been developed following a review of published standards,

recommendations and guidance on IoT security and privacy, including: ETSI TR 103 305-3 [i.1], ETSI

TR 103 309 [i.2], ENISA Baseline Security Recommendations [i.8], UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media and

Sport (DCMS) Secure by Design Report [i.9], IoT Security Foundation Compliance Framework [i.10], GSMA IoT

Security Guidelines and Assessment [i.11], ETSI TR 103 533 [i.12], DIN SPEC 27072 [i.20] and OWASP Internet of

Things [i.23].

NOTE: Mappings of the landscape of IoT security standards, recommendations and guidance are available in

ENISA Baseline Security Recommendations for IoT - Interactive Tool [i.15] and in Copper Horse

Mapping Security & Privacy in the Internet of Things [i.14].

As consumer IoT products become increasingly secure, it is envisioned that future revisions of the present document

will mandate provisions that are currently recommendations in the present document.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
6 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
1 Scope

The present document specifies high-level security and data protection provisions for consumer IoT devices that are

connected to network infrastructure (such as the Internet or home network) and their interactions with associated

services. The associated services are out of scope. A non-exhaustive list of examples of consumer IoT devices includes:

• connected children's toys and baby monitors;
• connected smoke detectors, door locks and window sensors;
• IoT gateways, base stations and hubs to which multiple devices connect;
• smart cameras, TVs and speakers;
• wearable health trackers;

• connected home automation and alarm systems, especially their gateways and hubs;

• connected appliances, such as washing machines and fridges; and
• smart home assistants.

Moreover, the present document addresses security considerations specific to constrained devices.

EXAMPLE: Window contact sensors, flood sensors and energy switches are typically constrained devices.

The present document provides basic guidance through examples and explanatory text for organizations involved in the

development and manufacturing of consumer IoT on how to implement those provisions. Table B.1 provides a schema

for the reader to give information about the implementation of the provisions.

Devices that are not consumer IoT devices, for example those that are primarily intended to be used in manufacturing,

healthcare or other industrial applications, are not in scope of the present document.

The present document has been developed primarily to help protect consumers, however, other users of consumer IoT

equally benefit from the implementation of the provisions set out here.

Annex A (informative) of the present document has been included to provide context to clauses 4, 5 and 6 (normative).

Annex A contains examples of device and reference architectures and an example model of device states including data

storage for each state.
2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference/.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

Not applicable.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
7 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] ETSI TR 103 305-3: "CYBER; Critical Security Controls for Effective Cyber Defence; Part 3:

Service Sector Implementations".

[i.2] ETSI TR 103 309: "CYBER; Secure by Default - platform security technology".

[i.3] NIST Special Publication 800-63B: "Digital Identity Guidelines - Authentication and Lifecycle

Management".

NOTE: Available at https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-63b.pdf.

[i.4] ISO/IEC 29147: "Information technology - Security techniques - Vulnerability Disclosure".

NOTE: Available at https://www.iso.org/standard/45170.html.
[i.5] OASIS: "CSAF Common Vulnerability Reporting Framework (CVRF)".

NOTE: Available at http://docs.oasis-open.org/csaf/csaf-cvrf/v1.2/csaf-cvrf-v1.2.html.

[i.6] ETSI TR 103 331: "CYBER; Structured threat information sharing".

[i.7] Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the

protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free

movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation).

[i.8] ENISA: "Baseline Security Recommendations for IoT in the context of Critical Information

Infrastructures", November 2017, ISBN: 978-92-9204-236-3, doi: 10.2824/03228.

NOTE: Available at https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/c37f8196-d96f-11e7-a506-

01aa75ed71a1/language-en/format-PDF/source-117211901.

[i.9] UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport: "Secure by Design: Improving the cyber

security of consumer Internet of Things Report", March 2018.
NOTE: Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/secure-by-design.

[i.10] IoT Security Foundation: "IoT Security Compliance Framework", Release 2 December 2018.

NOTE: Available at https://www.iotsecurityfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/IoTSF-IoT-Security-

Compliance-Framework-Release-2.0-December-2018.pdf.
[i.11] GSMA: "GSMA IoT Security Guidelines and Assessment".

NOTE: Available at https://www.gsma.com/iot/iot-security/iot-security-guidelines/.

[i.12] ETSI TR 103 533: "SmartM2M; Security; Standards Landscape and best practices".

[i.13] Commission Notice: The "Blue Guide" on the implementation of EU products rules 2016 (Text

with EEA relevance), 2016/C 272/01.

NOTE: Available in the Official Journal of the European Union, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-

content/EN/ALL/?uri=OJ:C:2016:272:TOC.
[i.14] Copper Horse: "Mapping Security & Privacy in the Internet of Things".
NOTE: Available at https://iotsecuritymapping.uk/.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
8 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
[i.15] ENISA: "Baseline Security Recommendations for IoT - Interactive Tool".

NOTE: Available at https://www.enisa.europa.eu/topics/iot-and-smart-infrastructures/iot/baseline-security-

recommendations-for-iot-interactive-tool.

[i.16] IoT Security Foundation: "Understanding the Contemporary Use of Vulnerability Disclosure in

Consumer Internet of Things Product Companies".

NOTE: Available at https://www.iotsecurityfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Vulnerability-

Disclosure-Design-v4.pdf.

[i.17] F-Secure: "IoT threats: Explosion of 'smart' devices filling up homes leads to increasing risks".

NOTE: Available at https://blog.f-secure.com/iot-threats/.
[i.18] W3C: "Web of Things at W3C".
NOTE: Available at https://www.w3.org/WoT/.

[i.19] ETSI TS 103 701: "CYBER; Cybersecurity assessment for consumer IoT products".

NOTE: It is under development.

[i.20] DIN SPEC 27072: "Information Technology - IoT capable devices - Minimum requirements for

Information security".
[i.21] GSMA: "Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure (CVD) Programme".

NOTE: Available at https://www.gsma.com/security/gsma-coordinated-vulnerability-disclosure-programme/.

[i.22] IoT Security Foundation: "Vulnerability Disclosure - Best Practice Guidelines".

NOTE: Available at https://www.iotsecurityfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Vulnerability-

Disclosure_WG4_2017.pdf.
[i.23] OWASP Internet of Things (IoT) Top 10 2018.

NOTE: Available at https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Internet_of_Things_Project#tab=IoT_Top_10.

[i.24] IEEE 802.15.4™-2015: "IEEE Standard for Low-Rate Wireless Networks".

NOTE: Available at https://standards.ieee.org/content/ieee-standards/en/standard/802_15_4-2015.html.

[i.25] ETSI TS 102 221: "Smart Cards; UICC-Terminal interface; Physical and logical characteristics".

[i.26] GSMA: "SGP.22 Technical Specification v2.2.1".

[i.27] ISO/IEC 27005:2018: "Information technology - Security techniques - Information security risk

management".
NOTE: Available at https://www.iso.org/standard/75281.html.
[i.28] Microsoft Corporation: "The STRIDE Threat Model".

NOTE: Available at https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee823878(v=cs.20).aspx.

[i.29] ETSI TR 121 905: "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications (3GPP

TR 21.905)".
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
9 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)
3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms
For the purposes of the present document, the following terms apply:

administrator: user who has the highest-privilege level possible for a user of the device, which can mean they are able

to change any configuration related to the intended functionality

associated services: digital services that, together with the device, are part of the overall consumer IoT product and that

are typically required to provide the product's intended functionality

EXAMPLE 1: Associated services can include mobile applications, cloud computing/storage and third party

Application Programming Interfaces (APIs).

EXAMPLE 2: A device transmits telemetry data to a third-party service chosen by the device manufacturer. This

service is an associated service.
authentication mechanism: method used to prove the authenticity of an entity
NOTE: An "entity" can be either a user or machine.

EXAMPLE: An authentication mechanism can be the requesting of a password, scanning a QR code, or use of a

biometric fingerprint scanner.

authentication value: individual value of an attribute used by an authentication mechanism

EXAMPLE: When the authentication mechanism is to request a password, the authentication value can be a

character string. When the authentication mechanism is a biometric fingerprint recognition, the

authentication value can be the index fingerprint of the left hand.

best practice cryptography: cryptography that is suitable for the corresponding use case and has no indications of a

feasible attack with current readily available techniques

NOTE 1: This does not refer only to the cryptographic primitives used, but also implementation, key generation and

handling of keys.

NOTE 2: Multiple organizations, such as SDOs and public authorities, maintain guides and catalogues of

cryptographic methods that can be used.

EXAMPLE: The device manufacturer uses a communication protocol and cryptographic library provided with

the IoT platform and where that library and protocol have been assessed against feasible attacks,

such as replay.

constrained device: device which has physical limitations in either the ability to process data, the ability to

communicate data, the ability to store data or the ability to interact with the user, due to restrictions that arise from its

intended use

NOTE 1: Physical limitations can be due to power supply, battery life, processing power, physical access, limited

functionality, limited memory or limited network bandwidth. These limitations can require a constrained

device to be supported by another device, such as a base station or companion device.

EXAMPLE 1: A window sensor's battery cannot be charged or changed by the user; this is a constrained device.

EXAMPLE 2: The device cannot have its software updated due to storage limitations, resulting in hardware

replacement or network isolation being the only options to manage a security vulnerability.

EXAMPLE 3: A low-powered device uses a battery to enable it to be deployed in a range of locations.

Performing high power cryptographic operations would quickly reduce the battery life, so it relies

on a base station or hub to perform validations on updates.

EXAMPLE 4: The device has no display screen to validate binding codes for Bluetooth pairing.

EXAMPLE 5: The device has no ability to input, such as via a keyboard, authentication information.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
10 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)

NOTE 2: A device that has a wired power supply and can support IP-based protocols and the cryptographic

primitives used by those protocols is not constrained.

EXAMPLE 6: A device is mains powered and communicates primarily using TLS (Transport Layer Security).

consumer: natural person who is acting for purposes that are outside her/his trade, business, craft or profession

NOTE: Organizations, including businesses of any size, use consumer IoT. For example, Smart TVs are

frequently deployed in meeting rooms, and home security kits can protect the premises of small

businesses.

consumer IoT device: network-connected (and network-connectable) device that has relationships to associated

services and are used by the consumer typically in the home or as electronic wearables

NOTE 1: Consumer IoT devices are commonly also used in business contexts. These devices remain classified as

consumer IoT devices.

NOTE 2: Consumer IoT devices are often available for the consumer to purchase in retail environments. Consumer

IoT devices can also be commissioned and/or installed professionally.

critical security parameter: security-related secret information whose disclosure or modification can compromise the

security of a security module

EXAMPLE: Secret cryptographic keys, authentication values such as passwords, PINs, private components of

certificates.

debug interface: physical interface used by the manufacturer to communicate with the device during development or to

perform triage of issues with the device and that is not used as part of the consumer-facing functionality

EXAMPLE: Test points, UART, SWD, JTAG.

defined support period: minimum length of time, expressed as a period or by an end-date, for which a manufacturer

will provide security updates

NOTE: This definition focuses on security aspects and not other aspects related to product support such as

warranty.

device manufacturer: entity that creates an assembled final consumer IoT product, which is likely to contain the

products and components of many other suppliers

factory default: state of the device after factory reset or after final production/assembly

NOTE: This includes the physical device and software (including firmware) that is present on it after assembly.

initialization: process that activates the network connectivity of the device for operation and optionally sets

authentication features for a user or for network access
initialized state: state of the device after initialization
IoT product: consumer IoT device and its associated services

isolable: able to be removed from the network it is connected to, where any functionality loss caused is related only to

that connectivity and not to its main function; alternatively, able to be placed in a self-contained environment with other

devices if and only if the integrity of devices within that environment can be ensured

EXAMPLE: A Smart Fridge has a touchscreen-based interface that is network-connected. This interface can be

removed without stopping the fridge from keeping the contents chilled.

logical interface: software implementation that utilizes a network interface to communicate over the network via

channels or ports
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
11 ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.1 (2020-06)

manufacturer: relevant economic operator in the supply chain (including the device manufacturer)

NOTE: This definition acknowledges the variety of actors involved in the consumer IoT ecosystem and the

complex ways by which they can share responsibilities. Beyond the device manufacturer, such entities

can also be, for example and depending on a specific case at hand: importers, distributors, integrators,

component and platform providers, software providers, IT and telecommunications service providers,

managed service providers and providers of associated services.

network interface: physical interface that can be used to access the functionality of consumer IoT via a network

owner: user who owns or who purchased the device

personal data: any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person

NOTE: This term is used to align with well-known terminology but has no legal meaning within the present

document.

physical interface: physical port or air interface (such as radio, audio or optical) used to communicate with the device

at the physical
...

Final draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.0 (2020-04)
EUROPEAN STANDARD
CYBER;
Cyber Security for Consumer Internet of Things:
Baseline Requirements
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
2 Final draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.0 (2020-04)
Reference
REN/CYBER-0048
Keywords
cybersecurity, IoT, privacy
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ETSI
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
3 Final draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.0 (2020-04)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 4

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 4

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 6

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 6

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 7

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 9

3.1 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

3.2 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 11

3.3 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 12

4 Reporting implementation ...................................................................................................................... 12

5 Cyber security provisions for consumer IoT .......................................................................................... 13

5.1 No universal default passwords ........................................................................................................................ 13

5.2 Implement a means to manage reports of vulnerabilities ................................................................................. 14

5.3 Keep software updated ..................................................................................................................................... 15

5.4 Securely store sensitive security parameters .................................................................................................... 18

5.5 Communicate securely ..................................................................................................................................... 19

5.6 Minimize exposed attack surfaces .................................................................................................................... 20

5.7 Ensure software integrity .................................................................................................................................. 21

5.8 Ensure that personal data is secure ................................................................................................................... 21

5.9 Make systems resilient to outages .................................................................................................................... 22

5.10 Examine system telemetry data ........................................................................................................................ 22

5.11 Make it easy for users to delete user data ......................................................................................................... 23

5.12 Make installation and maintenance of devices easy ......................................................................................... 23

5.13 Validate input data............................................................................................................................................ 24

6 Data protection provisions for consumer IoT ......................................................................................... 24

Annex A (informative): Basic concepts and models ............................................................................ 25

A.1 Architecture ............................................................................................................................................ 25

A.2 Device states ........................................................................................................................................... 27

Annex B (informative): Implementation conformance statement pro forma ................................... 29

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 32

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
4 Final draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.0 (2020-04)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents

IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Trademarks

The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.

ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no

right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does

not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.

Foreword

This final draft European Standard (EN) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Cyber Security (CYBER),

and is now submitted for the Vote phase of the ETSI standards EN Approval Procedure.

Proposed national transposition dates
Date of latest announcement of this EN (doa): 3 months after ETSI publication
Date of latest publication of new National Standard
or endorsement of this EN (dop/e): 6 months after doa

Date of withdrawal of any conflicting National Standard (dow): 6 months after doa

Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

Introduction

As more devices in the home connect to the Internet, the cyber security of the Internet of Things (IoT) becomes a

growing concern. People entrust their personal data to an increasing number of online devices and services. Products

and appliances that have traditionally been offline are now connected and need to be designed to withstand cyber

threats.

The present document brings together widely considered good practice in security for Internet-connected consumer

devices in a set of high-level outcome-focused provisions. The objective of the present document is to support all

parties involved in the development and manufacturing of consumer IoT with guidance on securing their products.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
5 Final draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.0 (2020-04)

The provisions are primarily outcome-focused, rather than prescriptive, giving organizations the flexibility to innovate

and implement security solutions appropriate for their products.

The present document is not intended to solve all security challenges associated with consumer IoT. It also does not

focus on protecting against attacks that are prolonged/sophisticated or that require sustained physical access to the

device. Rather, the focus is on the technical controls and organizational policies that matter most in addressing the most

significant and widespread security shortcomings. Overall, a baseline level of security is considered; this is intended to

protect against elementary attacks on fundamental design weaknesses (such as the use of easily guessable passwords).

The present document provides a set of baseline provisions applicable to all consumer IoT devices. It is intended to be

complemented by other standards defining more specific provisions and fully testable and/or verifiable requirements for

specific devices which, together with the present document, will facilitate the development of assurance schemes.

Many consumer IoT devices and their associated services process and store personal data, the present document can

help in ensuring that these are compliant with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) [i.7]. Security by design

is an important principle that is endorsed by the present document.

ETSI TS 103 701 [i.19] provides guidance on how to assess and assure IoT products against provisions within the

present document.

The provisions in the present document have been developed following review of published standards,

recommendations and guidance on IoT security and privacy, including: ETSI TR 103 305-3 [i.1], ETSI

TR 103 309 [i.2], ENISA Baseline Security Recommendations [i.8], UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media and

Sport (DCMS) Secure by Design Report [i.9], IoT Security Foundation Compliance Framework [i.10], GSMA IoT

Security Guidelines and Assessment [i.11], ETSI TR 103 533 [i.12], DIN SPEC 27072 [i.20] and OWASP Internet of

Things [i.23].

NOTE: Mappings of the landscape of IoT security standards, recommendations and guidance are available in

ENISA Baseline Security Recommendations for IoT - Interactive Tool [i.15] and in Copper Horse

Mapping Security & Privacy in the Internet of Things [i.14].

As consumer IoT products become increasingly secure, it is envisioned that future revisions of the present document

will mandate provisions that are currently recommendations in the present document.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
6 Final draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.0 (2020-04)
1 Scope

The present document specifies high-level security and data protection provisions for consumer IoT devices that are

connected to network infrastructure (such as the Internet or home network) and their interactions with associated

services. The associated services are out of scope. A non-exhaustive list of examples of consumer IoT devices includes:

• connected children's toys and baby monitors;
• connected smoke detectors, door locks and window sensors;
• IoT gateways, base stations and hubs to which multiple devices connect;
• smart cameras, TVs and speakers;
• wearable health trackers;

• connected home automation and alarm systems, especially their gateways and hubs;

• connected appliances, such as washing machines and fridges; and
• smart home assistants.

Moreover, the present document addresses security considerations specific to constrained devices.

EXAMPLE: Window contact sensors, flood sensors and energy switches are typically constrained devices.

The present document provides basic guidance through examples and explanatory text for organizations involved in the

development and manufacturing of consumer IoT on how to implement those provisions. Table B.1 provides a schema

for the reader to give information about the implementation of the provisions.

Devices that are not consumer IoT devices, for example those that are primarily intended to be used in manufacturing,

healthcare or other industrial applications, are not in scope of the present document.

The present document has been developed primarily to help protect consumers, however, other users of consumer IoT

equally benefit from the implementation of the provisions set out here.

Annex A (informative) of the present document has been included to provide context to clauses 4, 5 and 6 (normative).

Annex A contains examples of device and reference architectures and an example model of device states including data

storage for each state.
2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference/.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

Not applicable.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
7 Final draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.0 (2020-04)
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] ETSI TR 103 305-3: "CYBER; Critical Security Controls for Effective Cyber Defence; Part 3:

Service Sector Implementations".

[i.2] ETSI TR 103 309: "CYBER; Secure by Default - platform security technology".

[i.3] NIST Special Publication 800-63B: "Digital Identity Guidelines - Authentication and Lifecycle

Management".

NOTE: Available at https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-63b.pdf.

[i.4] ISO/IEC 29147: "Information technology - Security techniques - Vulnerability Disclosure".

NOTE: Available at https://www.iso.org/standard/45170.html.
[i.5] OASIS: "CSAF Common Vulnerability Reporting Framework (CVRF)".

NOTE: Available at http://docs.oasis-open.org/csaf/csaf-cvrf/v1.2/csaf-cvrf-v1.2.html.

[i.6] ETSI TR 103 331: "CYBER; Structured threat information sharing".

[i.7] Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the

protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free

movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation).

[i.8] ENISA: "Baseline Security Recommendations for IoT in the context of Critical Information

Infrastructures", November 2017, ISBN: 978-92-9204-236-3, doi: 10.2824/03228.

[i.9] UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport: "Secure by Design: Improving the cyber

security of consumer Internet of Things Report", March 2018.
NOTE: Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/secure-by-design.

[i.10] IoT Security Foundation: "IoT Security Compliance Framework", Release 2 December 2018.

NOTE: Available at https://www.iotsecurityfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/IoTSF-IoT-Security-

Compliance-Framework-Release-2.0-December-2018.pdf.
[i.11] GSMA: "GSMA IoT Security Guidelines and Assessment".

NOTE: Available at https://www.gsma.com/iot/iot-security/iot-security-guidelines/.

[i.12] ETSI TR 103 533: "SmartM2M; Security; Standards Landscape and best practices".

[i.13] Commission Notice: The "Blue Guide" on the implementation of EU products rules 2016 (Text

with EEA relevance), 2016/C 272/01.

NOTE: Available in the Official Journal of the European Union, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-

content/EN/ALL/?uri=OJ:C:2016:272:TOC.
[i.14] Copper Horse: "Mapping Security & Privacy in the Internet of Things".
NOTE: Available at https://iotsecuritymapping.uk/.
ETSI
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8 Final draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.0 (2020-04)
[i.15] ENISA: "Baseline Security Recommendations for IoT - Interactive Tool".

NOTE: Available at https://www.enisa.europa.eu/topics/iot-and-smart-infrastructures/iot/baseline-security-

recommendations-for-iot-interactive-tool.

[i.16] IoT Security Foundation: "Understanding the Contemporary Use of Vulnerability Disclosure in

Consumer Internet of Things Product Companies".

NOTE: Available at https://www.iotsecurityfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Vulnerability-

Disclosure-Design-v4.pdf.

[i.17] F-Secure: "IoT threats: Explosion of 'smart' devices filling up homes leads to increasing risks".

NOTE: Available at https://blog.f-secure.com/iot-threats/.
[i.18] W3C: "Web of Things at W3C".
NOTE: Available at https://www.w3.org/WoT/.

[i.19] ETSI TS 103 701: "CYBER; Cybersecurity assessment for consumer IoT products".

NOTE: It is under development.

[i.20] DIN SPEC 27072: "Information Technology - IoT capable devices - Minimum requirements for

Information security".
[i.21] GSMA: "Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure (CVD) Programme".

NOTE: Available at https://www.gsma.com/security/gsma-coordinated-vulnerability-disclosure-programme/.

[i.22] IoT Security Foundation: "Vulnerability Disclosure - Best Practice Guidelines".

NOTE: Available at https://www.iotsecurityfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Vulnerability-

Disclosure_WG4_2017.pdf.
[i.23] OWASP Internet of Things (IoT) Top 10 2018.

NOTE: Available at https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Internet_of_Things_Project#tab=IoT_Top_10.

[i.24] IEEE 802.15.4™-2015: "IEEE Standard for Low-Rate Wireless Networks".

NOTE: Available at https://standards.ieee.org/content/ieee-standards/en/standard/802_15_4-2015.html.

[i.25] ETSI TS 102 221: "Smart Cards; UICC-Terminal interface; Physical and logical characteristics".

[i.26] GSMA: "SGP.22 Technical Specification v2.2.1".

[i.27] ISO/IEC 27005:2018: "Information technology - Security techniques - Information security risk

management".
[i.28] Microsoft Corporation: "The STRIDE Threat Model".

NOTE: Available at https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee823878(v=cs.20).aspx.

[i.29] ETSI TR 121 905: "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM); Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications (3GPP

TR 21.905)".
ETSI
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9 Final draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.0 (2020-04)
3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms
For the purposes of the present document, the following terms apply:

administrator: user who has the highest-privilege level possible for a user of the device, which can mean they are able

to change any configuration related to the intended functionality

associated services: digital services that, together with the device, are part of the overall consumer IoT product and that

are typically required to provide the product's intended functionality

EXAMPLE 1: Associated services can include mobile applications, cloud computing/storage and third party

Application Programming Interfaces (APIs).

EXAMPLE 2: A device transmits telemetry data to a third-party service chosen by the device manufacturer. This

service is an associated service.
authentication mechanism: method used to prove the authenticity of an entity
NOTE: An "entity" can be either a user or machine.

EXAMPLE: An authentication mechanism can be the requesting of a password, scanning a QR code, or use of a

biometric fingerprint scanner.

authentication value: individual value of an attribute used by an authentication mechanism

EXAMPLE: When the authentication mechanism is to request a password, the authentication value can be a

character string. When the authentication mechanism is a biometric fingerprint recognition, the

authentication value can be the index fingerprint of the left hand.

best practice cryptography: cryptography that is suitable for the corresponding use case and has no indications of a

feasible attack with current readily available techniques

NOTE 1: This does not refer only to the cryptographic primitives used, but also implementation, key generation and

handling of keys.

NOTE 2: Multiple organizations, such as SDOs and public authorities, maintain guides and catalogues of

cryptographic methods that can be used.

EXAMPLE: The device manufacturer uses a communication protocol and cryptographic library provided with

the IoT platform and where that library and protocol have been assessed against feasible attacks,

such as replay.

constrained device: device which has physical limitations in either the ability to process data, the ability to

communicate data, the ability to store data or the ability to interact with the user, due to restrictions that arise from its

intended use

NOTE 1: Physical limitations can be due to power supply, battery life, processing power, physical access, limited

functionality, limited memory or limited network bandwidth. These limitations can require a constrained

device to be supported by another device, such as a base station or companion device.

EXAMPLE 1: A window sensor's battery cannot be charged or changed by the user; this is a constrained device.

EXAMPLE 2: The device cannot have its software updated due to storage limitations, resulting in hardware

replacement or network isolation being the only options to manage a security vulnerability.

EXAMPLE 3: A low-powered device uses a battery to enable it to be deployed in a range of locations.

Performing high power cryptographic operations would quickly reduce the battery life, so it relies

on a base station or hub to perform validations on updates.

EXAMPLE 4: The device has no display screen to validate binding codes for Bluetooth pairing.

EXAMPLE 5: The device has no ability to input, such as via a keyboard, authentication information.

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10 Final draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.0 (2020-04)

NOTE 2: A device that has a wired power supply and can support IP-based protocols and the cryptographic

primitives used by those protocols is not constrained.

EXAMPLE 6: A device is mains powered and communicates primarily using TLS (Transport Layer Security).

consumer: natural person who is acting for purposes that are outside her/his trade, business, craft or profession

NOTE: Organizations, including businesses of any size, use consumer IoT. For example, Smart TVs are

frequently deployed in meeting rooms, and home security kits can protect the premises of small

businesses.

consumer IoT device: network-connected (and network-connectable) device that has relationships to associated

services and are used by the consumer typically in the home or as electronic wearables

NOTE 1: Consumer IoT devices are commonly also used in business contexts. These devices remain classified as

consumer IoT devices.

NOTE 2: Consumer IoT devices are often available for the consumer to purchase in retail environments. Consumer

IoT devices can also be commissioned and/or installed professionally.

critical security parameter: security-related secret information whose disclosure or modification can compromise the

security of a security module

EXAMPLE: Secret cryptographic keys, authentication values such as passwords, PINs, private components of

certificates.

debug interface: physical interface used by the manufacturer to communicate with the device during development or to

perform triage of issues with the device and that is not used as part of the consumer-facing functionality

EXAMPLE: Test points, UART, SWD, JTAG.

defined support period: minimum length of time, expressed as a period or by an end-date, for which a manufacturer

will provide security updates

NOTE: This definition focuses on security aspects and not other aspects related to product support such as

warranty.

device manufacturer: entity that creates an assembled final consumer IoT product, which is likely to contain the

products and components of many other suppliers

factory default: state of the device after factory reset or after final production/assembly

NOTE: This includes the physical device and software (including firmware) that is present on it after assembly.

initialization: process that activates the network connectivity of the device for operation and optionally sets

authentication features for a user or for network access
initialized state: state of the device after initialization
IoT product: consumer IoT device and its associated services

isolable: able to be removed from the network it is connected to, where any functionality loss caused is related only to

that connectivity and not to its main function; alternatively, able to be placed in a self-contained environment with other

devices if and only if the integrity of devices within that environment can be ensured

EXAMPLE: A Smart Fridge has a touchscreen-based interface that is network-connected. This interface can be

removed without stopping the fridge from keeping the contents chilled.

logical interface: software implementation that utilizes a network interface to communicate over the network via

channels or ports

manufacturer: relevant economic operator in the supply chain (including the device manufacturer)

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11 Final draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.1.0 (2020-04)

NOTE: This definition acknowledges the variety of actors involved in the consumer IoT ecosystem and the

complex ways by which they can share responsibilities. Beyond the device manufacturer, such entities

can also be, for example and depending on a specific case at hand: importers, distributors, integrators,

component and platform providers, software providers, IT and telecommunications service providers,

managed service providers and providers of associated services.

network interface: physical interface that can be used to access the functionality of consumer IoT via a network

owner: user who owns or who purchased the device

personal data: any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person

NOTE: This term is used to align with well-known terminology but has no legal meaning within the present

document.

physical interface: physical port or air interface (such as radio, audio or optical) used to communicate with the device

...

Draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.0.0 (2019-11)
EUROPEAN STANDARD
CYBER;
Cyber Security for Consumer Internet of Things
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
2 Draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.0.0 (2019-11)
Reference
REN/CYBER-0048
Keywords
cybersecurity, IoT, privacy
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ETSI
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3 Draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.0.0 (2019-11)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 4

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 4

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 6

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 6

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 7

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 8

3.1 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

3.2 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 11

3.3 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 11

4 Security and data protection provisions for consumer IoT..................................................................... 11

4.0 Reporting implementation ................................................................................................................................ 11

4.1 No universal default passwords ........................................................................................................................ 12

4.2 Implement a means to manage reports of vulnerabilities ................................................................................. 13

4.3 Keep software updated ..................................................................................................................................... 14

4.4 Securely store sensitive security parameters .................................................................................................... 16

4.5 Communicate securely ..................................................................................................................................... 16

4.6 Minimize exposed attack surfaces .................................................................................................................... 17

4.7 Ensure software integrity .................................................................................................................................. 18

4.8 Ensure that personal data is protected .............................................................................................................. 18

4.9 Make systems resilient to outages .................................................................................................................... 19

4.10 Examine system telemetry data ........................................................................................................................ 19

4.11 Make it easy for consumers to delete personal data ......................................................................................... 20

4.12 Make installation and maintenance of devices easy ......................................................................................... 20

4.13 Validate input data............................................................................................................................................ 21

Annex A (informative): Basic concepts and models ............................................................................ 22

A.1 Architecture ............................................................................................................................................ 22

A.2 Device states ........................................................................................................................................... 24

Annex B (informative): Implementation pro forma ............................................................................ 27

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 30

ETSI
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4 Draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.0.0 (2019-11)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents

IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Trademarks

The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.

ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no

right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does

not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.

Foreword

This draft European Standard (EN) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Cyber Security (CYBER) in co-

operation with CEN/CENELEC JTC 13 (Cybersecurity and Data Protection) and is now submitted for the combined

Public Enquiry and Vote phase of the ETSI standards EN Approval Procedure.
Proposed national transposition dates
Date of latest announcement of this EN (doa): 3 months after ETSI publication
Date of latest publication of new National Standard
or endorsement of this EN (dop/e): 6 months after doa

Date of withdrawal of any conflicting National Standard (dow): 6 months after doa

Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

Introduction

As more devices in the home connect to the Internet, the cyber security of the Internet of Things (IoT) becomes a

growing concern. People entrust their personal data to an increasing number of online devices and services. Products

and appliances that have traditionally been offline are now connected and need to be designed to withstand cyber

threats.

The present document brings together widely considered good practice in security for Internet-connected consumer

devices in a set of high-level outcome-focused provisions. The objective of the present document is to support all

parties involved in the development and manufacturing of consumer IoT with guidance on securing their products.

ETSI
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5 Draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.0.0 (2019-11)

The provisions are primarily outcome-focused, rather than prescriptive, giving organizations the flexibility to innovate

and implement security solutions appropriate for their products.

The present document is not intended to solve all security challenges associated with consumer IoT. Rather, the focus is

on the technical controls and organizational policies that matter most in addressing the most significant and widespread

security shortcomings. Overall, a baseline level of security is considered; this is intended to protect against elementary

attacks on fundamental design weaknesses (such as the use of easily guessable passwords).

As much of consumer IoT and the associated services process and store personal data, the present document can help in

ensuring that these are compliant with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) [i.7]. Security by design is an

important principle that is endorsed by the present document.

ETSI TS 103 701 [i.20] provides guidance on how to assess and assure IoT products against provisions within the

present document.

The provisions in the present document have been developed following review of published standards,

recommendations and guidance on IoT security and privacy [i.1], [i.2], [i.8], [i.9], [i.10], [i.11], [i.12], [i.20] and [i.23].

NOTE: Mappings of the landscape of IoT security standards, recommendations and guidance are available [i.14]

and [i.15].
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
6 Draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.0.0 (2019-11)
1 Scope

The present document specifies high-level provisions for the security of consumer IoT devices, that are connected to

network infrastructure (such as the Internet or home network) and their relationships to associated services. These

relationships encompass both network communications and handling of personal data. A non-exhaustive list of

examples of consumer IoT devices include:
• connected children's toys and baby monitors;
• connected safety-relevant products such as smoke detectors and door locks;
• IoT base stations and hubs to which multiple devices connect;
• smart cameras, TVs and speakers;
• wearable health trackers;

• connected home automation and alarm systems, especially their gateways and hubs;

• connected appliances, such as washing machines and fridges; and
• smart home assistants.

Moreover, the present document addresses constrained devices, such as sensors and actuators. Such devices typically

have limited ability to process, communicate or store data, or limited user interfaces, which affects security

considerations.

EXAMPLE: Window contact sensors, flood sensors and energy switches are typically constrained devices.

The present document provides basic guidance through examples and explanatory text for organizations involved in the

development and manufacturing of consumer IoT on how to implement those provisions. Table B.1 provides a schema

for the reader to give information about the implementation of the provisions.

Applicability of these provisions depends on risk analysis; this is performed by the device manufacturer and/or other

relevant entities and is out of scope of the present document. For certain use cases and following risk assessment, it can

be appropriate to apply additional provisions than those contained within the present document. The present document

provides a foundation level of security for such higher assurance level use cases.

IoT products primarily intended to be used in manufacturing, healthcare or for other industrial applications are not in

scope of the present document.

The present document has been developed primarily to help protect consumers, however, other users of consumer IoT

equally benefit from the implementation of the provisions set out here.

Annex A (informative) of the present document has been included to provide context to main clause 4 (normative).

Annex A contains examples of device and reference architectures, an example model of device states including data

storage for each state and additional description of key stakeholders.
2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference/.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.
ETSI
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7 Draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.0.0 (2019-11)

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

Not applicable.
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] ETSI TR 103 305-3: "CYBER; Critical Security Controls for Effective Cyber Defence; Part 3:

Service Sector Implementations".

[i.2] ETSI TR 103 309: "CYBER; Secure by Default - platform security technology".

[i.3] NIST Special Publication 800-63B: "Digital Identity Guidelines - Authentication and Lifecycle

Management".

NOTE: Available at https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-63b.pdf.

[i.4] ISO/IEC 29147: "Information technology --Security techniques -- Vulnerability Disclosure".

NOTE: Available at https://www.iso.org/standard/45170.html.
[i.5] CSAF: "Common Vulnerability Reporting Framework (CVRF)".

NOTE: Available at http://docs.oasis-open.org/csaf/csaf-cvrf/v1.2/csaf-cvrf-v1.2.html.

[i.6] ETSI TR 103 331: "CYBER; Structured threat information sharing".

[i.7] Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the

protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free

movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation).

[i.8] ENISA: "Baseline Security Recommendations for IoT in the context of Critical Information

Infrastructures", November 2017, ISBN: 978-92-9204-236-3, doi: 10.2824/03228.

[i.9] UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport: "Secure by Design: Improving the cyber

security of consumer Internet of Things Report", March 2018.
NOTE: Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/secure-by-design.

[i.10] IoT Security Foundation: "IoT Security Compliance Framework", Release 2 December 2018.

NOTE: Available at https://www.iotsecurityfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/IoTSF-IoT-Security-

Compliance-Framework-Release-2.0-December-2018.pdf.
[i.11] GSMA: "GSMA IoT Security Guidelines and Assessment".

NOTE: Available at https://www.gsma.com/iot/iot-security/iot-security-guidelines/.

[i.12] ETSI TR 103 533: "SmartM2M; Security; Standards Landscape and best practices".

[i.13] Commission Notice: The "Blue Guide" on the implementation of EU products rules 2016 (Text

with EEA relevance), 2016/C 272/01.

NOTE: Available in the Official Journal of the European Union, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-

content/EN/ALL/?uri=OJ:C:2016:272:TOC.
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8 Draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.0.0 (2019-11)
[i.14] Copper Horse: "Mapping Security & Privacy in the Internet of Things".
NOTE: Available at https://iotsecuritymapping.uk/.
[i.15] ENISA: "Baseline Security Recommendations for IoT - Interactive Tool".

NOTE: Available at https://www.enisa.europa.eu/topics/iot-and-smart-infrastructures/iot/baseline-security-

recommendations-for-iot-interactive-tool.

[i.16] IoT Security Foundation: "Understanding the Contemporary Use of Vulnerability Disclosure in

Consumer Internet of Things Product Companies".

NOTE: Available at https://www.iotsecurityfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Vulnerability-

Disclosure-Design-v4.pdf.

[i.17] F-Secure: "IoT threats: Explosion of 'smart' devices filling up homes leads to increasing risks".

NOTE: Available at https://blog.f-secure.com/iot-threats/.
[i.18] W3C: "Web of Things at W3C".
NOTE: Available at https://www.w3.org/WoT/.

[i.19] ETSI TS 103 701: "CYBER; Cybersecurity assessment for consumer IoT products".

NOTE: It is under development.

[i.20] DIN SPEC 27072: "Information Technology - IoT capable devices - Minimum requirements for

Information security".
[i.21] GSMA: "Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure (CVD) Programme".

NOTE: Available at https://www.gsma.com/security/gsma-coordinated-vulnerability-disclosure-programme/.

[i.22] IoT Security Foundation: "Vulnerability Disclosure - Best Practice Guidelines".

NOTE: Available at https://www.iotsecurityfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Vulnerability-

Disclosure_WG4_2017.pdf.
[i.23] OWASP Internet of Things (IoT) Top 10 2018.

NOTE: Available at https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Internet_of_Things_Project#tab=IoT_Top_10.

[i.24] IEEE™ 802.15.4-2015: "IEEE Standard for Low-Rate Wireless Networks".

NOTE: Available at https://standards.ieee.org/content/ieee-standards/en/standard/802_15_4-2015.html.

[i.25] ETSI TS 102 221: "Smart Cards; UICC-Terminal interface; Physical and logical characteristics".

[i.26] GSMA: "SGP.22 Technical Specification v2.2.1".
3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms
For the purposes of the present document, the following terms apply:

administrator: consumer who is at least intermittently a user and has the highest-privilege level in relation to the

device and is able to change any configuration related to the intended functionality

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9 Draft ETSI EN 303 645 V2.0.0 (2019-11)

associated services: digital services that, together with the device, are part of the overall consumer IoT product and that

are typically required to provide the product's intended functionality

EXAMPLE: Associated services can include mobile applications, cloud computing/storage and third party

Application Programming Interfaces (APIs).
authentication mechanism: method used to prove the authenticity of a consumer

EXAMPLE: An authentication mechanism can be the requesting of a password, scanning a QR code, or use of a

biometric fingerprint scanner.

authentication value: individual value of an attribute used by an authentication mechanism

EXAMPLE: When the authentication mechanism is to request a password, the authentication value can be a

character string. When the authentication mechanism is a biometric fingerprint recognition, the

authentication value can be the index fingerprint of the left hand.

best practice cryptography: cryptography that is suitable for the corresponding use case and has no indications of a

feasible attack with current readily available techniques

NOTE: This does not refer only to the cryptographic primitives used, but also implementation, key generation and

handling of keys.

EXAMPLE: The device manufacturer uses a communication protocol and cryptographic library provided with

the IoT platform and where that library and protocol have been assessed against feasible attacks,

such as replay.

constrained device: device which has physical limitations in either the ability to process data, the ability to

communicate data, the ability to store data or the ability to interact with the user

NOTE: Physical limitations can be due to power supply, battery life, processing power, physical access, limited

functionality, limited memory or limited network bandwidth. These limitations can require a constrained

device to be supported by another device, such as a base station or companion device.

EXAMPLE 1: A window sensor's battery cannot be charged or changed by the user; this is a constrained device.

EXAMPLE 2: The device cannot have its software updated due to storage limitations, resulting in hardware

replacement or network isolation being the only options to manage a security vulnerability.

EXAMPLE 3: A low-powered device uses a battery to enable it to be deployed in a range of locations.

Performing high power cryptographic operations would quickly reduce the battery life, so it relies

on a base station or hub to perform validations on updates.

EXAMPLE 4: The device has no display screen to validate binding codes for Bluetooth pairing.

EXAMPLE 5: The device has no ability to input, such as via a keyboard, authentication information.

consumer: natural person who is acting for purposes that are outside her/his trade, business, craft or profession

NOTE: Organizations, including businesses of any size, use consumer IoT. For example, smart TVs are

frequently deployed in meeting rooms, and home security kits can protect the premises of small

businesses.

consumer IoT devices: network-connected (and network-connectable) devices that have relationships to associated

services and are used by the consumer typically in the home or as electronic wearables

NOTE: Consumer IoT devices are often available for the consumer to purchase in retail environments. Consumer

IoT devices can also be commissioned and/or installed professionally.

critical security parameter: security-related secret information whose disclosure or modification can compromise the

security of a security module

EXAMPLE: Secret cryptographic keys, authentication values such as passwords, PINs, certificates or other

trust anchors.
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defined support period: minimum length of time, expressed as a period or by an end-date, for which a device will

receive security updates

device manufacturer: entity that creates an assembled final consumer IoT product, which is likely to contain the

products and components of many other suppliers

factory default: state of the device after reset or following final production/assembly

initialization: process that activates the network connectivity of the device for operation and optionally sets

authentication features for a user or for network access
initialized state: state of the device after initialization

isolable: able to be removed from the network it is connected to, without causing functionality loss, so that any

compromise affects only itself; alternatively, able to be placed in a self-contained environment with other devices if and

only if the integrity of devices within that environment can be ensured

logical interface: software that utilizes a network interface to communicate over the network via channels or ports

manufacturer: relevant economic operator in the supply chain (including the device manufacturer)

NOTE: This definition acknowledges the variety of actors involved in the consumer IoT ecosystem and the

complex ways by which they can share responsibilities. Beyond the device manufacturer, such entities

can also be, for example and depending on a specific case at hand: importers, distributors, integrators,

component and platform providers, software providers, IT and telecommunications service providers,

managed service providers and providers of associated services.

network interface: physical interface that can be used to access the functionality of consumer IoT via a network

owner: consumer who owns or who purchased the device

personal data: any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person

physical interface: physical port or radio used to communicate with the device at the physical layer

EXAMPLE: Radios, ethernet ports, serial interfaces such as USB, and those used for debugging purposes

including test points, UART, SWD or JTAG.

public security parameter: security related public information whose modification can compromise the security of a

security module
EXAMPLE: A public key to verify the authenticity/integrity of software updates

remotely accessible: intended to be accessible via wide area networks such as the Internet

security module: set of hardware, software, and/or firmware that implements security functions

EXAMPLE: A device contains a hardware root of trust, a cryptographic software library that operates within a

trusted execution environment, and software within the operating system that enforces security

such as user separation and the update mechanism. These all make up the security module.

security update: software update that addresses security vulnerabilities either discovered by or reported to the

manufacturer

NOTE: Software updates can be purely security updates if the severity of the vulnerability requires a higher

priority fix.

sensitive security parameters: critical security parameters and public security parameters

software service: software component of a device that is used to support functionality

EXAMPLE: A runtime for the programming language used within the device software or a daemon that

exposes an API used by the device software, e.g. a cryptographic module's API.
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telemetry: data from a device that can provide information to help the manufacturer identify issues or information

related to device usage

EXAMPLE: A consumer IoT device reports software malfunctions to the manufacturer enabling them to

identify and remedy the cause.

unique per device: unique for each individual device of a given product class or type

user: consumer who utilizes the device for its advertized function
3.2 Symbols
Void.
3.3 Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
API Application Programming Interface
ASLR Address Space Layout Randomization
CVD Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure
CVRF Common Vulnerability Reporting Framework
DDoS Distributed Denial of Service
ENISA European Union Agency for Network and Information Security
EU European Union
GDPR General Data Protection Regulation
GSMA GSM Association
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IoT Internet of Things
IP Internet Protocol
ISO International Organization for Standardization
JTAG Joint Test Action Group
LAN Local Area Network
LoRaWAN Long Range Wide Area Network
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
OTP One-Time Password
QR Quick Response
SWD Serial Wire Debug
TEE Trusted Execution Environment
TS Technical Specification
UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter
...

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