Railway applications - Suspension components - Torsion bar, steel

This European Standard applies to torsion bars made of steel for anti-roll bar systems used on railway vehicles.
This European Standard includes straight and bended torsion bars, but does not detail the other components of the anti-roll bar systems such as levers, bearings, bushes etc.
This European Standard constitutes guidelines on the following topics:
-   design;
-   specification of technical requirements;
-   production requirements;
-   tests;
-   supply conditions.

Bahnanwendungen - Federungselemente - Drehstabfedern aus Stahl

Diese Europäische Norm gilt für Drehstabfedern aus Stahl für Wankstützen-Systeme in Schienenfahrzeugen.
Diese Europäische Norm beinhaltet gerade und gebogene Drehstabfedern, nicht aber die anderen Kompo¬nenten des Wankstützsystems wie Hebel, Lagerungen, Buchsen, usw.
Diese Europäische Norm ist eine Anleitung zu folgenden Themen:
   Konstruktion;
   Spezifikation technischer Anforderungen;
   Anforderungen an die Fertigung;
   Prüfungen;
   Lieferbedingungen.

Applications ferroviaires - Éléments de suspension - Barre de torsion, en acier

La présente Norme Européenne s'applique aux barres de torsion en acier pour les systèmes de barres anti-roulis utilisés sur les véhicules ferroviaires.
La présente Norme Européenne inclut les barres de torsion droites et coudées mais ne détaille pas les autres composants des systèmes de barres anti-roulis tels que les leviers, paliers, coussinets, etc.
La présente Norme Européenne constitue un ensemble de lignes directrices sur les sujets suivants :
   conception ;
   spécification d'exigences techniques ;
   exigences de production ;
   essais ;
   conditions de fourniture.

Železniške aplikacije - Vzmetenje - Torzijska vzmet, jeklena

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
02-Mar-2008
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
22-Feb-2008
Due Date
28-Apr-2008
Completion Date
03-Mar-2008

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Železniške aplikacije - Vzmetenje - Torzijska vzmet, jeklenaBahnanwendungen - Federungselemente - Drehstabfedern aus StahlApplications ferroviaires - Éléments de suspension - Barre de torsion, en acierRailway applications - Suspension components - Torsion bar, steel45.040Materiali in deli za železniško tehnikoMaterials and components for railway engineering21.160VzmetiSpringsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 15049:2007SIST EN 15049:2008en,fr,de01-april-2008SIST EN 15049:2008SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 15049:2008

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 15049August 2007ICS 45.060.01 English VersionRailway applications - Suspension components - Torsion bar,steelApplications ferroviaires - Éléments de suspension - Barrede torsion, en acierBahnanwendungen - Federungselemente - Drehstabfedernaus StahlThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 July 2007.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as theofficial versions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2007 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 15049:2007: ESIST EN 15049:2008

EN 15049:2007 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................5 Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................6 1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................6 2 Normative references............................................................................................................................6 3 Terms and definitions...........................................................................................................................7 4 Symbols and abbreviations..................................................................................................................8 5 Requirements.........................................................................................................................................9 5.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................9 5.2 Documents to be provided by the customer......................................................................................9 5.3 Documents to be provided by the supplier.......................................................................................10 5.4 Design analysis....................................................................................................................................10 5.5 Arrangement and design....................................................................................................................10 5.6 Straight torsion bar ends and connections......................................................................................12 5.6.1 General..................................................................................................................................................12 5.6.2 Design of the straight torsion bar end..............................................................................................12 6 Product definition................................................................................................................................13 6.1 Geometrical characteristics and space envelope............................................................................13 6.2 Mechanical requirements....................................................................................................................13 6.2.1 Loading and allowable stresses.........................................................................................................13 6.2.2 Service life............................................................................................................................................13 6.2.3 Investigation of the strain...................................................................................................................13 6.2.4 Evaluation of the strain.......................................................................................................................14 6.3 Physical requirements........................................................................................................................14 6.3.1 Material grade.......................................................................................................................................14 6.3.2 Internal integrity...................................................................................................................................14 6.3.3 Inclusion cleanliness...........................................................................................................................14 6.3.4 Forged torsion bar ends.....................................................................................................................14 6.3.5 Decarburization....................................................................................................................................15 6.3.6 Surface condition.................................................................................................................................15 6.3.7 Residual compressive stresses on the surface...............................................................................15 6.3.8 Grain size..............................................................................................................................................16 6.4 Surface protection...............................................................................................................................16 6.4.1 Generalities..........................................................................................................................................16 6.4.2 Temporary protection..........................................................................................................................16 6.4.3 Permanent protection..........................................................................................................................16 6.5 Characteristic moment of torsion / angular displacement..............................................................17 6.6 Mass......................................................................................................................................................18 7 Mechanical properties for manufacturing.........................................................................................18 7.1 Hardness...............................................................................................................................................18 7.2 Tensile strength...................................................................................................................................18 7.3 Toughness............................................................................................................................................18 8 Tests and test procedures..................................................................................................................19 8.1 General requirements..........................................................................................................................19 8.2 Measuring equipment..........................................................................................................................19 8.3 Tensile strength...................................................................................................................................19 8.4 Toughness............................................................................................................................................19 8.5 Hardness...............................................................................................................................................19 SIST EN 15049:2008

EN 15049:2007 (E) 3 8.6 Material.................................................................................................................................................19 8.7 Depth of decarburization....................................................................................................................20 8.8 Grain size..............................................................................................................................................20 8.9 Forged torsion bar ends.....................................................................................................................20 8.10 Residual compressive stresses on the surface...............................................................................20 8.11 Surface defects....................................................................................................................................20 8.12 Surface condition................................................................................................................................20 8.13 Dimensional check..............................................................................................................................21 8.14 Characteristic moment of torsion / angular displacement..............................................................21 8.15 Mass......................................................................................................................................................21 8.16 Internal integrity..................................................................................................................................21 8.17 Surface protection...............................................................................................................................21 8.18 Loading and allowable stresses........................................................................................................21 9 Quality assurance and final approval................................................................................................22 9.1 Quality assurance system and staff qualification............................................................................22 9.2 Product qualification procedures and samples...............................................................................22 9.3 Control and monitoring of production quality..................................................................................23 9.3.1 General.................................................................................................................................................23 9.3.2 Quality assurance plan.......................................................................................................................23 9.3.3 Control by sampling lots....................................................................................................................23 9.4 Requirements for control and monitoring of production quality...................................................24 9.4.1 General.................................................................................................................................................24 9.4.2 Non-compliance...................................................................................................................................26 9.4.3 Documentation....................................................................................................................................26 9.5 Handling instructions..........................................................................................................................26 10 Marking of torsion bars.......................................................................................................................26 11 Packaging.............................................................................................................................................27 Annex A (normative)

Material for hot formed and quenched and tempered torsion bars........................28 A.1 General.................................................................................................................................................28 A.2 Material for torsion bars, steel...........................................................................................................28 Annex B (normative)

Inspection of torsion bars made of round bars by the magnetic crack detection method.................................................................................................................................30 B.1 Object....................................................................................................................................................30 B.2 Tests.....................................................................................................................................................30 B.3 Safety measures..................................................................................................................................30 Annex C (normative)

Checking shot peening efficiency by ALMEN method.............................................31 C.1 Field of application..............................................................................................................................31 C.2 Checking the procedure.....................................................................................................................31 C.3 Equipment and installations...............................................................................................................31 C.3.1 ALMEN A2 test piece...........................................................................................................................31 C.3.2 Test piece holder.................................................................................................................................32 C.3.3 ALMEN measuring device..................................................................................................................33 Annex D (normative)

Examination for inclusions..........................................................................................34 D.1 Object....................................................................................................................................................34 D.2 Test methods.......................................................................................................................................34 D.2.1 Test method according to DIN 50602................................................................................................34 D.2.2 Test method according to NF A 04-106.............................................................................................35 D.2.3 Test method according to SS 111116................................................................................................35 Annex E (normative)

Taking of test pieces - Areas of the location of test pieces.....................................36 Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................38

SIST EN 15049:2008

EN 15049:2007 (E) 4 Figures Figure 1 — Example for a straight torsion bar with mounted levers..........................................................11 Figure 2 — Example for a bended torsion bar...............................................................................................11 Figure 3 — Cylindrical or conical tooth system............................................................................................12 Figure 4 — Frictional shrink fit........................................................................................................................12 Figure 5 — Example of the distribution of stresses produced by shot peening as a function of depth.....................................................................................................................................................16 Figure 6 — Torsion bar diagram.....................................................................................................................17 Figure C.1 — ALMEN test arrangements........................................................................................................32 Figure C.2 — ALMEN measuring sytem.........................................................................................................33 Figure E.1 — Area "e" with constant diameter of the torsion bar to take test pieces...............................36 Figure E.2 — Location of the test pieces for the tensile strength test........................................................36 Figure E.3 — Location of the test pieces for the notch impact test............................................................37

Tables Table 1 — Symbols and definitions..................................................................................................................8 Table 2 — Elements to be defined in the technical specification and agreed by the parties...................10 Table 3 — Checks and tests to be carried out...............................................................................................24 Table 4 — Test pieces for statistical tests, number of tests........................................................................25 Table A.1 — Guidance values for the maximum mechanical properties of quenched and tempered test pieces............................................................................................................................................29 Table D.1 — Degree of cleanliness under the microscope according to DIN 50602 (procedure K), valid for non metallic oxide inclusions.............................................................................................34 Table D.2 — Acceptable number of fields (small series and wide series) of each type............................35 Table D.3 — Degree of cleanliness by microscopic examination according to SS 111116 (maximum values)................................................................................................................................35

SIST EN 15049:2008

EN 15049:2007 (E) 5 Foreword This document (EN 15049:2007) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 “Railway applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This document shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by February 2008 and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by February 2008. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

SIST EN 15049:2008

EN 15049:2007 (E) 6 Introduction Work on this European Standard started at the beginning of 2002 with the aim of incorporating the existing documents, such as UIC leaflets (International Union of Railways) and the internal standards of the various railways as well as national standards into one standard. 1 Scope This European Standard applies to torsion bars made of steel for anti-roll bar systems used on railway vehicles. This European Standard includes straight and bended torsion bars, but does not detail the other components of the anti-roll bar systems such as levers, bearings, bushes etc. This European Standard constitutes guidelines on the following topics:  design;  specification of technical requirements;  production requirements;  tests;  supply conditions. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 473, Non-destructive testing — Qualification and certification of NDT personnel — General principles EN 10002-1, Metallic materials — Tensile testing — Part 1: Method of test at ambient temperature EN 10045-1, Metallic materials — Charpy impact test — Part 1: Test method EN 10089, Hot-rolled steels for quenched and tempered springs — Technical delivery conditions EN 10204, Metallic products — Types of inspection documents EN 10228-1, Non-destructive testing of steel forgings — Part 1: Magnetic particle inspection EN 10247, Micrographic examination of the non-metallic inclusion content of steels using standard pictures EN 13925-2, Non-destructive testing — X-ray diffraction from polycrystalline and amorphous materials — Part 2: Procedures EN ISO 643, Steels — Micrographic determination of the apparent grain size (ISO 643:2003) SIST EN 15049:2008

EN 15049:2007 (E) 7 EN ISO 1302, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Indication of surface texture in technical product documentation (ISO 1302:2002) EN ISO 2162-3:1996, Technical product documentation — Springs — Part 3: Vocabulary (ISO 2162-3:1993) EN ISO 3887, Steel — Determination of depth of decarburization (ISO 3887:2003) EN ISO 4288, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile method — Rules and procedures for the assessment of surface texture (ISO 4288:1996) EN ISO 6508-1, Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test — Part 1: Test method (scales A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, N, T) (ISO 6508-1:2005) EN ISO 9934-1, Non-destructive testing — Magnetic particle testing — Part 1: General principles

(ISO 9934-1:2001) EN ISO 14284, Steel and iron — Sampling and preparation of samples for the determination of chemical composition (ISO 14284:1996) EN ISO 18265, Metallic materials — Conversion of hardness values (ISO 18265:2003) DIN 50602, Metallographic examination — microscopic examination of special steels using standard diagrams to assess the content of non-metallic inclusions NF A04-106, Iron and steel. Methods of determination of content of non metallic inclusions in wrought steel. Part II: micrographic method using standards diagrams SS 111116, Steel — Method for estimation of the content of non-metallic inclusions — Microscopic methods — Jernkontoret's inclusion chart II for the assessment of non-metallic inclusions 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 2162-3:1996 and the following apply. 3.1 anti-roll bar system suspension system having an influence on the rolling behaviour of the vehicle. Generally, it includes the torsion bar and any other components 3.2 anti-roll bar spring bar which is mainly stressed by a torsional moment. It can either be produced as bended bar or a straight torsion bar with levers 3.3 straight torsion bar straight spring bar which is mainly stressed by a torsional moment NOTE The term "torsion bar made of steel" refers to the finished end product. For the purpose of simplification, the term "torsion bar" is used in the wording of this European Standard for anti-roll bars with torsion bars of round cross section and made of steel. 3.4 bended torsion bar mainly U-shaped and manufactured out of round spring material SIST EN 15049:2008

EN 15049:2007 (E) 8 4 Symbols and abbreviations The symbols and abbreviations used in this standard are listed in table 1. All parameters are expressed as SI basic units and units derived from SI basic units. Decimal multiples and submultiples of units defined in

Table 1 can be used. Table 1 — Symbols and definitions Symbols Units Definitions A % Elongation at rupture d m Outer diameter of the middle part of the torsion bar da m Outer diameter of the torsion bar in the area of bearing df m Root diameter of the head profile dp m Diameter of shrink fit e m Area to take test pieces F N Applied load at the lever l m Distance between load application and middle of torsion bar Lf m Distance between the two load application points La m Length between the centre of the two bearings Ls m Length between the centre of the two levers lx m Crank depth in the middle part of the torsion bar lz m Distance between load application and centre of the bearing Mt Nm Torsional moment Mtmax Nm Max. torsional moment ûMt Nm Difference of torsional moments r M Bending radius of bended torsion bar SIST EN 15049:2008

EN 15049:2007 (E) 9 Table 1 (concluded) Symbols Units Definitions Rm Pa Material strength Rp0,2 Pa Yield strength Rt Nm/degree Torsional spring rate Z % Percentage reduction of area after fracture / - Depth of residual stress 1D Pa Residual stress ϑϑϑϑ degree Angle of twist ϑϑϑϑmax degree Max. angle of twist ϑϑϑϑA degree Angle of twist at the beginning of stress ûϑϑϑϑ degree Difference of angles of twist ττττzul Pa Permissible shear stress 5 Requirements 5.1 Introduction The component shall be defined in a technical specification which consists of the following documents (see 5.2 and 5.3). The definition of type of drawing is given in ISO 10209-1. 5.2 Documents to be provided by the customer The customer shall provide a technical specification including: An interface drawing (possibly, a general assembly drawing of the mechanical system or a sub-assembly drawing) defining at least:  the space envelope;  the functional dimensions and their tolerances;  the application points of the forces;  a technical specification detailing at least:  the conditions of utilisation (forces, movements, temperatures, assembly, environment, maintenance, storage etc.);  the requirements (characteristics of the product, tolerances and expected service life);  the approval procedure and type test requirements (e.g. characteristics to be checked and tests to be carried out, order of tests and checks). SIST EN 15049:2008

EN 15049:2007 (E) 10 The product requirements given in Table 2 shall be defined by the customer: Table 2 — Elements to be defined in the technical specification and agreed by the parties Characteristic to be defined Reference Space envelope 6.1 Spring rate 5.5 Maximum anti-roll angle or moment, for static (exceptional loads) 5.5 Maximum anti-roll angle or moment for dynamic (fatigue condition) 5.5 Service life requirement 6.2.2 Material 6.3.1 Toughness 8.4 Surface protection 6.4 Marking Clause 10 5.3 Documents to be provided by the supplier The supplier of the torsion bar shall provide a technical documentation defining its product, including at least a component drawing. This documentation shall detail any information required in the technical specification of the customer. 5.4 Design analysis The principal characteristics of the torsion bar (form, dimension, material, stiffness etc.) shall be determined by the relevant design analysis. In order to satisfy this requirement, a design analysis, which shall be part of the technical specification, shall define at least:  calculation method;  loads and displacements utilised for the analysis;  the following results:  comparison of the calculated functional characteristics with the required characteristics (static stiffness or flexibility etc.);  comparison of the calculated stresses with the allowable stresses of the selected material. The customer and the supplier shall agree on the contents of the documentation and on the analysis method to be used. 5.5 Arrangement and design The individual bar with circular cross section is the starting point in the design of torsion bars. The introduction of the torsional moment into torsion bars is mostly effected by rockers which are connected to the torsion bar ends through positive or non-positive locking. By means of the rocker, a force acting vertically SIST EN 15049:2008

EN 15049:2007 (E) 11 with regard to the bar axis is transformed into a moment and the resulting torsion of the free torsion bar end into a displacement of the force introduction point. The transformation of a vertical movement into a torsion bar attained by means of the rockers allows this combination to be used in an advantageous way as anti-roll device of rail vehicles. The arrangement of the torsion bars as anti-roll device in the rail vehicle is effected in transverse direction, the bar axis being for the most part aligned parallel to the track plane. A principle representation for the purpo

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