Textiles - Quantitative analysis of cashmere, wool, other specialty animal fibers and their blends - Part 1: Light Microscopy method (ISO 17751-1:2016)

This part of ISO 17751 specifies a method for the identification, qualitative, and quantitative analysis of
cashmere, wool, other speciality animal fibres, and their blends using light microscopy (LM).
This part of ISO 17751 is applicable to loose fibres, intermediate-products, and final products of
cashmere, wool, other speciality animal fibres, and their blends.

Textilien - Quantitative Analyse von Kaschmir, Wolle, anderen speziellen tierischen Fasern und deren Mischungen - Teil 1: Lichtmikroskopie-Verfahren (ISO 17751-1:2016)

Dieser Teil der ISO 17751 legt ein Verfahren zur Identifizierung sowie qualitativen und quantitativen Analyse von Kaschmir, Wolle, anderen speziellen tierischen Fasern und deren Mischungen mit dem Lichtmikroskop (LM) fest.
Dieser Teil der ISO 17751 gilt für lose Fasern, Halbfertigerzeugnisse und Fertigerzeugnisse aus Kaschmir, Wolle, anderen speziellen tierischen Fasern und deren Mischungen.

Textiles - Analyse quantitative du cachemire, de la laine, d'autres fibres animales spéciales et leurs mélanges - Partie 1: Méthode de microscopie optique (ISO 17751-1:2016)

ISO 17751-1:2016 spécifie une méthode pour l'identification et l'analyse, qualitative et quantitative, du cachemire, de la laine et d'autres fibres animales spéciales, ainsi que de leurs mélanges, au moyen de la microscopie optique (MO).
ISO 17751-1:2016 s'applique aux fibres en vrac, aux produits intermédiaires et aux produits finaux de cachemire, de laine et d'autres fibres animales spéciales, ainsi que de leurs mélanges.

Tekstilije - Kvantitativna analiza kašmirskih, volnenih, drugih specialnih živalskih vlaken in njihovih mešanic - 1. del: Mikroskopska metoda s svetlobo (ISO 17751-1:2016)

Ta del standarda ISO 17751 določa metodo za identifikacijo ter kvalitativno in kvantitativno analizo kašmirskih, volnenih, drugih specialnih živalskih vlaken in njihovih mešanic na podlagi mikroskopske metode s svetlobo (LM). Ta del standarda ISO 17751 se uporablja za prosta vlakna, vmesne proizvode in končne proizvode iz kašmirja, volne, drugih specialnih živalskih vlaken ter njihovih mešanic.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
01-Oct-2014
Publication Date
04-May-2016
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
25-Apr-2016
Due Date
30-Jun-2016
Completion Date
05-May-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016
01-junij-2016

Tekstilije - Kvantitativna analiza kašmirskih, volnenih, drugih specialnih živalskih

vlaken in njihovih mešanic - 1. del: Mikroskopska metoda s svetlobo (ISO 17751-
1:2016)

Textiles - Quantitative analysis of cashmere, wool, other specialty animal fibers and their

blends - Part 1: Light Microscopy method (ISO 17751-1:2016)

Textilien - Quantitative Analyse von Kaschmir, Wolle, anderen speziellen tierischen

Fasern und deren Mischungen - Teil 1: Lichtmikroskopie-Verfahren (ISO 17751-1:2016)

Textiles - Analyse quantitative du cachemire, de la laine, d'autres fibres animales

spéciales et leurs mélanges - Partie 1: Méthode de microscopie optique (ISO 17751-

1:2016)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 17751-1:2016
ICS:
59.060.10 Naravna vlakna Natural fibres
SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016
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SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016
EN ISO 17751-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2016
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 59.060.10
English Version
Textiles - Quantitative analysis of cashmere, wool, other
specialty animal fibers and their blends - Part 1: Light
Microscopy method (ISO 17751-1:2016)

Textiles - Analyse quantitative du cachemire, de la Textilien - Quantitative Analyse von Kaschmir, Wolle,

laine, d'autres fibres animales spéciales et leurs anderen speziellen tierischen Fasern und deren

mélanges - Partie 1: Méthode de microscopie optique Mischungen - Teil 1: Lichtmikroskopie-Verfahren (ISO

(ISO 17751-1:2016) 17751-1:2016)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 December 2015.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 17751-1:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016
EN ISO 17751-1:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016
EN ISO 17751-1:2016 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 17751-1:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 38

"Textiles" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 248 “Textiles and textile products” the

secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2016, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2016.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands,

Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 17751-1:2016 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 17751-1:2016 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016
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SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 17751-1
First edition
2016-03-15
Textiles — Quantitative analysis
of cashmere, wool, other specialty
animal fibers and their blends —
Part 1:
Light microscopy method
Textiles — Analyse quantitative du cachemire, de la laine, d’autres
fibres animales spéciales et leurs mélanges —
Partie 1: Méthode de microscopie optique
Reference number
ISO 17751-1:2016(E)
ISO 2016
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SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016
ISO 17751-1:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

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the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
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copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016
ISO 17751-1:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus, materials, and reagents .................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.1 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Materials ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.3 Reagents........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

6 Drawing of laboratory sample and conditioning ................................................................................................................ 3

7 Preparation of the test specimens ..................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.1 Number of test specimens ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

7.2 Preparation of the test specimens .......................................................................................................................................... 3

7.2.1 Loose fibre ............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

7.2.2 Sliver ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.2.3 Yarn.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

7.2.4 Woven fabrics ..................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2.5 Knitted fabrics .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.3 Decolouring of the laboratory sample ................................................................................................................................ 4

8 Test procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

8.1 Settings of magnification with micrometer scale ...................................................................................................... 4

8.2 Fibre identification and fibre diameter measurement ......................................................................................... 4

9 Calculation of test result ............................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex A (informative) Drawing of the lot sample and the laboratory sample .........................................................8

Annex B (informative) Decolouration ................................................................................................................................................................. 9

Annex C (informative) Surface morphology of common animal fibres .........................................................................10

Annex D (normative) Density of common animal fibres ..............................................................................................................40

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................41

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016
ISO 17751-1:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

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The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

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For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

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The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 38, Textiles.

ISO 17751 consists of the following parts, under the general title Textiles — Quantitative analysis of

cashmere, wool, other speciality animal fibres and their blends:
— Part 1: Light microscopy method
— Part 2: Scanning electron microscopy method
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016
ISO 17751-1:2016(E)
Introduction

Cashmere is a high-value specialty animal fibre, but cashmere and other animal wool fibres such as

sheep’s wool, yak, camel, etc. exhibit great similarities in their physical and chemical properties, so that

their blends are difficult to distinguish from each other by both mechanical and chemical methods. In

addition, these fibres show similar scale structures. It is very difficult to accurately determine the fibre

content of such fibre blends by current testing means.

Research on the accurate identification of cashmere fibres has been a long undertaking. At present,

the most widely used and reliable identification techniques include the light microscopy (LM) method

and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM method shows complementary characteristics

to those of LM method.

— The advantage of the LM method is that the internal medullation and pigmentation of fibres can be

observed; the disadvantage is that some subtle surface structures cannot be clearly displayed. A

decolouring process needs to be carried out on dark samples for testing. An improper decolouring

process can affect the judgment of the fibre analyst.

—The SEM method shows opposite characteristics to those of LM method so some types of fibres need

to be identified by scanning electron microscope.

The LM and SEM methods need be used together to identify some difficult-to-identify samples in order

to utilize the advantages of both methods.

It has been proven in practice that the accuracy of a fibre analysis is highly related to the ample

experience, full understanding, and extreme familiarity of the fibre analyst to the surface morphology

of various types of animal fibres so besides the textual descriptions, several micrographs of different

types of animal fibres are given in Annex C.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016
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SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17751-1:2016(E)
Textiles — Quantitative analysis of cashmere, wool, other
specialty animal fibers and their blends —
Part 1:
Light microscopy method
1 Scope

This part of ISO 17751 specifies a method for the identification, qualitative, and quantitative analysis of

cashmere, wool, other speciality animal fibres, and their blends using light microscopy (LM).

This part of ISO 17751 is applicable to loose fibres, intermediate-products, and final products of

cashmere, wool, other speciality animal fibres, and their blends.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 139, Textiles — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
specialty animal fibre
any type of keratin fibre taken from animals (hairs) other than sheep
3.2
light microscope

optical instrument used to produce magnified images utilizing visible light source

Note 1 to entry: Types of microscopes suitable for fibre identification include projection microscopes and visual

microscopic image analysers. Transmitted–light type microscopes with direct graduated scale equipped on

optical lens are also applicable.
3.3
scale
cuticle covering the surface of animal fibres
3.4
scale frequency
number of scales (3.3) along the fibre axis per unit length
3.5
scale height
height of the cuticle at the scale’s (3.3) distal edge
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016
ISO 17751-1:2016(E)
3.6
fibre surface morphology
sum of the physical properties/attributes characterizing the fibre surface

EXAMPLE The fibre surface morphology includes scale frequency (3.4), scale height (3.5), patterns of scale

edge, scale surface smoothness, fibre evenness along its axis, transparency under light microscope (3.2), etc.

3.7
lot sample

portion representative of the same type and same lot of material drawn according to the requirements

from which it is taken
3.8
laboratory sample

portion drawn from a lot sample (3.7) according to the requirements for preparing specimens

3.9
test specimen

portion taken from fibre snippets randomly cut from a laboratory sample (3.8) for measurement

purposes
4 Principle

A longitudinal view image of fibre snippets representative of a test specimen is magnified to an

appropriate scale/size under an optical microscope. All the fibre types found in the test specimen are

identified by comparing them with known fibre surface morphologies for different types of animal fibres.

For each fibre type, the number and mean diameters of the fibre snippets are counted and measured.

The mass fraction is calculated from the data for the number of fibre snippets counted, mean value and

standard deviation of the snippet diameter, and the true density of each fibre type.

5 Apparatus, materials, and reagents
5.1 Apparatus

5.1.1 Projection microscope, comprised of a light source, a light condenser, a stage, an objective, an

ocular, and a circular transparent viewing screen or non-transparent projection table with a graduated

scale in millimetres. The objective and ocular shall be capable of providing at least a magnification

of ×500 at the screen.

5.1.2 Visual microscopic image analyser, comprised of a microscope, a camera, a computer, a data

acquisition card, exclusive analysing software, and a display. The objective and ocular of the microscope

shall be capable of providing at least a magnification of ×500.

5.1.3 Transmitted-light type microscope, comprised of a light source, a light condenser, a stage, an

objective, and an ocular with a graduated scale. The objective and ocular of this type of microscope shall

be capable of providing a magnification of ×400 to ×500.
5.2 Materials
5.2.1 Microtome.
5.2.2 Scissors, tweezers, cleaning fabric, watch-glass, etc.
5.2.3 Slides and cover glasses.
2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016
ISO 17751-1:2016(E)

5.2.4 Wedge scale, with divisions of ×500 magnification. A moveable linear rule-type scale finely

graduated in millimetres may also be used.
5.3 Reagents
5.3.1 Liquid paraffin with a refractive index between 1,43 and 1,53.
6 Drawing of laboratory sample and conditioning
6.1 Drawing methods for lot samples and laboratory samples are given in Annex A.

6.2 The laboratory sample shall be conditioned for at least 4 h under the standard atmospheres

stipulated in ISO 139.
7 Preparation of the test specimens
7.1 Number of test specimens
Prepare one or more slides so that at least 1 000 fibres shall be identified.
7.2 Preparation of the test specimens
7.2.1 Loose fibre

7.2.1.1 Place the laboratory sample flat on the test table, pick up approximately 500 mg of fibres

randomly on not less than 20 spots with tweezers (5.2.2) from the top and bottom sides of the sample.

Blend them homogeneously and divide them into three equal portions. Sort these drawn fibres into

basically parallel fibre bundles.

7.2.1.2 Cut each fibre bundle in the middle with a microtome (5.2.1) to get approximately 0,6 mm long

fibre snippets. Cut only once in each of the fibre bundles.

7.2.1.3 Place all the fibre snippets on the watch glass, drop an appropriate amount of liquid paraffin

(5.3.1), stir with tweezers (5.2.2) to make the suspended snippet liquid distribute uniformly on the

watch glass, then take an appropriate amount of this specimen blend and put it on the slide. Cover with a

cover glass.
7.2.2 Sliver

7.2.2.1 Cut the laboratory sliver sample into three sections. Take out an appropriate amount of the

fibre bundle in the longitudinal direction from each sliver section.

7.2.2.2 Cut in the middle of each fibre bundle to obtain approximately 0,6 mm long fibre snippets with

a microtome (5.2.1). Cut only once in each fibre bundle.
7.2.2.3 Other operating procedures are the same as those stipulated in 7.2.1.3.
7.2.3 Yarn
7.2.3.1 Divide the laboratory sample into three equal portions.
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SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016
ISO 17751-1:2016(E)

7.2.3.2 Cut each portion in the middle with a microtome (5.2.1) to obtain approximately 0,6 mm long

fibre snippets. Cut only once in each yarn portion.
7.2.3.3 Other operating procedures are the same as those stipulated in 7.2.1.3.
7.2.4 Woven fabrics

7.2.4.1 If the warp and weft yarn share the same composition, all the yarns unravelled from a square

sample of a complete pattern may be cut to obtain an appropriate test specimen. For those fabric samples

composed of different compositions of warp and weft yarns, unravel the warp and weft yarns and weigh

them separately. (If the fabrics have a definite repetition in the pattern, unravel at least the integral

multiple of a complete pattern.)

7.2.4.2 Cut from the parallel yarn portion in the middle with a microtome to obtain approximately

0,6 mm long fibre snippets. Cut only once in each yarn portion.
7.2.4.3 Other operating procedures are the same as those stipulated in 7.2.1.3.
7.2.5 Knitted fabrics

7.2.5.1 Unravel at least 25 yarn segments from the laboratory sample for woollen knitted fabrics.

Unravel at least 50 yarn segments for worsted knitted fabrics. Cut each yarn portion in the middle to

obtain approximately 0,6 mm long fibre snippets. Cut only once in each yarn portion.

7.2.5.2 Other operating procedures are the same as those stipulated in 7.2.1.3.

If, prior to analysis, Soxhlet extraction in light petroleum (boiling point 40 °C to 60 °C) is carried out to

remove excess surface greases or oils, it shall be reported.
7.3 Decolouring of the laboratory sample

If a decolouring process is carried out on those dark laboratory samples for which it is difficult to see

the fibre morphology, prepare the test specimens according to the requirements in 7.2. The decolouring

process application shall be reported.
The recommended decolouring methods are given in Annex B.

NOTE The decolouring process can lead to different fibre diameters measured from the decoloured fibres

than from those diameters measured from the original fibres taken from fabric or yarns prior to decolouring.

8 Test procedure
8.1 Settings of magnification with micrometer scale

Put the micrometer with a 0,01 mm scale on the stage. The 20 scales from the micrometer (0,20 mm)

projected on the screen shall be precisely magnified to 100 mm which means the magnification is ×500.

8.2 Fibre identification and fibre diameter measurement

8.2.1 Projection microscope with a graduated scale in millimetres on the screen (5.1.1).

8.2.1.1 The slide should be scanned in a raster pattern. This ensures that all parts of the slide are

covered and avoids the possibility of any fibre being measured twice.
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SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016
ISO 17751-1:2016(E)

8.2.1.2 Observe and measure the diameters of the various types of fibres in the view. Measure the

diameters of at least 100 fibres for cashmere and wool and at least 150 fibres for other speciality animal

fibres. At the same time, identify the fibre types according to various fibre morphologies (reference

details are given in Annex C). Record the number of different types of fibres, and identify more than

1 000 fibre snippets from each test specimen.

If the number of fibres identified reaches 1 000 while the measurement is still being carried out in the

middle of the slide, keep moving and counting until the end of the slide. For fibre types in which only

a minor proportion is blended into and the number of fibres measured fail to meet the requirement of

number for fibre diameter measurement, measure all fibres of the type found in the specimen slide.

8.2.1.3 For those fibres observed with diameters exceeding 30 µm for cashmere, 35 µm for yak wool,

40 µm for camel, and 30 µm for Angora rabbit hair, record them as cashmere coarse hair, yak hair, camel

coarse hair, and coarse rabbit hair respectively. Measure their fibre diameters and record the number of

such fibres. If any of the above mentioned fibres accounts for less than 0,3 % of the total amount counted

in the specimen, the component can be neglected.

8.2.1.4 If a measurement falls between two divisions, take the lower of the two values.

8.2.1.5 Calculate the mean fibre diameter and standard deviation for a given component according to

Formulae (1) and (2), respectively.
()dF×
d= (1)
Fd()−d
S= (2)
where
is the mean fibre diameter of the component, in micrometres (μm);

d is the group diameter, d = (recorded group value + 0,5) × 2, in micrometres (μm);

F is the number of fibres measured with the same diameter;
S is the standard deviation, in micrometres (μm).

8.2.2 Projection microscope used to measure the fibre diameter with a wedge scale or a

transparent moveable linear-rule-type scale.

8.2.2.1 Measurement is made by moving the wedge scale (5.2.4) with its length at right angles to the

fibre image until a division coincides with one edge of the focused fibre image. The width of the fibre

image is read off on the other edge of the wedge scale. When measuring an image whose edges are not

in focus together, adjust the focusing so that one edge is in focus when a fine line appears and the other

edge shows a white line. Measure the width from the edge that is in focus to the inside of the white line.

8.2.2.2 If the width of a fibre image coincides with wedge scale division and lies exactly on a millimetre

division of N, the width of the measured fibre image may be assigned to either data group N-1 or N+1

depending on actual conditions. If such cases reoccur, alternately assign them to data group N-1 and to

data group N+1.

8.2.2.3 Other operating procedures are the same as those stipulated in 8.2.1.1 to 8.2.1.3.

8.2.2.4 The mean fibre diameter and standard deviation of a given component is calculated using

Formulae (3) and (4), respectively.
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SIST EN ISO 17751-1:2016
ISO 17751-1:2016(E)
AF×
d = (3)
FA−d
S = (4)
where
is the mean fibre diameter of the component, in micrometres (μm);
A is the median, in micrometres (μm);
F is the number of fibres measured;
S is the standard deviation, in micrometres (μm).

8.2.2.5 Fibre diameter measurement operation with rule-type scale and calculation are the same as

stipulated in 8.2.1.
8.2.3 Visual microscopic image analyser (5.1.2).

8.2.3.1 Observe various type of fibres in the screen view. Measure the fibre diameter when edges of

fibre in focus shows clear fine lines. Move the cursor to one side of the focused fibre, click on the left

mouse button, then move the cursor to the other side of the focused fibre. Click on the left mouse button

again, the fibre diameter value will be automatically recorded after measurement. Test result will be

automatically calculated and
...

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