Electrochemical realkalization and chloride extraction treatments for reinforced concrete - Part 1: Realkalization

This document specifies a procedure for carrying out impressed current electrochemical realkalization of carbonated reinforced concrete in existing structures. It is applicable to atmospherically exposed parts of structures with ordinary reinforcement embedded in concrete. This document does not apply to concrete containing prestressing steel which can suffer hydrogen embrittlement during realkalization, or to concrete containing epoxy-coated or galvanized reinforcement, or if chloride contamination is contributing to reinforcement corrosion. NOTE In case of post-tensioned prestressing concrete, the endangered tendon strands may be shielded by the tendon ducts from unwanted and/ or exceeded polarization into the cathodic range and respective water reduction. Justification The currently available TS 14038-1 is an important legal cornerstone for the application of non-destructive rehabilitation techniques in concrete maintenance. It addresses smaller structures than car parks (eg. facades, locally carbonation induced corrosion issues), where Cathodic Protection (as described in EN ISO 12696) appears to cause too much long-term effort. As other non-destructive rehabilitation methods the standard helps to preserve the environment by avoiding noisy and dusty concrete replacement.

Elektrochemische Realkalisierung und Chloridextraktionsbehandlungen für Stahlbeton - Teil 1: Realkalisierung

Dieses Dokument legt ein Verfahren zur elektrochemischen Realkalisierung von karbonatisiertem Stahlbeton in bestehenden Bauwerken mittels Fremdstrom fest. Es ist anwendbar auf Teile von Gebäuden mit normaler, in Beton eingebetteter Bewehrung, die der Atmosphäre ausgesetzt sind.
Dieses Dokument ist nicht anwendbar auf Beton mit vorgespannter Bewehrung, die Wasserstoffversprödung infolge der Realkalisierung unterliegen kann, auf Beton mit Bewehrung, die mit Epoxidharz beschichtet oder verzinkt ist oder wenn Chloride zur Korrosion der Bewehrung beitragen.
ANMERKUNG   Im Fall von Spannbeton mit nachträglichem Verbund können gefährdete Spannglieder durch deren Lage im Hüllrohr vor unerwünschter und/oder zu starker kathodische Polarisation und  entsprechender Wasserreduktion geschützt sein.

Réalcalinisation électrochimique et traitements d’extraction des chlorures applicables au béton armé - Partie 1: Réalcalinisation

Le présent document spécifie un mode opératoire pour procéder à la réalcalinisation électrochimique par
courant imposé du béton armé carbonaté dans des structures existantes. Il est applicable à des éléments de
structure exposés au milieu ambiant.
Le présent document ne s’applique ni au béton contenant des aciers de précontrainte qui peuvent subir une
fragilisation due à l’hydrogène lors de la réalcalinisation, ni au béton contenant des armatures revêtues époxy
ou galvanisées ; il ne s’applique pas non plus lorsque la contamination par les chlorures contribue à la
corrosion des armatures.
NOTE Dans le cas du béton précontraint par post-tension, les torons menacés peuvent être protégés par des gaines
contre la polarisation indésirable et/ou excessive dans le domaine cathodique et contre la réduction de l’eau associée.

Elektrokemična realkalizacija in postopki kloridne ekstrakcije za armiran beton - 1. del: Realkalizacija

Ta dokument določa postopek za izvajanje elektrokemične realkalizacije karboniziranega armiranega betona z vzbujalnim tokom v obstoječih konstrukcijah. Uporablja se za ozračju izpostavljene dele konstrukcij z običajno betonsko ojačitvijo. Ta dokument se ne uporablja za beton z vsebnostjo jekla za prednapetje, ki je lahko med realkalizacijo izpostavljeno vodikovi krhkosti, ali beton z vsebnostjo galvanizirane ali z epoksi zaščito prevlečene ojačitve, ali če kontaminacija s kloridom prispeva h koroziji ojačitve. OPOMBA: V primeru naknadnega napetja prednapetega betona lahko ogrožene kabelske žice pred neželeno in/ali prekomerno polarizacijo v katodnem območju ter posledičnim zmanjšanjem vode zaščitijo kabelski vodi. Utemeljitev: tehnična specifikacija TS 14038-1, ki je trenutno na voljo, je pomemben pravni temelj za uporabo neporušitvenih sanacijskih tehnik pri vzdrževanju betona. Obravnava konstrukcije, manjše od parkirišč (npr. fasade, težave s korozijo zaradi lokalne karbonizacije), pri katerih se zdi, da katodna zaščita (kot je opisana v standardu EN ISO 12696) povzroča prekomeren dolgoročni napor. Tako kot druge neporušitvene sanacijske metode tudi ta standard pomaga pri ohranitvi okolja, in sicer s preprečitvijo hrupne in prašne zamenjave betona.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
10-Aug-2014
Publication Date
02-Jun-2016
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
25-May-2016
Due Date
30-Jul-2016
Completion Date
03-Jun-2016

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Elektrochemische Realkalisierung und Chloridextraktionsbehandlungen für Stahlbeton - Teil 1: RealkalisierungRéalcalinisation électrochimique et traitements d’extraction des chlorures applicables au béton armé - Partie 1: RéalcalinisationElectrochemical realkalization and chloride extraction treatments for reinforced concrete - Part 1: Realkalization91.080.40Betonske konstrukcijeConcrete structuresICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 14038-1:2016SIST EN 14038-1:2016en,fr,de01-julij-2016SIST EN 14038-1:2016SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST-TS CEN/TS 14038-1:20051DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 14038-1:2016
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 14038-1
March
t r s x English Version

Electrochemical realkalization and chloride extraction treatments for reinforced concrete æ Part

sã RealkalizationRéalcalinisation électrochimique et traitements d 5extraction des chlorures applicables au béton armé æ Partie

sã Réalcalinisation

Elektrochemische Realkalisierung und Chloridextraktionsbehandlungen für Stahlbeton æ Teil

sã Realkalisierung This European Standard was approved by CEN on
s w January
t r s xä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,
B-1000 Brussels

t r s x CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s v r u zæ sã t r s x ESIST EN 14038-1:2016
EN 14038-1:2016 (E) 2 Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6 3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6 4 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 7 4.1 Quality management systems ..................................................................................................................... 7 4.2 Personnel ........................................................................................................................................................... 7 5 Principle ............................................................................................................................................................. 7 6 Assessment and repair of the structure .................................................................................................. 8 6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8 6.2 Review of records ............................................................................................................................................ 8 6.3 Inspection .......................................................................................................................................................... 8 6.4 Carbonation depth measurement ............................................................................................................. 8 6.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8 6.4.2 Determination of chloride content ........................................................................................................... 8 6.5 Concrete cover thickness and reinforcement location measurements ....................................... 9 6.6 Alkali aggregate reaction ............................................................................................................................. 9 6.7 Reinforcement continuity and size ........................................................................................................... 9 6.8 Repair .................................................................................................................................................................. 9 6.8.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9 6.8.2 Concrete removal ............................................................................................................................................ 9 6.8.3 Reinforcement preparation ........................................................................................................................ 9 7 Materials and apparatus ............................................................................................................................ 10 7.1 Calibration of instrumentation ............................................................................................................... 10 7.2 Anode system ................................................................................................................................................. 10 7.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10 7.2.2 Anode ................................................................................................................................................................ 10 7.2.3 Anode zone ..................................................................................................................................................... 10 7.2.4 Alkaline electrolyte solution .................................................................................................................... 10 7.3 Electric cables ................................................................................................................................................ 10 7.4 Power supply ................................................................................................................................................. 11 8 Installation procedures ............................................................................................................................. 11 8.1 Electrical continuity of reinforcement ................................................................................................. 11 8.2 Performance monitoring ........................................................................................................................... 11 8.3 Installation of anode system .................................................................................................................... 11 8.4 Protection of electrolyte solution .......................................................................................................... 12 8.5 Electrical installation .................................................................................................................................. 12 8.6 Preliminary testing and documentation ............................................................................................. 12 9 Commissioning, operation and termination of treatment ............................................................ 12 9.1 Visual inspection .......................................................................................................................................... 12 SIST EN 14038-1:2016

EN 14038-1:2016 (E) 3 9.2 Energizing and adjustment of current output .................................................................................... 12 9.3 Routine inspection and maintenance .................................................................................................... 12 9.4 Realkalization process monitoring ........................................................................................................ 13 9.5 Termination of treatment .......................................................................................................................... 13 10 Final report ..................................................................................................................................................... 13 11 Post-treatment coating and monitoring ............................................................................................... 14 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 15

SIST EN 14038-1:2016

EN 14038-1:2016 (E) 4 European foreword This document (EN 14038-1:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 219 “Cathodic protection”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2016, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2016. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes CEN/TS 14038-1:2004. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 14038-1:2016

EN 14038-1:2016 (E) 5 Introduction The purpose of realkalization is to provide long-term corrosion protection of steel reinforcement in concrete, which has become carbonated. There are other electrochemical procedures, which can be used to provide corrosion protection of steel in concrete structures. These include cathodic protection and chloride extraction. There are a European Standard for cathodic protection of steel in concrete (EN ISO 12696) and a Technical Specification for electrochemical chloride extraction (CEN/TS 14038-2). The execution of the provisions of this standard should be carried out by appropriately qualified and competent people, for whose use it has been prepared. SIST EN 14038-1:2016

EN 14038-1:2016 (E) 6 1 Scope This European Standard specifies a procedure for carrying out impressed current electrochemical realkalization (ER) of carbonated reinforced concrete in existing structures. It is applicable to atmospherically exposed parts of structures with ordinary reinforcement embedded in concrete. This European Standard does not apply to concrete containing prestressing steel which can suffer hydrogen embrittlement during realkalization, or to concrete containing epoxy-coated or galvanized reinforcement, or if chloride contamination is contributing to reinforcement corrosion. NOTE In case of post-tensioned prestressing concrete, the endangered tendon strands may be shielded by the tendon ducts from unwanted and/ or exceeded polarization into the cathodic range and respective water reduction. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 1504-9, Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures - Definitions, requirements, quality control and evaluation of conformity - Part 9: General principles for the use of products and systems EN 14629, Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures - Test methods - Determination of chloride content in hardened concrete EN 14630, Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures - Test methods - Determination of carbonation depth in hardened concrete by the phenolphthalein method CEN/TS 14038-2, Electrochemical re-alkalization and chloride extraction treatments for rein-forced concrete - Part 2: Chloride extraction EN ISO 8044, Corrosion of metals and alloys - Basic terms and definitions (ISO 8044) EN ISO 12696:2012, Cathodic protection of steel in concrete (ISO 12696:2012) 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 8044 and the following apply. 3.1 realkalization electrochemical treatment for restoring alkalinity to concrete which surrounds reinforcing bars with a high pH pore solution corresponding to sound and non-carbonated concrete SIST EN 14038-1:2016

EN 14038-1:2016 (E) 7 4 General 4.1 Quality management systems The design, the installation, the energising, the commissioning, the long-term operation of all elements of electrochemical realkalization systems for steel in concrete shall be fully documented. NOTE EN ISO 9000 constitutes a suitable Quality Management Systems Standard which can be utilized. Each element of the work shall be undertaken in accordance with a fully documented quality plan. Each stage of the design shall be checked and the checking shall be documented. Each stage of the installation, energising, commissioning and operation shall be the subject of appropriate visual, mechanical and/or electrical testing and all testing shall be documented. All test instrumentation shall have valid calibration certificates traceable to national or European Standards of calibration. The documentation shall constitute part of the permanent records for the works. 4.2 Personnel Each aspect of the ER system design, installation, testing of the installation, energising, commissioning and long-term operational control shall be under the supervision of personnel with appropriate qualification, training, expertise and experience in the particular element of the work for which they are responsible. NOTE

ER of steel in concrete is a specialist multidiscipline activity. Expertise is required in the fields of electrochemistry, concrete technology, civil and/or structural engineering and cathodic protection engineering. Personnel who undertake the design, supervision of installation, commissioning, supervision of operation, measurements, monitoring and supervision of maintenance of cathodic protection systems shall have the appropriate level of competence for the tasks undertaken. EN 15257 constitutes a suitable method of assessing Competence of Cathodic Protection Personnel which may be utilized for ER as well as cathodic protection. Competence of Personnel to the appropriate level for tasks undertaken should be demonstrated by certification in accordance with EN 15257 and suitable experience with ER or by another equivalent prequalification procedure. 5 Principle Realkalization of reinforced concrete is performed by applying an electric field for a limited period of time between the steel reinforcement embedded in the concrete and a temporary anode surrounded by an alkaline electrolyte solution containing carbonate or hydroxyl ions temporarily placed on the concrete surface. NOTE 1 The carbonated area treated by realkalization lies beneath the anode and around the first layer of reinforcement. NOTE 2 Details of the principle underlying this process are given in the European Federation of Corrosion report [1]and in LCP report [7]. Electrolyte solutions of sodium, potassium and lithium may be used. SIST EN 14038-1:2016

EN 14038-1:2016 (E) 8 6 Assessment and repair of the structure 6.1 General Prior to undertaking realkalization, an assessment of the structure, including its physical condition, its structural integrity and the nature and extent of any repairs which might be needed shall be performed in accordance with EN 1504-9. The investigations specified in 6.2 to 6.8 shall be carried out in order to: a) determine the suitability of the structure for realkalization; b) provide information for design. 6.2 Review of records All available drawings, specifications, records and notes shall be reviewed for information on the location, quantity, nature (e.g. mild or high strength steel, smooth or deformed bar, galvanized, epoxy-coated) and continuity of the reinforcement, as well as the constituents and quality of the concrete. The possible sensitivity to reduction of bond strength should be evaluated in

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