Terms and nomenclature for cores made of magnetically soft ferrites - Part 1: Terms used for physical irregularities and reference of dimensions

This part of IEC 60401 provides a nomenclature of the most frequent surface, bulk and shape
irregularities relevant to cores made of soft ferrites (magnetic oxides). Most irregularities are
graphically exemplified as visual aids. A general recommendation is also given in Annex A for
a consistent scheme for specifying the exact location of the irregularity, combining a general
name for the location with more detailed qualifiers of the specified location. This document
can also be useful as a terminology reference when preparing technical documentation,
irregularity inspection specifications, etc.
This document also presents a method for defining the designation nomenclature for the
major physical attributes of soft ferrite core shapes. The purpose of this document is to
facilitate uniform usage of dimensional characters by manufacturers, specifiers, and users
when describing core dimensions on drawings, in tables, and on catalogue specification
sheets.

Begriffe und Bezeichnungssystem für Kerne aus weichmagnetischen Materialien – Teil 1: Begriffsfestlegungen für physikalische Beschädigungen und Maßreferenzen

Termes et nomenclature pour noyaux en matériaux ferrites magnétiquement doux - Partie 1 : Termes utilisés pour les irrégularités physiques et références dimensionnelles

IEC 60401-1:2020 est disponible sous forme de IEC 60401-1:2020 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.

Pojmi in nomenklatura za jedra iz mehkomagnetnih feritov - 1. del: Pojmi, uporabljeni za fizikalne nepravilnosti, in sklicevanje na mere

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
03-Sep-2020
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
10-Aug-2020
Due Date
15-Oct-2020
Completion Date
04-Sep-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 60401-1:2020
01-oktober-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 60401-1:2005
Pojmi in nomenklatura za jedra iz mehkomagnetnih feritov - 1. del: Pojmi,
uporabljeni za fizikalne nepravilnosti, in sklicevanje na mere

Terms and nomenclature for cores made of magnetically soft ferrites - Part 1: Terms used

for physical irregularities and reference of dimensions
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 60401-1:2020
ICS:
01.040.29 Elektrotehnika (Slovarji) Electrical engineering
(Vocabularies)
29.100.10 Magnetne komponente Magnetic components
SIST EN IEC 60401-1:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN IEC 60401-1:2020
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SIST EN IEC 60401-1:2020
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 60401-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
May 2020
ICS 29.100.10 Supersedes EN 60401-1:2005 and all of its amendments
and corrigenda (if any)
English Version
Terms and nomenclature for cores made of magnetically soft
ferrites - Part 1: Terms used for physical irregularities and
reference of dimensions
(IEC 60401-1:2020)

Termes et nomenclature pour noyaux en matériaux ferrites Begriffe und Bezeichnungssystem für Kerne aus

magnétiquement doux - Partie 1 : Termes utilisés pour les weichmagnetischen Materialien - Teil 1:

irrégularités physiques et références dimensionnelles Begriffsfestlegungen für physikalische Beschädigungen und

(IEC 60401-1:2020) Maßreferenzen
(IEC 60401-1:2020)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2020-05-19. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 60401-1:2020 E
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SIST EN IEC 60401-1:2020
EN IEC 60401-1:2020 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 51/1313/CDV, future edition 2 of IEC 60401-1, prepared by IEC/TC 51

"Magnetic components, ferrite and magnetic powder materials" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC

parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as EN IEC 60401-1:2020.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2021-02-19

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2023-05-19

document have to be withdrawn

This document supersedes EN 60401-1:2005 and all of its amendments and corrigenda (if any).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60401-1:2020 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.
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SIST EN IEC 60401-1:2020
IEC 60401-1
Edition 2.0 2020-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Terms and nomenclature for cores made of magnetically soft ferrites –
Part 1: Terms used for physical irregularities and reference of dimensions
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 29.100.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-8081-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
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SIST EN IEC 60401-1:2020
– 2 – IEC 60401-1:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Physical irregularities ...................................................................................................... 7

4.1 General overview .................................................................................................... 7

4.2 General terms for physical irregularities .................................................................. 8

4.3 Surface irregularities ............................................................................................... 8

4.3.1 Chip irregularities ............................................................................................ 8

4.3.2 Protruding (convex) irregularities ................................................................... 10

4.3.3 Edge irregularities ......................................................................................... 11

4.3.4 Crack irregularities ........................................................................................ 11

4.3.5 Colour irregularities ....................................................................................... 13

4.3.6 Machining-related irregularities ...................................................................... 15

4.4 Interior irregularities .............................................................................................. 16

4.5 Shape irregularities (deformations) ....................................................................... 16

4.5.1 Non-flat irregularities ..................................................................................... 16

4.5.2 Simple geometry irregularities ....................................................................... 18

4.5.3 Grinding related irregularities......................................................................... 20

4.5.4 Other shape irregularities .............................................................................. 20

5 Reference of dimensions ............................................................................................... 21

5.1 General specifications ........................................................................................... 21

5.2 Dimension descriptions ......................................................................................... 21

5.3 Core illustrations ................................................................................................... 22

Annex A (informative) Location related terms ....................................................................... 26

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 26

A.2 Surfaces ............................................................................................................... 26

A.3 Shape ................................................................................................................... 27

A.4 Specific parts location qualifiers ............................................................................ 27

Figure 1 – Surface chip ........................................................................................................... 9

Figure 2 – Edge chip ............................................................................................................... 9

Figure 3 – Corner chip ............................................................................................................ 9

Figure 4 – Pull-out ................................................................................................................ 10

Figure 5 – Pores ................................................................................................................... 10

Figure 6 – Hump ................................................................................................................... 10

Figure 7 – Attached particle .................................................................................................. 10

Figure 8 – Ragged edge ....................................................................................................... 11

Figure 9 – Flash .................................................................................................................... 11

Figure 10 – Single-surface narrow crack ............................................................................... 11

Figure 11 – Single-surface broad crack ................................................................................. 12

Figure 12 – Edge narrow crack ............................................................................................. 12

Figure 13 – Edge broad crack ............................................................................................... 12

Figure 14 – Inner channel crack ............................................................................................ 13

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SIST EN IEC 60401-1:2020
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Figure 15 – Lamination ......................................................................................................... 13

Figure 16 – Crazing .............................................................................................................. 13

Figure 17 – Difference in colour tones................................................................................... 14

Figure 18 – Discoloration ...................................................................................................... 14

Figure 19 – Stain .................................................................................................................. 14

Figure 20 – Crystallite ........................................................................................................... 14

Figure 21 – Roughness ......................................................................................................... 15

Figure 22 – Short-ground surface.......................................................................................... 15

Figure 23 – Scratch .............................................................................................................. 15

Figure 24 – Convexity ........................................................................................................... 16

Figure 25 – Concavity ........................................................................................................... 16

Figure 26 – Warping ............................................................................................................. 16

Figure 27 – Deflection-out ..................................................................................................... 17

Figure 28 – Deflection-in ....................................................................................................... 17

Figure 29 – Transverse deflection ......................................................................................... 17

Figure 30 – Undulation .......................................................................................................... 18

Figure 31 – Non-parallelism .................................................................................................. 18

Figure 32 – Non-perpendicularity .......................................................................................... 18

Figure 33 – Non-coplanarity .................................................................................................. 18

Figure 34 – Non-circularity .................................................................................................... 19

Figure 35 – Ovality ............................................................................................................... 19

Figure 36 – Non-concentricity of co-planar circles ................................................................. 19

Figure 37 – Non-concentricity of circles lying on two planes .................................................. 20

Figure 38 – Steplike ground surface ...................................................................................... 20

Figure 39 – Uneven grinding slant......................................................................................... 20

Figure 40 – Un-matching ....................................................................................................... 21

Figure 41 – Profile deformation ............................................................................................. 21

Figure 42 – Ring-cores ......................................................................................................... 22

Figure 43 – E-core ................................................................................................................ 22

Figure 44 – ETD- or EER-core .............................................................................................. 23

Figure 45 – EC-core.............................................................................................................. 23

Figure 46 – Planar E-core ..................................................................................................... 23

Figure 47 – Planar EL-core ................................................................................................... 23

Figure 48 – Planar ER-core .................................................................................................. 23

Figure 49 – Plate-core mating planar cores ........................................................................... 23

Figure 50 – EFD-core ........................................................................................................... 24

Figure 51 – Drum-core .......................................................................................................... 24

Figure 52 – EP-core .............................................................................................................. 24

Figure 53 – PQ-core ............................................................................................................. 24

Figure 54 – Pot-core and half pot-core for inductive proximity switches ................................ 24

Figure 55 – PM-core ............................................................................................................. 24

Figure 56 – RM-core ............................................................................................................. 25

Figure 57 – U-core ................................................................................................................ 25

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Figure 58 – UR-core ............................................................................................................. 25

Figure 59 – Balun-core ......................................................................................................... 25

Figure 60 – Multi hole bead................................................................................................... 25

Figure A.1 – E-core ............................................................................................................... 28

Figure A.2 – RM-core ............................................................................................................ 28

Table 1 – Ring-core dimension designations ......................................................................... 21

Table 2 – Other ferrite shape dimension designations ........................................................... 22

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SIST EN IEC 60401-1:2020
IEC 60401-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
TERMS AND NOMENCLATURE FOR CORES MADE
OF MAGNETICALLY SOFT FERRITES –
Part 1: Terms used for physical irregularities
and reference of dimensions
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60401-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 51:

Magnetic components, ferrite and magnetic powder materials.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 60401-1 published in 2002

and the second edition of IEC 60401-2 published in 2009. This edition constitutes a technical

revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

editions of IEC 60401-1 and IEC 60401-2:
a) added the surface irregularity term “pores” in 4.3.1.6;
b) added the surface irregularity term “scratch” in 4.3.6.3;
c) removed the surface irregularity term “crater” in 4.1.5 of IEC 60401-1: 2002;
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SIST EN IEC 60401-1:2020
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d) removed the bulk irregularity terms “superpores” in 5.1, “inclusions” in 5.2, “internal

stratification” in 5.3 and “internal crack” in 5.4 of IEC 60401-1: 2002;

e) removed the contents related to “yoke ring cores” in 7.1.3 and 7.4 of IEC 60401-1:2002;

f) replaced the surface irregularity term “stratification” with “lamination” in 4.3.4.7;

g) replaced the location related terms “upper surface of back” with “bottom surface” and

“lower surface of back” with “back surface” in Figure A.1;
h) changed Clause 7 of IEC 60401-1:2002 into Annex A.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
51/1313/CDV 51/1332/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60401 series, published under the general title Terms and

nomenclature for cores made of magnetically soft ferrites can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
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SIST EN IEC 60401-1:2020
IEC 60401-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 7 –
TERMS AND NOMENCLATURE FOR CORES MADE
OF MAGNETICALLY SOFT FERRITES –
Part 1: Terms used for physical irregularities
and reference of dimensions
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60401 provides a nomenclature of the most frequent surface, bulk and shape

irregularities relevant to cores made of soft ferrites (magnetic oxides). Most irregularities are

graphically exemplified as visual aids. A general recommendation is also given in Annex A for

a consistent scheme for specifying the exact location of the irregularity, combining a general

name for the location with more detailed qualifiers of the specified location. This document

can also be useful as a terminology reference when preparing technical documentation,

irregularity inspection specifications, etc.

This document also presents a method for defining the designation nomenclature for the

major physical attributes of soft ferrite core shapes. The purpose of this document is to

facilitate uniform usage of dimensional characters by manufacturers, specifiers, and users

when describing core dimensions on drawings, in tables, and on catalogue specification

sheets.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in 4.2, 4.3, 4.5 and

Annex A apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
4 Physical irregularities
4.1 General overview

Physical irregularities mean here the surface irregularities, bulk irregularities and shape

irregularities. The irregularity here stands for inconsistency of the state or quality of the part’s

surface, bulk or shape with its intended regularity. These irregularities are considered here in

the macroscopic scale, i.e. within the range of linear dimensions of irregularities from one

micrometre to tens of millimetres.

There is a great variety of surface, bulk and shape irregularities degrading the quality of parts

made of ferrites. Different types of these irregularities can often occur together and overlap

one another.
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Each type of irregularity is, in general, produced by one or more of the following: process

variability in a manufacturing step, handling, grinding, packing or transportation.

The extent of the quality degradation is dependent on the type, scale, and combination of

irregularities being present as well as on their locations on the part. There are locations

particularly sensitive to the degrading effect of the specific types of irregularities.

The irregularities can in extreme cases have a detrimental or critical effect on magnetic,

electric and mechanical performances of the part. Operations performed on the part, such as

marking, winding, assembling and mounting, can also be adversely affected by the
irregularities.

An ongoing tendency to upgrade the overall quality of the parts results in more stringent

restrictions being imposed on the quantity of irregularities in these parts.

This brings about a need for a set of definitions, or nomenclature, which would be a primary

basis for approaches to irregularities and their location issues.

Therefore, this nomenclature is intended to be used as a uniform reference when formulating

more detailed descriptions of irregularities at specified locations, requirements and

procedures related to the inspection and assessment of irregularities. This nomenclature can

also be useful with regard to methods and tools used for detection, recognition and

classification of irregularities.
4.2 General terms for physical irregularities
4.2.1
surface irregularity
unintentional state or appearance of the surfaces, edges and corners of the part

Note 1 to entry: Some surface irregularities, if excessive, can so deform contours and surfaces of the part, that

they may also be classified as shape irregularities.
4.2.2
interior irregularity
unintentional inhomogeneity inside the part
4.2.3
shape irregularity

unintentional deformation of the contour lines or surfaces delimiting the shape of the part

Note 1 to entry: In some cases, shape irregularities smaller than quoted tolerances can still disqualify the part.

4.2.4
tolerance

allowable difference between the nominal and permissible limit dimensions of

the contour lines defining the part’s shape
4.2.5
location

position on or within the part where the irregularity is present

4.3 Surface irregularities
4.3.1 Chip irregularities
4.3.1.1
chip

lack of surface material generally caused by mechanical impact during handling or

transportation
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SIST EN IEC 60401-1:2020
IEC 60401-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 9 –

Note 1 to entry: In almost all cases, chips are located on the edges of surfaces.

4.3.1.2
surface chip
chip located only on the core surface
SEE: Figure 1.
Figure 1 – Surface chip
4.3.1.3
edge chip
chip located only on the core edge
SEE: Figure 2.
Figure 2 – Edge chip
4.3.1.4
corner chip
chip located only in a corner
SEE: Figure 3.
Figure 3 – Corner chip
4.3.1.5
pull-out

consequence of the removal of the surface layer of the core due to die “sticking”, which

occurs on surfaces perpendicular to the direction of the pressing action

Note 1 to entry: A pull-out with a depth greater than 1 mm should be considered as a chip.

SEE: Figure 4.
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Figure 4 – Pull-out
4.3.1.6
pore
hole left on the surface of cores after sintering and surface finishing
SEE: Figure 5.
Figure 5 – Pores
4.3.2 Protruding (convex) irregularities
4.3.2.1
hump
elevation of a rounded contour on the relevant surface
SEE: Figure 6.
Figure 6 – Hump
4.3.2.2
attached particle

any particle on the surface which cannot be removed by compressed-air, cleaning, washing or

wiping
SEE: Figure 7.
Figure 7 – Attached particle
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IEC 60401-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 11 –
4.3.2.3
inclusion

millimetre or sub-millimetre-sized foreign body located in the surface of the part

4.3.3 Edge irregularities
4.3.3.1
ragged edge
edge affected by a series of small chips
SEE: Figure 8.
Figure 8 – Ragged edge
4.3.3.2
flash
sharp feather-edge wall extending beyond the intended contour surface of
...

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