Smoke and heat control systems - Part 13: Pressure differential systems (PDS) - Design and calculation methods, installation, acceptance testing, routine testing and maintenance

This document gives guidance and requirements for the design and calculation methods, installation, acceptance testing, routine testing and maintenance for pressure differential systems (PDS).
PDSs are designed to hold back smoke at a leaky physical barrier in a building, such as a door (either open or closed) or other similarly restricted openings and to keep tenable conditions in escape and access routes depending on the application.
It covers systems intended to protect means of escape e.g. staircases, corridors, lobbies, as well as systems intended to provide a protected firefighting bridgehead for the fire services.
It provides details on the critical features and relevant procedures for the installation.
It describes the commissioning procedures and acceptance testing criteria required to confirm that the calculated design is achieved in the building.
This document gives complete rules, requirements and procedures to design PDS for buildings up to 60 m.
For buildings taller than 60 m the same requirements are given (e.g. Table 1), but additional calculations and verification methods are necessary. Requirements for such methods and verification are given in Annex D, but the methods fall outside the scope of this document [e.g. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)].
Routine testing and maintenance requirements are also defined in the document.
In the absence of national requirements and under expected ambient and outside conditions, the requirements in Table 1 are fulfilled by the PDS.

Rauch- und Wärmefreihaltung - Teil 13: Differenzdrucksysteme — Rauchschutz-Druckanlagen (RDA) - Planung, Bemessung, Einbau, Abnahmeprüfung, Funktions-Tests, Betrieb und Instandhaltung

Dieses Dokument enthält Leitlinien und Anforderungen für Entwurfs- und Berechnungsmethoden, Installation, Abnahmeprüfung, Regelmässige Funktionsprüfung und Wartung für Druckdifferenzsysteme (RDA).
RDA wurden entwickelt, um Rauch an einer undichten physischen Barriere in einem Gebäude wie einer Tür (entweder offen oder geschlossen) oder anderen ähnlich eingeschränkten Öffnungen zurückzuhalten und dauerhafte Bedingungen in Flucht- und Zugangswegen abhängig von der Anwendung aufrechtzuerhalten.
RDA behandeln sowohl Systeme, die zur Sicherung von Rettungswegen gedacht sind, z. B. Treppenräume, Flure und Vorräume, als auch Systeme, die dazu dienen, einen geschützten Brückenkopf für die Brandbekämpfungsmaßnahmen der Feuerwehr zu schaffen.
Dieses Dokument gibt Einzelheiten zu den kritischen Merkmalen und Abläufen für den Einbau.
Dieses Dokument beschreibt auch die Inbetriebnahmeverfahren und Abnahmeprüfkriterien, die erforderlich sind, um zu bestätigen, dass die berechnete Planung im Gebäude erreicht wird.
Dieses Dokument enthält vollständige Regeln, Anforderungen und Verfahren für die Planung von RDA für Gebäude bis zu 60 m.
Für Gebäude mit einer Höhe von mehr als 60 m gelten dieselben Anforderungen (z. B. Tabelle 1), jedoch sind zusätzliche Berechnungs- und Überprüfungsverfahren erforderlich. Die Anforderungen für solche Verfahren und deren Überprüfung sind in Anhang D aufgeführt, die Verfahren fallen jedoch nicht in den Anwendungsbereich dieser Norm [z. B. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)].
Regelmässige Funktions-Tests und Instandhaltungsanforderungen sind ebenfalls in dieser Norm definiert.
Bei fehlenden, nationalen, gesetzlichen Anforderungen und unter den zu erwarteten Umgebungs- und Außenbedingungen müssen die Anforderungen in Tabelle 1 von der RDA erfüllt werden.

Systèmes pour le contrôle des fumées et de la chaleur - Partie 13 : Systèmes à différentiel de pression (SDP) - Méthodes de conception et de calcul, installation, essais de réception, essais périodiques et maintenance

Le présent document fournit des méthodes de calcul ainsi que des recommandations et des exigences relatives à la conception, à l’installation, aux essais de réception, aux essais périodiques et à la maintenance des systèmes à différentiel de pression (SDP).
Les SDP sont conçus pour retenir la fumée au niveau d’une fuite d’une barrière physique dans un bâtiment, comme une porte (ouverte ou fermée) ou une ouverture restreinte similaire, et pour maintenir des conditions durables des issues de secours et des voies d’accès selon l’application.
Il couvre les systèmes prévus pour la protection des moyens d’évacuation tels que les cages d’escaliers, les couloirs et les paliers, ainsi que les systèmes permettant de disposer d’un espace (tête de pont) protégé pour les services de pompiers.
Il fournit des détails sur les caractéristiques essentielles et les modes opératoires pertinents pour l’installation.
Il présente le mode opératoire à suivre pour la mise en service et les critères d’essai de réception requis pour confirmer que le concept calculé a bien été réalisé dans le bâtiment.
Le présent document fournit les règles, exigences et modes opératoires nécessaires à la conception des SDP pour les bâtiments allant jusqu’à 60 m.
Dans le cas de bâtiments dont la hauteur dépasse 60 m, les mêmes exigences s’appliquent (Tableau 1 par exemple). Toutefois, des méthodes de calcul et de vérification supplémentaires sont nécessaires. Les exigences relatives à de telles méthodes et vérifications sont présentées dans l’Annexe D. Néanmoins, les méthodes sont en dehors du domaine d’application du présent document [par exemple, analyse mathématique supplémentaire et/ou dynamique des fluides computationnelle (CFD)].
Les exigences relatives aux essais périodiques et à la maintenance sont également définies dans le présent document.
En l’absence de prescriptions nationales et dans les conditions ambiantes et extérieures prévues, le SDP satisfait aux exigences énoncées dans le Tableau 1.

Sistemi za nadzor dima in toplote - 13. del: Sistemi za zagotovitev tlačnih razlik (PDS) - Načrtovanje in računske metode, vgradnja, preskušanje ustreznosti, rutinsko preskušanje in vzdrževanje

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
14-Jul-2020
Publication Date
10-May-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
25-Apr-2022
Due Date
30-Jun-2022
Completion Date
11-May-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 12101-13:2022
01-junij-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 12101-6:2005
SIST EN 12101-6:2005/AC:2006

Sistemi za nadzor dima in toplote - 13. del: Sistemi za zagotovitev tlačnih razlik

(PDS) - Načrtovanje in računske metode, vgradnja, preskušanje ustreznosti,
rutinsko preskušanje in vzdrževanje

Smoke and heat control systems - Part 13: Pressure differential systems (PDS) - Design

and calculation methods, installation, acceptance testing, routine testing and
maintenance
Rauch- und Wärmefreihaltung - Teil 13: Differenzdrucksysteme — Rauchschutz-
Druckanlagen (RDA) - Planung, Bemessung, Einbau, Abnahmeprüfung, Funktions-
Tests, Betrieb und Instandhaltung
Systèmes pour le contrôle des fumées et de la chaleur - Partie 13 : Systèmes à

différentiel de pression (SDP) - Méthodes de conception et de calcul, installation, essais

de réception, essais périodiques et maintenance
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 12101-13:2022
ICS:
13.220.20 Požarna zaščita Fire protection
SIST EN 12101-13:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 12101-13:2022
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SIST EN 12101-13:2022
EN 12101-13
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2022
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.220.99 Supersedes EN 12101-6:2005, EN 12101-
6:2005/AC:2006
English Version
Smoke and heat control systems - Part 13: Pressure
differential systems (PDS) - Design and calculation
methods, installation, acceptance testing, routine testing
and maintenance

Systèmes pour le contrôle des fumées et de la chaleur - Rauch- und Wärmefreihaltung - Teil 13:

Partie 13 : Systèmes à différentiel de pression (SDP) - Differenzdrucksysteme - Rauchschutz-Druckanlagen

Méthodes de conception et de calcul, installation, essais (RDA) - Planung, Bemessung, Einbau,

de réception, essais périodiques et maintenance Abnahmeprüfung, Funktions-Tests, Betrieb und

Instandhaltung
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 14 February 2022.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 12101-13:2022 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 12101-13:2022
EN 12101-13:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Design objectives ............................................................................................................................................ 8

4.1 General................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.2 Protection of means of escape .................................................................................................................... 8

4.3 Protection of firefighting routes ................................................................................................................ 8

4.4 Property protection ....................................................................................................................................... 8

4.5 Additional functions ...................................................................................................................................... 8

5 Normative requirements ............................................................................................................................. 9

5.1 General................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.2 Application of Class 1 and Class 2 ........................................................................................................... 10

5.3 Response delay – time period definitions ............................................................................................ 10

5.4 Door opening force ....................................................................................................................................... 12

5.5 Pressure differential systems ................................................................................................................... 12

5.6 Pressurization systems ............................................................................................................................... 14

6 Interaction ....................................................................................................................................................... 29

6.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 29

6.2 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................. 30

7 Equipment and components – specification and installation ....................................................... 31

7.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 31

7.2 Software based fire control systems ...................................................................................................... 32

7.3 Automatic control of a PDS ........................................................................................................................ 32

7.4 Manual control of a PDS .............................................................................................................................. 32

7.5 Description of components and their requirements ....................................................................... 34

8 Testing and measuring ............................................................................................................................... 43

8.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 43

8.2 Preconditions ................................................................................................................................................. 43

8.3 Tests ................................................................................................................................................................... 44

8.4 Minimum number of tests; floor positions and other information ............................................ 45

8.5 Test procedures ............................................................................................................................................. 47

9 Additional considerations for design and testing ............................................................................. 54

9.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 54

9.2 Parameters for consideration during design and performance testing ................................... 54

10 Documentation .............................................................................................................................................. 55

10.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 55

10.2 Requirements by the authorities having jurisdiction ..................................................................... 55

10.3 Technical description of the PDS............................................................................................................. 55

10.4 “As built/installed” information .............................................................................................................. 55

10.5 Controls ............................................................................................................................................................ 56

10.6 Components list (inventory) and datasheets ..................................................................................... 56

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SIST EN 12101-13:2022
EN 12101-13:2022 (E)

10.7 Completion certification ............................................................................................................................ 57

11 Testing and Maintenance, design changes, faults, routine testing and operation ................ 57

11.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 57

11.2 Records ............................................................................................................................................................. 57

11.3 Building design changes ............................................................................................................................. 58

11.4 Faults ................................................................................................................................................................. 58

11.5 Routine testing .............................................................................................................................................. 59

11.6 Maintenance ................................................................................................................................................... 61

Annex A (informative) Calculation procedures ................................................................................................ 62

Annex B (informative) Design example and possible calculation procedures ...................................... 81

Annex C (informative) Further information on wind and temperature effects .................................... 91

Annex D (informative) Guidance for PDS design for buildings taller than 60 m .................................. 94

Annex E (informative) (Example) PDS drawing ................................................................................................ 99

Annex F (informative) Documentation and responsibilities in the process ....................................... 100

Annex G (informative) (Example) PDS concept report ............................................................................... 103

Annex H (informative) (Example) PDS test report ....................................................................................... 106

Annex I (informative) Risk assessment – List of potential disturbances ............................................. 114

Annex J (informative) Practical suggestions for successful commissioning ....................................... 116

Annex K (normative) Labelling ............................................................................................................................ 117

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................. 118

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SIST EN 12101-13:2022
EN 12101-13:2022 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 12101-13:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 191 “Fixed

fire-fighting systems”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2022, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document together with EN 12101-6 supersedes EN 12101-6:2005 which will be withdrawn.

This document has the general title “Smoke and heat control systems” and consists of the following

parts:
— Part 1: Specification for smoke barriers;
— Part 2: Specification for natural smoke and heat exhaust ventilators;
— Part 3: Specification for powered smoke and heat exhaust ventilators;

— Part 4: Installed SHEVS systems for smoke and heat ventilation (published as CEN/TR 12101-4);

— Part 5: Design and calculation for smoke and heat exhaust ventilation systems using a steady-state fire

(published as CEN/TR 12101-5);
— Part 6: Specification for pressure differential systems;
— Part 7: Smoke control duct sections;
— Part 8: Specification for smoke control dampers;
— Part 10: Power supplies;

— Part 11: Design, installation and commissioning requirements for enclosed car parks;

— Part 12: Design and calculation for smoke and heat exhaust ventilation systems using a time

dependent fire;

— Part 13: Pressure differential systems (PDS) - Design and calculation methods, installation, acceptance

testing, routine testing and maintenance.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 12101-13:2022
EN 12101-13:2022 (E)
Introduction

This document covers information and requirements on the design and calculation methods,

installation, acceptance testing, routine testing and maintenance of Pressure Differential Systems (PDS).

PDSs are installed in buildings to prevent smoke in hazardous amounts from entering into protected

spaces via leakage paths through physical barriers (e.g. cracks around closed doors) or open doors by

using pressure differentials.

The requirements and test methods for kits used in PDS are published in EN 12101-6. For certain

components as part of the kits, additional tests must be carried out in accordance with Part 6 prior to

the kit test.
Figure 1 — Pressurization (General)

Pressure differential systems provide a means of maintaining tenable conditions in protected spaces,

that are required to be kept free of smoke – e.g. escape routes, firefighting access routes, firefighting lift

shafts, lobbies, staircases, and other spaces. It is necessary to determine where the fresh air supply for

the PDS is to be introduced into a building as well as where that air and smoke will leave the building

and what paths it will follow in the process, including during firefighting (e.g. with fire compartment

door open) and in the event of likely events such as window failure.

By means of a PDS, a positive pressure difference is always achieved between the protected space and

the unprotected space. This is achieved by pressurizing the protected space(s) (see Figure 1).

The aim therefore is to establish a pressure gradient from the protected space to the unprotected space

while the doors are closed and an airflow from the protected space via the unprotected space to outside

when specific doors are open.

The figures that accompany the text in this document are informative and are intended for clarification

purposes only.

It is recommended that the designer should discuss the design and evacuation concept, including safety

targets, with the authorities having jurisdiction, early in the building design process.

NOTE 1 From experience gained since EN 12101-6 was first published, this document now simply prescribes

two systems only and these are specifically described in terms of the closed-door differential pressure and the

open-door velocity only. Consequently the 10 Pa previously required in some scenarios is now withdrawn.

NOTE 2 It is recommended that an engineered solution for a PDS should adopt the functional requirements set

out in this document where appropriate, inclusive of Table 1 as a minimum, in the absence of any national

requirements.
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SIST EN 12101-13:2022
EN 12101-13:2022 (E)
1 Scope

This document gives calculation methods, guidance and requirements for the design, installation,

acceptance testing, routine testing and maintenance for pressure differential systems (PDS).

PDSs are designed to hold back smoke at a leaky physical barrier in a building, such as a door (either

open or closed) or other similarly restricted openings and to keep tenable conditions in escape and

access routes depending on the application.

It covers systems intended to protect means of escape e.g. staircases, corridors, lobbies, as well as

systems intended to provide a protected firefighting space (bridgehead) for the fire services.

It provides details on the critical features and relevant procedures for the installation.

It describes the commissioning procedures and acceptance testing criteria required to confirm that the

calculated design is achieved in the building.

This document gives rules, requirements and procedures to design PDS for buildings up to 60 m.

For buildings taller than 60 m the same requirements are given (e.g. Table 1), but additional methods of

calculation and verification are necessary. Requirements for such methods and verification are given in

Annex D, but the methods fall outside the scope of this document [e.g. Additional mathematical analysis

and/or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)].
Routine testing and maintenance requirements are also defined in this document.

In the absence of national requirements and under expected ambient and outside conditions, the

requirements in Table 1 are fulfilled by the PDS.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 12101-2, Smoke and heat control systems - Part 2: Natural smoke and heat exhaust ventilators

EN 12101-3, Smoke and heat control systems - Part 3: Specification for powered smoke and heat control

ventilators (Fans)

EN 12101-6, Smoke and heat control systems - Part 6: Specification for pressure differential systems - Kits

EN 12101-7, Smoke and heat control systems - Part 7: Smoke duct sections
EN 12101-8, Smoke and heat control systems - Part 8: Smoke control dampers
EN 12101-10, Smoke and heat control systems - Part 10: Power supplies

EN 13501-4, Fire classification of construction products and building elements - Part 4: Classification

using data from fire resistance tests on components of smoke control systems

ISO 21927-9, Smoke and heat control systems - Part 9: Specification for control equipment

EN 16763, Services for fire safety systems and security systems

EN 12259-1, Fixed firefighting systems - Components for sprinkler and water spray systems - Part 1:

Sprinklers
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SIST EN 12101-13:2022
EN 12101-13:2022 (E)
EN 54 (all parts), Fire detection and fire alarm systems

EN 60770-1, Transmitters for use in industrial-process control systems - Part 1: Methods for performance

evaluation

EN 60751, Industrial platinum resistance thermometers and platinum temperature sensors

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 13943 and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
accommodation

any part of the construction works which is not part of the protected escape route

3.2
air inlet
connection from the outside of the building to allow air entry
3.3
authorities
authorities having jurisdiction
AHJ

organizations, officers or individuals responsible for approving pressure differential systems, e.g. the

local/national fire and building control authorities having jurisdiction, or other approved third parties

3.4
barometric relief damper

damper which opens at automatically without a controlled actuator at a specific pressure to allow

pressure relief by providing flow of air to outside
3.5
control panel
multi-operational device to activate and/or control a PDS.
3.6
fire compartment

space (room or set of rooms) contained by boundaries with classified fire resistance

3.7
pressurized space

space (e.g. lift shaft, staircase, lobby, corridor, or other compartment) in which the air pressure is

maintained at a higher level than that in the space where a fire is located
3.8
protected space
space where the design prevents smoke entry
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SIST EN 12101-13:2022
EN 12101-13:2022 (E)
3.9
smoke and heat exhaust ventilation system
SHEVS

system in which components are jointly selected to exhaust smoke and heat in order to establish a

buoyant layer of warm gases above cooler, cleaner air
3.10
stack effect
movement of air into and out of buildings, resulting from air buoyancy
3.11
unpressurized space

space adjacent to or separate from the protected space where the pressure and airflow are not

controlled by the PDS
4 Design objectives
4.1 General

The following design objectives are addressed in this document and can be selected to match the

required application.
4.2 Protection of means of escape

It is essential that tenable conditions for life safety are maintained in protected spaces for as long as

they are likely to be in use by the building occupants.
4.3 Protection of firefighting routes

To enable firefighting operations to proceed efficiently, protected firefighting access routes shall be

maintained essentially free of smoke so that access to the fire-affected storey can be achieved without

the use of breathing apparatus. The pressure differential system shall be designed so as to limit the

spread of smoke into the dedicated firefighting route under normal firefighting conditions, but not

compromising means of escape or firefighting objectives which remain the top priority.

4.4 Property protection

The spread of smoke shall be prevented from entering sensitive spaces such as those containing

valuable equipment, data processing and other items that are particularly sensitive to smoke damage.

NOTE The purpose of a pressure differential system, whether used for the protection of means of escape,

firefighting operations or property protection, has a significant influence on the system design and specification. It

is therefore essential that the fire safety objectives are clearly established and agreed with the appropriate

authorities having jurisdiction at an early stage in the design process.
4.5 Additional functions

If designed accordingly, the PDS may have a secondary function as a ventilation system, provided that it

shall close the ventilation system down and switch to operation specifically as a PDS alone when a

smoke alarm is received.
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SIST EN 12101-13:2022
EN 12101-13:2022 (E)
5 Requirements
5.1 General

For this document the PDS will only have to deal with one fire at any one time, following generally

accepted practice. Designs and calculations will reflect this approach to fulfil the normative

requirements of this document.

The PDS shall be designed in such a way, that the PDS can fulfil its function throughout the required

operating time (e.g. 30, 60, 90 min) in accordance with national requirements.

If there is more than one PDS installed in a building, each PDS shall have its own control system. The

failure of any one PDS control system shall not negatively affect any other PDS.

Therefore, in operation, pressure differential and airflow velocity criteria shall only be required to be

met on the fire floor, but it shall be proven that the PDS can meet these requirements on all floors

during acceptance testing, but not necessarily at the same time. It is not acceptable for the PDS to draw

smoke into the protected space.

The PDS shall be triggered automatically by smoke detectors in accordance with EN 54 series. This may

also be achieved by the PDS receiving smoke signals from a separate fire/smoke detection system.

There shall be at least one single smoke detector on each floor installed on the unprotected side of the

door to the protected space (e.g. in the corridor or lobby). The smoke detection system may be zoned to

cover the whole building. Once the fire has been detected in a defined place by either smoke detection

or a fire detection system, the PDS shall be activated. Any stray smoke, which may be detected in

another place or in the protected space on another floor shall not change the operation of the PDS.

If there is a smoke detector or fire alarm activation within the protected space (e.g. staircase) before

smoke has been detected on a specific floor, this shall not lead to activation of the PDS.

Any additional signals from smoke detectors or fire detection systems shall be ignored by the PDS.

NOTE 1 Early detection is given when smoke detectors are placed in spaces with fire load (e.g.

accommodation), and not in the lobby or corridor, for example. However, if placing smoke detectors in

accommodation or other areas, access for maintenance and testing shall be provided.

Each escape and rescue route, protected by PDS, shall be a stand-alone system (e.g. independent fan,

ductwork, controls).

NOTE 2 PDSs for staircases and firefighters lift shafts, connected in one common lobby, are handled as one PDS,

however consideration should be given to the use of separate fans for the staircase and for the firefighting lift

shafts to give easier control and balancing of airflows.

Stack effect, convective airflow, airflow resistance, external wind etc. are amongst other influences

which can adversely affect the function of a PDS and therefore shall be taken into account.

The following parameters are defined for the design and shall be met and confirmed by the acceptance

test on site:
— Maximum door opening force (N);
— Minimum pressure differential (Pa);
— Minimum air flow velocity (m/s);

— Maximum response delay (s) – defined by initiation, operation and response times.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 12101-13:2022
EN 12101-13:2022 (E)
Table 1 — Design requirements of a PDS
Parameter Class 1 Class 2
Door opening force ≤ 100 N
Pressure differential ≥ 30 Pa
Airflow velocity ≥ 1 m/s ≥ 2 m/s
Initiation time ≤ 60 s
Operation time ≤ 120 s
Response time ≤ 5 s

NOTE Refer to Clause 8 when measuring the normative requirements given in Table 1.

5.2 Application of Class 1 and Class 2
5.2.1 Class 1
Class 1 will be required:

— in buildings with automatic water extinguishing systems using quick response sprinkler according

to EN 12259-1 (with response time index (RTI)≤50) which operate in response to
temperatures ≤ 72 °C; or
— in residential buildings up to 30 m or below the hi
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 12101-13:2020
01-september-2020

Sistemi za nadzor dima in toplote - 13. del: Sistemi za zagotovitev tlačnih razlik

(PDS) - Načrtovanje in računske metode, vgradnja, preskušanje ustreznosti,
rutinsko preskušanje in vzdrževanje

Smoke and heat control systems - Part 13: Pressure differential systems (PDS) - Design

and calculation methods, installation, acceptance testing, routine testing and
maintenance
Rauch- und Wärmefreihaltung - Teil 13: Differenzdrucksysteme — Rauchschutz-

Druckanlagen (RDA) - Planung, Bemessung, Einbau, Abnahmeprüfung, Funktions-Tests,

Betrieb und Instandhaltung

Systèmes pour le contrôle des fumées et de la chaleur - Partie 13 - Système de pression

différentielle (PDS) - Méthodes de concept et de calculs, installation, tests de réception,

tests périodiques et maintenance
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 12101-13
ICS:
13.220.20 Požarna zaščita Fire protection
oSIST prEN 12101-13:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 12101-13:2020
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oSIST prEN 12101-13:2020
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 12101-13
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
July 2020
ICS 13.220.99
English Version
Smoke and heat control systems - Part 13: Pressure
differential systems (PDS) - Design and calculation
methods, installation, acceptance testing, routine testing
and maintenance

Systèmes pour le contrôle des fumées et de la chaleur - Rauch- und Wärmefreihaltung - Teil 13:

Partie 13 - Système de pression différentielle (PDS) - Differenzdrucksysteme - Rauchschutz-Druckanlagen

Méthodes de concept et de calculs, installation, tests de (RDA) - Planung, Bemessung, Einbau,

réception, tests périodiques et maintenance Abnahmeprüfung, Funktions-Tests, Betrieb und

Instandhaltung

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 191.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 12101-13:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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oSIST prEN 12101-13:2020
prEN 12101-13:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 8

4 Design objectives ............................................................................................................................................ 9

4.1 General................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.2 Protection of means of escape .................................................................................................................... 9

4.3 Protection of firefighting routes ................................................................................................................ 9

4.4 Property protection ....................................................................................................................................... 9

4.5 Additional functions .................................................................................................................................... 10

5 Normative requirements ........................................................................................................................... 10

5.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 10

5.2 Application of Class 1 and Class 2 ........................................................................................................... 11

5.3 Response delay – time period definitions ............................................................................................ 11

5.4 Door opening force ....................................................................................................................................... 13

5.5 Pressure differential systems ................................................................................................................... 13

5.6 Pressurization systems ............................................................................................................................... 15

5.7 Depressurization systems ......................................................................................................................... 30

6 Interaction ....................................................................................................................................................... 38

6.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 38

6.2 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................. 38

7 Equipment and components – specification and installation ....................................................... 40

7.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 40

7.2 Software based fire control systems ...................................................................................................... 40

7.3 Automatic control of a PDS ........................................................................................................................ 41

7.4 Manual control of a PDS .............................................................................................................................. 41

7.5 Description of components and their requirements ....................................................................... 43

8 Testing and measuring ............................................................................................................................... 52

8.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 52

8.2 Preconditions ................................................................................................................................................. 52

8.3 Tests ................................................................................................................................................................... 53

8.4 Minimum number of tests; floor positions and other information ............................................ 54

8.5 Test procedures ............................................................................................................................................. 56

9 Additional considerations for design and testing ............................................................................. 63

9.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 63

9.2 Parameters for consideration during design and performance testing ................................... 63

10 Documentation .............................................................................................................................................. 64

10.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 64

10.2 Requirements by the authorities having jurisdiction ..................................................................... 64

10.3 Technical description of the PDS............................................................................................................. 64

10.4 “As built/installed” information .............................................................................................................. 64

10.5 Controls ............................................................................................................................................................ 65

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10.6 Components list (inventory) and datasheets ..................................................................................... 65

10.7 Completion certification ............................................................................................................................ 66

11 Testing and Maintenance, design changes, faults, routine testing and operation ................ 66

11.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 66

11.2 Records ............................................................................................................................................................. 66

11.3 Building design changes ............................................................................................................................. 67

11.4 Faults ................................................................................................................................................................. 67

11.5 Routine testing .............................................................................................................................................. 67

11.6 Maintenance ................................................................................................................................................... 69

Annex A (informative) Calculation procedures ................................................................................................ 71

Annex B (informative) Design example and possible calculation procedures ...................................... 90

Annex C (informative) Further information on wind and temperature effects ................................. 105

Annex D (informative) Guidance for PDS design for buildings taller than 60 m ............................... 108

Annex E (informative) (Example) PDS drawing ............................................................................................. 113

Annex F (informative) Documentation and responsibilities in the process ....................................... 114

Annex G (informative) (Example) PDS concept report ............................................................................... 117

Annex H (informative) (Example) PDS test report ....................................................................................... 119

Annex I (informative) Risk assessment – List of potential disturbances ............................................. 128

Annex J (informative) Practical suggestions for successful commissioning ....................................... 130

Annex K (normative) Labelling ............................................................................................................................ 131

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................. 132

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oSIST prEN 12101-13:2020
prEN 12101-13:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (prEN 12101-13:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 191 “Fixed

fire-fighting systems”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.

This document together with prEN 12101-6 will replace EN 12101-6:2005 which will be withdrawn.

This document has the general title “Smoke and heat control systems” and consists of the following

parts:
— Part 1: Specification for smoke barriers;
— Part 2: Specification for natural smoke and heat exhaust ventilators;
— Part 3: Specification for powered smoke and heat exhaust ventilators;

— Part 4: Installed SHEVS systems for smoke and heat ventilation (published as CEN CR 12101-4);

— Part 5: Design and calculation for smoke and heat exhaust ventilation systems using a steady-state

fire (published as CEN CR 12101-5);
— Part 6: Specification for pressure differential systems;

NOTE The standard referred to is the latest version (2020), which is also out for comment around this time –

this note will be removed from the revised version of this document)
— Part 7: Smoke control duct sections;
— Part 8: Specification for smoke control dampers;
— Part 9: Control panels and emergency control panels (proposed);
— Part 10: Power supplies;

— Part 11: Design, installation and commissioning requirements for enclosed car parks;

— Part 12: Design and calculation for smoke and heat exhaust ventilation systems using a time

dependent fire;

— Part 13: Pressure differential systems (PDS) — Design and calculation methods, installation,

acceptance testing, routine testing and maintenance.
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Introduction

This document covers information and requirements on the design and calculation methods,

installation, acceptance testing, routine testing and maintenance of Pressure Differential Systems (PDS).

PDSs are installed in buildings to prevent smoke in hazardous amounts from entering into protected

spaces via leakage paths through physical barriers (e.g. cracks around closed doors) or open doors by

using pressure differentials.

The requirements and test methods for specific components and kits which are used in PDSs are

published in EN 12101-6.
Figure 1 — Pressurization (General) Figure 2 — Depressurization (General)

Pressure differential systems provide a means of maintaining tenable conditions in protected spaces,

that are required to be kept free of smoke – e.g. escape routes, firefighting access routes, firefighting lift

shafts, lobbies, staircases, and other spaces. It is necessary to determine where the fresh air supply for

the PDS is to be introduced into a building as well as where that air and smoke will leave the building

and what paths it will follow in the process.

By means of a PDS, a higher pressure is always achieved in the protected space than in the unprotected

space of the fire floor. This is achieved by either pressurizing the protected space(s) (see Figure 1) or

depressurizing the unprotected space(s) (see Figure 2).

The aim therefore is to establish a pressure gradient from the protected space to the unprotected space

while the doors are closed and an airflow from the protected space via the unprotected space to outside

when specific doors are open.

The figures that accompany the text in this document are informative and are intended for clarification

purposes only.

It is recommended that the designer should discuss the design and evacuation concept, including safety

targets, with the authorities having jurisdiction, early in the building design process.

When the designer is unable to comply with this document in full (e.g. for buildings that fall outside of

the scope), an alternative fire safety engineered approach based on this document can be adopted but

shall be confirmed with the authorities having jurisdiction before it is implemented.

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NOTE 1 From experience gained since EN 12101-6 was first published, this document now simply prescribes

two systems only and these are specifically described in terms of the closed-door differential pressure and the

open-door velocity only. Consequently the 10 Pa previously required in some scenarios is now withdrawn.

Any engineered solution should adopt the functional requirements set out in this document where

appropriate, inclusive of Table 1.
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1 Scope

This document gives guidance and requirements for the design and calculation methods, installation,

acceptance testing, routine testing and maintenance for pressure differential systems (PDS).

PDSs are designed to hold back smoke at a leaky physical barrier in a building, such as a door (either

open or closed) or other similarly restricted openings and to keep tenable conditions in escape and

access routes depending on the application.

It covers systems intended to protect means of escape e.g. staircases, corridors, lobbies, as well as

systems intended to provide a protected firefighting bridgehead for the fire services.

It provides details on the critical features and relevant procedures for the installation.

It describes the commissioning procedures and acceptance testing criteria required to confirm that the

calculated design is achieved in the building.

This document gives complete rules, requirements and procedures to design PDS for buildings up to

60 m.

For buildings taller than 60 m the same requirements are given (e.g. Table 1), but additional

calculations and verification methods are necessary. Requirements for such methods and verification

are given in Annex D, but the methods fall outside the scope of this document [e.g. Computational Fluid

Dynamics (CFD)].
Routine testing and maintenance requirements are also defined in the document.

In the absence of national requirements and under expected ambient and outside conditions, the

requirements in Table 1 are fulfilled by the PDS.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 12101-2, Smoke and heat control systems — Part 2: Natural smoke and heat exhaust ventilators

EN 12101-3, Smoke and heat control systems — Part 3: Specification for powered smoke and heat control

ventilators (Fans)

prEN 12101-6, Smoke and heat control systems — Part 6: Specification for pressure differential

systems — Kits
NOTE EN 12101-6:2005 is not relevant here.
EN 12101-7, Smoke and heat control systems — Part 7: Smoke duct sections
EN 12101-8, Smoke and heat control systems — Part 8: Smoke control dampers
EN 12101-10, Smoke and heat control systems — Part 10: Power supplies

EN 13501-4, Fire classification of construction products and building elements — Part 4: Classification

using data from fire resistance tests on components of smoke control systems

ISO 21927-9, Smoke and heat control systems — Part 9: Specification for control equipment

EN 16763, Services for fire safety systems and security systems
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3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 13943 and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
accommodation

any part of the construction works which is not part of the protected escape route

3.2
air inlet
connection to the outside of the building to allow air entry
3.3
authorities
authorities having jurisdiction
AHJ

organizations, officers or individuals responsible for approving pressure differential systems, e.g. the

local/national fire and building control authorities having jurisdiction, or other approved third parties

3.4
barometric relief damper

damper which opens at as specific pressure to allow pressure control and air release

3.5
control panel
multi-operation initiating device for a smoke and heat control system
3.6
depressurized space

space from which air and smoke is extracted where there is a lower pressure than in the protected

space
3.7
fire compartment

space (room or set of rooms) contained by boundaries with classified fire resistance

3.8
means of escape

structural means whereby a safe route is provided for persons to travel from any point in a building to a

place of safety
3.9
pressurized space

space (e.g. lift shaft, staircase, lobby, corridor, or other compartment) in which the air pressure is

maintained at a higher level than that in the space where the fire is
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3.10
protected space
space where the PDS seeks to prevent smoke entry
3.11
smoke and heat exhaust ventilation system
SHEVS

system in which components are jointly selected to exhaust smoke and heat in order to establish a

buoyant layer of warm gases above cooler, cleaner air
3.12
smoke control

management of the movement of smoke within a building to ensure adequate fire safety

3.13
stack effect
movement of air into and out of buildings, resulting from air buoyancy
3.14
unpressurized space

space adjacent to or separate from the protected space where the pressure and airflow are not

controlled by the PDS
4 Design objectives
4.1 General

The following design objectives are addressed in this document and can be selected to match the

required application
4.2 Protection of means of escape

It is essential that tenable conditions for life safety are maintained in protected spaces for as long as

they are likely to be in use by the building occupants.
4.3 Protection of firefighting routes

To enable firefighting operations to proceed efficiently, protected firefighting access routes shall be

maintained essentially free of smoke so that access to the fire-affected storey can be achieved without

the use of breathing apparatus. The pressure differential system shall be designed so as to limit the

spread of smoke into the dedicated firefighting route under normal firefighting conditions.

4.4 Property protection

The spread of smoke shall be prevented from entering sensitive spaces such as those containing

valuable equipment, data processing and other items that are particularly sensitive to smoke damage.

NOTE The purpose of a pressure differential system, whether used for the protection of means of escape,

firefighting operations or property protection, has a significant influence on the system design and specification. It

is therefore essential that the fire safety objectives are clearly established and agreed with the appropriate

authorities having jurisdiction at an early stage in the design process.
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4.5 Additional functions

If designed accordingly, the PDS may have a secondary function as a ventilation system, provided that it

shall close the ventilation system down and switch to operation specifically as a PDS alone when a

smoke alarm is received.
5 Normative requirements
5.1 General

For this document the PDS will only have to deal with one fire at any one time, following generally

accepted practice. Designs and calculations will reflect this approach to fulfil the normative

requirements of this document.

The PDS shall be designed in such a way, that the PDS can fulfil its function throughout the required

operating time (e.g. 30, 60, 90 min) in accordance with national requirements.

If there is more than one PDS installed in a building, each PDS shall have its own control system. The

failure of any one PDS control system shall not negatively affect any other PDS.

Therefore, in operation, pressure differential and airflow velocity criteria shall only be required to be

met on the fire floor, but it shall be proven that the PDS can meet these requirements on all floors

during acceptance testing, but not necessarily at the same time. It is not acceptable for the PDS to draw

smoke into the protected space.

The PDS shall be triggered automatically by smoke detectors in accordance with EN 54. This may also

be achieved by the PDS receiving smoke signals from a separate fire/smoke detection system. There

shall be at least one single smoke detector on each floor installed on the unprotected side of the door to

the protected space. The smoke detection system may be zoned to cover the whole building. Once the

fire has been detected in a defined place by either smoke detection or a fire detection system, the PDS

shall be activated. Any stray smoke, which may be detected in another place or in the protected space

on another floor shall not change the operation of the PDS.

If there is a smoke detector or fire alarm activation within the protected space (e.g. staircase) before

smoke has been detected on a specific floor, this shall not lead to activation of the PDS.

Any additional signals from smoke detectors or fire detection systems shall be ignored by the PDS.

Early detection is given when smoke detectors are placed in spaces with fire load (e.g. accommodation),

and not in the lobby or corridor, for example. However, if placing smoke detectors in accommodation or

other areas, access for maintenance and testing shall be provided.

Each escape and rescue route, protected by PDS, shall be a stand-alone system (e.g. independent fan,

ductwork, controls).

PDSs for staircases and firefighters lift shafts, connected in one common lobby, are handled as one PDS,

however consideration should be given to the use of separate fans for the staircase and for the

firefighting lift shafts to give easier control and balancing of airflows.

Stack effect, convective airflow, airflow resistance, external wind etc. are amongst other influences

which can adversely affect the function of a PDS and therefore shall be taken into account.

The following parameters are defined for the design and shall be met and confirmed by the acceptance

test on site:
• Maximum door opening force (N);
• Minimum pressure differential (Pa);
• Minimum air flow velocity (m/s);

• Maximum response delay (s) – defined by initiation, operation and response times.

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Table 1 — Design requirements of a PDS
Parameter Class 1 Class 2
Door opening force ≤ 100 N
Pressure differential ≥ 30 Pa
Airflow velocity ≥ 1 m/s ≥ 2 m/s
Initiation time ≤ 60 s
Operation time ≤ 120 s
Response time ≤ 5 s

NOTE Refer to Clause 8 when measuring the normative requirements given in Table 1.

5.2 Application of Class 1 and Class 2
5.2.1 Class 1
Class 1 will be required:

• in buildings with automatic water extinguishing systems that operate in response to

temperatures ≤ 72 °C and response time index ≤ RTI 50; or

• in residential buildings below the high-rise buildings limit (in accordance with national

requirements); or

• in residential buildings, if there are at least two rooms without fire load between the protected

space and the potential fire source and self-closing doors are present; or
• if accepted by authorities having jurisdiction.
5.2.2 Class 2
Class 2 will be required:
• where Class 1 is not sufficient or applicable; or
• in buildings without automatic water extinguishing systems; or
• if require
...

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