Exposure to electric or magnetic fields in the low and intermediate frequency range - Methods for calculating the current density and internal electric field induced in the human body -- Part 1: General

Provides means for demonstrating compliance with the basic restrictions on human exposure to low and intermediate frequency electric and magnetic fields specified in exposure standards or guidelines such as those produced by IEEE and ICNIRP. The object of EN 62226 is - to propose a more realistic approach to the modelling of the human exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields, using a set of models of growing complexity for the field emission source, or the human body or both; - to propose standardised values for the electrical parameters of organs in human body: electrical conductivity and permittivity and their variation with the frequency. The present basic standard does not aim at replacing the definitions and procedures specified in exposure standards or guidelines, such as those produced by IEEE or ICNIRP, but aims at providing additional procedures with a view to allowing compliance assessment with these documents. The present basic standard provides means for demonstrating compliance with the basic restrictions without having to go to the sophisticated models. Nevertheless, when the exposure conditions are well characterized (such as in product standards, for example) and when results from such models are available, they can be used for demonstrating compliance with EMF standards or guidelines.

Sicherheit in elektrischen oder magnetischen Feldern im niedrigen und mittleren Frequenzbereich - Verfahren zur Berechnung der induzierten Körperstromdichte und des im menschlichen Körper induzierten elektrischen Feldes -- Teil 1: Allgemeines

Exposition aux champs électriques ou magnétiques à basse et moyenne fréquence - Méthodes de calcul des densités de courant induit et des champs électriques induits dans le corps humain -- Partie 1: Généralités

Fournit les moyens pour démontrer la conformité avec les restrictions de base de l'exposition humaine aux champs électriques et magnétiques à basse et moyenne fréquence spécifiées dans les normes et guides d'exposition tels que ceux produits par l'IEEE et l'ICNIRP. Le but de la série EN 62226 est de - proposer une approche plus réaliste de la modélisation de l'exposition humaine aux champs électriques et magnétiques à basse fréquence, en utilisant un jeu de modèles de complexité croissante pour les sources d'émission de champ, ou pour le corps humain, ou pour les deux; - proposer des valeurs normalisées pour les paramètres électriques des organes du corps humain: conductivité électrique et permittivité et leurs variations en fonction de la fréquence. La présente norme de base n'a pas pour objet de remplacer les définitions et procédures spécifiés dans les normes et guides d'exposition aux champs électromagnétiques comme ceux produits par l'IEEE ou l'ICNIRP, mais de fournir des procédures complémentaires destinées à permettre d'attester de la conformité avec ces documents. La présente norme de base fournit les moyens pour démontrer la conformité avec les restrictions de base sans avoir à utiliser des modèles sophistiqués. Toutefois, quand les conditions d'exposition sont bien caractérisées (comme dans une norme de produit par exemple) et quand des résultats issus de tels modèles sont disponibles, ils peuvent être utilisés pour démontrer la conformité aux normes et guides d'exposition aux champs électromagnétiques.

Izpostavljenost električnim in magnetnim poljem v nizkem in srednjem frekvenčnem obsegu – Metode za izračunavanje trenutne gostote in notranjega induciranega električnega polja v človeškem telesu – 1. del: Splošno

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
31-May-2005
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Jun-2005
Due Date
01-Jun-2005
Completion Date
01-Jun-2005

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SLOVENSKI SIST EN 62226-1:2005
STANDARD
junij 2005
Izpostavljenost električnim in magnetnim poljem v nizkem in srednjem
frekvenčnem obsegu – Metode za izračunavanje trenutne gostote in
notranjega induciranega električnega polja v človeškem telesu – 1. del:
Splošno

Exposure to electric or magnetic fields in the low and intermediate frequency range –

Methods for calculating the current density and internal electric field induced in the

human body – Part 1: General
ICS 13.280; 17.220.20 Referenčna številka
SIST EN 62226-1:2005(en)

© Standard je založil in izdal Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje ali kopiranje celote ali delov tega dokumenta ni dovoljeno

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 62226-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM March 2005
ICS 17.220.20
English version
Exposure to electric or magnetic fields
in the low and intermediate frequency range –
Methods for calculating the current density
and internal electric field induced in the human body
Part 1: General
(IEC 62226-1:2004)
Exposition aux champs électriques Sicherheit in elektrischen oder
ou magnétiques à basse et moyenne magnetischen Feldern im niedrigen
fréquence – und mittleren Frequenzbereich -
Méthodes de calcul des densités Verfahren zur Berechnung der induzierten
de courant induit et des champs Körperstromdichte und des im
électriques induits dans le corps humain menschlichen Körper induzierten
Partie 1: Généralités elektrischen Feldes
(CEI 62226-1:2004) Teil 1: Allgemeines
(IEC 62226-1:2004)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2005-02-01. CENELEC members are bound to

comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and

notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland and United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2005 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 62226-1:2005 E
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 62226-1:2005 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 106/78/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 62226-1, prepared by IEC TC 106, Methods

for the assessment of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with human exposure,

was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by CENELEC as EN 62226-1 on

2005-02-01.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2005-11-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2008-02-01
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62226-1:2004 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

CISPR 11 NOTE Harmonized in EN 55011 series (modified).
CISPR 14 NOTE Harmonized in EN 55014 series (not modified).
CISPR 16 NOTE Harmonized in EN 55016 series (not modified).
__________
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
NORME CEI
INTERNATIONALE IEC
62226-1
INTERNATIONAL
Première édition
STANDARD
First edition
2004-11
Exposition aux champs électriques ou
magnétiques à basse et moyenne fréquence –
Méthodes de calcul des densités de courant induit
et des champs électriques induits dans le
corps humain –
Partie 1:
Généralités
Exposure to electric or magnetic fields
in the low and intermediate frequency range –
Methods for calculating the current density
and internal electric field induced in
the human body –
Part 1:
General
© IEC 2004 Droits de reproduction réservés ⎯ Copyright - all rights reserved

Aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any

utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including

électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie et les photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'éditeur. the publisher.

International Electrotechnical Commission, 3, rue de Varembé, PO Box 131, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland

Telephone: +41 22 919 02 11 Telefax: +41 22 919 03 00 E-mail: inmail@iec.ch Web: www.iec.ch

CODE PRIX
PRICE CODE N
Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
International Electrotechnical Commission
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Pour prix, voir catalogue en vigueur
For price, see current catalogue
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
62226-1 © IEC:2004 – 3 –
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................5

INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................9

1 Scope.............................................................................................................................11

2 General data on electromagnetic fields and human exposure .........................................11

2.1 General.................................................................................................................11

2.2 Electric field..........................................................................................................13

2.3 Magnetic field........................................................................................................13

3 Terms and definitions, symbols and abbreviations ..........................................................15

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................15

3.2 Physical quantities and units .................................................................................21

3.3 Physical constants................................................................................................23

4 General procedure for assessing compliance with safety limits.......................................23

Bibliography..........................................................................................................................25

Figure 1 – Overview of different methods for assessing compliance with exposure limits .....23

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62226-1 © IEC:2004 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
EXPOSURE TO ELECTRIC OR MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE LOW
AND INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCY RANGE –
METHODS FOR CALCULATING THE CURRENT DENSITY
AND INTERNAL ELECTRIC FIELD INDUCED IN THE HUMAN BODY –
Part 1: General
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62226 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 106:

Methods for the assessment of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with

human exposure.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
106/78/FDIS 106/82/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
62226-1 © IEC:2004 – 7 –

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

This International Standard constitutes Part 1 of the IEC 62226 series, which will regroup

several international standards and technical reports within the framework of the calculation

of induced current densities and internal electric fields, and will be published under the

general title Exposure to electric or magnetic fields in the low and intermediate frequency

range - Methods for calculating the current density and internal electric field induced in the

human body.
This series is planned to be published according to the following structure:
Part 1: General
Part 2: Exposure to magnetic fields
Part 2-1 : 2D models
Part 2-2 : 3D models
Part 2-3 : Guidelines for practical use of coupling factors
Part 3: Exposure to electric fields
Part 3-1: Analytical and 2D numerical models
Part 3-2: 3D numerical models
Part 4: Electrical parameters of human living tissues (Technical Report)

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in

the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed;
• withdrawn;
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
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62226-1 © IEC:2004 – 9 –
INTRODUCTION

Public interest concerning human exposure to electric and magnetic fields has led

international and national organisations to propose limits based on recognised adverse

effects.

This standard applies to the frequency range for which the exposure limits are based on the

induction of voltages or currents in human body, when exposed to electric and magnetic

fields. This frequency range covers the low and intermediate frequencies, up to 100 kHz.

Some methods described in this standard can be used at higher frequencies under specific

conditions.
The exposure limits based on biological and medical experimentation about these

fundamental induction phenomena are usually called “basic restrictions”. They include safety

factors.

The induced electrical quantities are not directly measurable, so simplified derived limits are

also proposed. These limits, called “reference levels”, are given in terms of external electric

and magnetic fields. They are based on very simple models of coupling between external

fields and the body. These derived limits are conservative.

Sophisticated models for calculating induced currents in the body have been used and are the

subject of a number of scientific publications. These use numerical 3D electromagnetic field

computation codes and detailed models of the internal structure with specific electrical

characteristics of each tissue within the body. However such models are still developing; the

electrical conductivity data available at present has considerable shortcomings; and the

spatial resolution of models is still advancing. Such models are therefore still considered to be

in the field of scientific research and at present it is not considered that the results obtained

from such models should be fixed indefinitely within standards. However it is recognised that

such models can and do make a useful contribution to the standardisation process, especially

for product standards in which particular cases of exposure are considered. When results

from such models are used in standards, the results should be reviewed from time to time to

ensure they continue to reflect the current status of the science.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
62226-1 © IEC:2004 – 11 –
EXPOSURE TO ELECTRIC OR MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE LOW
AND INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCY RANGE –
METHODS FOR CALCULATING THE CURRENT DENSITY
AND INTERNAL ELECTRIC FIELD INDUCED IN THE HUMAN BODY –
Part 1: General
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62226 provides means for demonstrating compliance with the basic

restrictions on human exposure to low and intermediate frequency electric and magnetic fields

specified in exposure standards or guidelines such as those produced by IEEE and ICNIRP.

The object of IEC 62226 is

– to propose a more realistic approach to the modelling of the human exposure to low

frequency electric and magnetic fields, using a set of models of growing complexity for the

field emission source, or the human body or both;

– to propose standardised values for the electrical parameters of organs in human body:

electrical conductivity and permittivity and their variation with the frequency.

The present basic standard does not aim at replacing the definitions and procedures specified

in exposure standards or guidelines, such as those produced by IEEE or ICNIRP, but aims at

providing additional procedures with a view to allowing compliance assessment with these

documents.

The present basic standard provides means for demonstrating compliance with the basic

restrictions without having to go to the sophisticated models. Nevertheless, when the

exposure conditions are well characterized (such as in product standards, for example) and

when results from such models are available, they can be used for demonstrating compliance

with EMF standards or guidelines.

NOTE 1 Examples of use of such sophisticated models can be found in the IEC Trend Technology Assessment

[2] .
NOTE 2 References to the scientific literature are given in the bibliography.
2 General data on electromagnetic fields and human exposure
2.1 General

The total field emitted by any electrical device when operating is composed of the electric

field and the magnetic field and is called the electromagnetic field. It is characterised by its

frequency f or its wavelength λ, which is the ratio of the velocity of light in vacuum (c), divided

by its frequency: λ = c/f.
———————
Figures in square brackets refer to the Bibliography
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62226-1 © IEC:2004 – 13 –
Where the wavelength is large compared with
– the distance of the individual from the equipment, and
– the size of the individual,

the exposure to the fields is defined as “near field exposure“. Under these conditions, electric

and magnetic fields are independent and can be studied separately. In practice this is valid

for the range of frequencies covered by this standard.
2.2 Electric field

Electric fields cause displacement of electric charges in conductive objects (including living

bodies) and, because these fields are alternating, the electric charges move to and from. The

result is an “induced” alternating current, and related induced electric field, inside the

conductive object.

It is important to note that, for an object of uniform conductivity, to a very large degree, this

current is independent of whether the object is a good or a poor conductor of electricity. By

contrast, the associated induced electric field strongly depends on the electrical conductivity

of the body.
The current induced by an electric field depends on
– the shape and size of the conducting object;

– the characteristics (magnitude, polarisation, degree of non uniformity, etc.) of the

unperturbed field (see definition 3.1.19);
– the frequency of the field.

The induced alternating current would also depend on whether the body is in electrical contact

with the ground and on the presence of other conducting bodies nearby.
2.3 Magnetic field

Alternating magnetic fields create alternating electric fields and associated currents in

conductive media. These currents are called eddy currents. Because living tissues are

electrically conducting, induction also occurs in the human body.
The current induc
...

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