Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 1: Overview and material properties and applications

The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 1: Übersicht und Materialeigenschaften und Anwendungen

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 1: Vue d’ensemble, propriétés des matériaux et applications

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 1. del: Pregled in lastnosti materialov ter aplikacije

Priročnik o strukturnih materialih, SMH, združuje informacije o materialih in oblikovanju uveljavljenih polimernih matričnih kompozitov z začasnimi informacijami o nastajajočih skupinah novejših naprednih materialov in njihovih kompozitov. Opisani so vidiki oblikovanja, skupaj z dejavniki združevanja in proizvodnje. Kjer je mogoče, so podani primeri ali študije primerov.
Priročnik o strukturnih materialih vsebuje 8 delov.
Slovar izrazov, opredelitve in okrajšave izrazov za te priročnike so v 8. delu.
Deli so:
1. del: Pregled in lastnosti materialov ter aplikacije                    Točke 1–9
2. del: Metode za izračun zasnove in splošni vidiki zasnove    Točke 10–22
3. del: Prenos obremenitve ter projektiranje spojev in konstrukcij    Točke 23–32
4. del: Nadzor integritete, smernice za preverjanje in proizvodnja    Točke 33–45
5. del: Novi napredni materiali, napredni kovinski materiali, splošni konstrukcijski vidiki ter prenos obremenitve in oblikovanje sklepov    Točke 46–63
6. del: Modeliranje zlomov in materialov, študije primerov, načrtovanje in nadzor integritete ter inšpekcijski pregled    Točke 64–81
7. del: Toplotna in okoljska celovitost, proizvodni vidiki, spremljanje stanja materialov v orbiti, mehki materiali, hibridni materiali in nanotehnologije   Točke 82–107
8. del: Slovar   
OPOMBA: Teh 8 delov je označenih s številkami od TR17603-32-01 do TR 17603-32-08.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
20-Oct-2021
Publication Date
09-Feb-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
31-Jan-2022
Due Date
07-Apr-2022
Completion Date
10-Feb-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-01:2022
01-marec-2022

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 1. del: Pregled in lastnosti

materialov ter aplikacije

Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 1: Overview and material

properties and applications
Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 1: Übersicht und
Materialeigenschaften und Anwendungen

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 1: Vue d’ensemble,

propriétés des matériaux et applications
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17603-32-01:2022
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-01:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-01:2022
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17603-32-01:2022
TECHNICAL REPORT CEN/TR 17603-32-01
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
January 2022
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part
1: Overview and material properties and applications

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der

- Partie 1: Vue d'ensemble, propriétés des matériaux et Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 1: Übersicht und

applications Materialeigenschaften und Anwendungen

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 22 November 2021. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2022 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means
Ref. No. CEN/TR 17603-32-01:2022 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................. 32

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 33

1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 34

1.1 Scope ..................................................................................................................... 34

1.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 34

1.1.2 Polymer composites .................................................................................. 34

1.1.3 Advanced materials ................................................................................... 34

1.2 Polymer-based composites ..................................................................................... 35

1.2.1 Background ............................................................................................... 35

1.2.2 European space industry perspective........................................................ 41

1.3 Metal and ceramic-based composites ..................................................................... 42

1.3.1 Background ............................................................................................... 42

1.3.2 Materials technology ................................................................................. 42

1.4 Structural materials ................................................................................................. 47

1.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 47

1.4.2 Materials ................................................................................................... 47

1.4.3 Composite terminology ............................................................................. 49

1.4.4 Simultaneous material and part manufacturing ......................................... 49

1.4.5 Case studies and examples ...................................................................... 50

1.5 References ............................................................................................................. 50

1.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 50

1.5.2 ECSS documents ...................................................................................... 51

2 Material characteristics and selection ................................................................ 52

2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 52

2.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 52

2.1.2 Material availability .................................................................................... 52

2.2 Basic features of composite materials for space use .............................................. 52

2.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 52

2.2.2 Types of composites ................................................................................. 53

2.3 Reinforcement fibres ............................................................................................... 53

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2.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 53

2.3.2 Carbon fibres for CFRP ............................................................................. 53

2.3.3 Aramid fibres for ARP ............................................................................... 54

2.3.4 Glass fibres ............................................................................................... 55

2.4 Matrix systems ........................................................................................................ 56

2.4.1 Epoxy resins ............................................................................................. 56

2.4.2 Cyanate esters .......................................................................................... 56

2.4.3 Other thermosetting resins ........................................................................ 57

2.4.4 Thermoplastic matrix ................................................................................. 57

2.4.5 Non-polymer matrix ................................................................................... 57

2.5 Common fibre, prepreg and resin systems ............................................................. 58

2.5.1 Commercial products ................................................................................ 58

2.5.2 Prepreg ..................................................................................................... 59

2.5.3 Manufacturing aspects .............................................................................. 59

2.6 Triaxial woven fabric ............................................................................................... 61

2.6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 61

2.6.2 TWF weave ............................................................................................... 61

2.7 References ............................................................................................................. 63

2.7.1 General ..................................................................................................... 63

3 Materials data for laminate design ...................................................................... 64

3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 64

3.2 Polymer matrices .................................................................................................... 64

3.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 64

3.2.2 Epoxy: Mechanical properties ................................................................... 64

3.3 Reinforcement fibres ............................................................................................... 68

3.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 68

3.3.2 Carbon fibres ............................................................................................ 68

3.3.3 Mechanical properties ............................................................................... 70

3.3.4 Thermal properties .................................................................................... 72

3.3.5 Composite manufacturing aspects ............................................................ 72

3.4 Woven cloths and fabrics ........................................................................................ 74

3.5 Weave types ........................................................................................................... 74

3.6 Areal weight ............................................................................................................ 75

3.7 Warp and weft characteristics ................................................................................. 75

3.8 Single and unidirectional composite plies ............................................................... 76

3.9 Design allowables ................................................................................................... 82

3.9.1 General ..................................................................................................... 82

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3.9.2 Notation for design allowable data ............................................................ 83

3.9.3 Unidirectional carbon HT composite .......................................................... 84

3.9.4 Unidirectional carbon HM composite ......................................................... 87

3.9.5 Unidirectional glass composite .................................................................. 90

3.9.6 Single ply fabric carbon HT composite ...................................................... 91

3.9.7 Single ply fabric aramid composite ............................................................ 93

3.10 References ............................................................................................................. 94

3.10.1 General ..................................................................................................... 94

3.10.2 Sources ..................................................................................................... 95

4 Laminate mechanical properties ......................................................................... 96

4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 96

4.2 Load - strain curves ................................................................................................ 96

4.3 Effects of elevated temperature .............................................................................. 98

4.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 98

4.3.2 Carbon/epoxy composites ......................................................................... 98

4.3.3 Aramid/epoxy composite ......................................................................... 102

4.4 Effects of low and cryogenic temperatures ........................................................... 103

4.4.1 Material properties variation .................................................................... 103

4.4.2 Modification to failure criteria ................................................................... 103

4.4.3 Carbon/epoxy composites ....................................................................... 103

4.4.4 Aramid/epoxy composites ....................................................................... 125

4.4.5 Glass/epoxy composites ......................................................................... 126

4.5 Moisture (hygrothermal) effects ............................................................................ 136

4.5.1 Effects of hygrothermal environment ....................................................... 136

4.5.2 Moisture effects on carbon fibre composites ........................................... 137

4.5.3 Carbon/epoxy composites ....................................................................... 139

4.5.4 Aramid/epoxy composites ....................................................................... 143

4.6 Influence of stress concentrations ......................................................................... 148

4.6.1 General ................................................................................................... 148

4.6.2 Carbon/epoxy composites ....................................................................... 149

4.7 Effects of fatigue loading....................................................................................... 152

4.7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 152

4.7.2 General damage mechanisms ................................................................ 152

4.7.3 Effect of lay-up ........................................................................................ 155

4.7.4 Effects of type of loading ......................................................................... 158

4.7.5 Effects of hygrothermal environment ....................................................... 159

4.7.6 Effects of central holes ............................................................................ 163

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4.8 References ........................................................................................................... 166

4.8.1 General ................................................................................................... 166

5 Specialist properties of composites ................................................................. 168

5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 168

5.2 Outgassing and offgassing ................................................................................... 168

5.2.1 General ................................................................................................... 168

5.2.2 Materials with satisfactory outgassing characteristics .............................. 169

5.3 Thermal expansion ............................................................................................... 170

5.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 170

5.3.2 CTE data on the constituents of composite materials .............................. 170

5.3.3 CTE data on unidirectional composites ................................................... 173

5.4 Damping properties .............................................................................................. 173

5.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 173

5.4.2 Analytical notation ................................................................................... 174

5.5 Damping: unidirectional composites ..................................................................... 175

5.5.1 Carbon/epoxy .......................................................................................... 175

5.5.2 Glass/epoxy ............................................................................................ 178

5.5.3 Aramid/epoxy .......................................................................................... 180

5.6 Damping: multidirectional composites ................................................................... 180

5.6.1 Carbon/epoxy .......................................................................................... 180

5.6.2 Glass/epoxy ............................................................................................ 189

5.6.3 Aramid/epoxy .......................................................................................... 194

5.7 Radiation effects ................................................................................................... 194

5.7.1 Aramid composites .................................................................................. 194

5.8 Radio frequency transparency .............................................................................. 195

5.8.1 General ................................................................................................... 195

5.8.2 Aramid composites .................................................................................. 195

5.9 Thermal conductivity ............................................................................................. 196

5.9.1 General ................................................................................................... 196

5.9.2 Materials ................................................................................................. 196

5.10 References ........................................................................................................... 197

5.10.1 General ................................................................................................... 197

5.10.2 Sources ................................................................................................... 200

5.10.3 ECSS documents .................................................................................... 200

6 Options in polymer composites ........................................................................ 201

6.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 201

6.2 New and development reinforcement fibres .......................................................... 201

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6.2.1 Types of new fibres ................................................................................. 201

6.3 Polyethylene fibres ............................................................................................... 204

6.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 204

6.3.2 Fibre characteristics ................................................................................ 204

6.3.3 Fibre applications .................................................................................... 205

6.3.4 Composite development ......................................................................... 205

6.3.5 Potential space applications .................................................................... 206

6.4 Ceramic and refractory fibres ................................................................................ 206

6.5 Characteristics of bismaleimide composites.......................................................... 207

6.5.1 Characteristics ........................................................................................ 207

6.6 Bismaleimide resins .............................................................................................. 208

6.6.1 Resin chemistry ...................................................................................... 208

6.6.2 Commercial resin systems ...................................................................... 208

6.6.3 Toughened bismaleimide systems .......................................................... 208

6.6.4 Cured neat resin properties ..................................................................... 210

6.7 Fibres for bismaleimide composites ...................................................................... 210

6.8 Bismaleimide composites ..................................................................................... 211

6.8.1 Basic materials data for laminate design ................................................. 211

6.8.2 Single composite plies ............................................................................ 212

6.8.3 Unidirectional composites ....................................................................... 213

6.8.4 Quasi-isotropic laminates ........................................................................ 214

6.9 Typical properties of bismaleimide composites ..................................................... 217

6.9.1 Elevated temperature hygrothermal stability............................................ 217

6.9.2 Toughness .............................................................................................. 221

6.9.3 Microcracking .......................................................................................... 222

6.9.4 HERMES development programme ........................................................ 223

6.10 Manufacture of bismaleimide composites ............................................................. 224

6.10.1 Product forms .......................................................................................... 224

6.10.2 Autoclave ................................................................................................ 224

6.11 Characteristics of polyimide-based composites .................................................... 226

6.11.1 Characteristics ........................................................................................ 226

6.11.2 Potential applications .............................................................................. 226

6.12 Polyimide resins ................................................................................................... 227

6.12.1 General ................................................................................................... 227

6.12.2 Resin chemistry ...................................................................................... 227

6.12.3 Commercial resin systems ...................................................................... 228

6.12.4 Cure reaction .......................................................................................... 229

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6.12.5 Manufacturing techniques ....................................................................... 229

6.13 Fibres for polyimide composites ............................................................................ 232

6.13.1 General ................................................................................................... 232

6.13.2 Carbon fibres .......................................................................................... 232

6.13.3 Aramid fibres ........................................................................................... 234

6.14 Polyimide composites ........................................................................................... 234

6.14.1 Basic materials data for laminate design ................................................. 234

6.14.2 Unidirectional .......................................................................................... 234

6.14.3 Bidirectional ............................................................................................ 236

6.15 Typical properties of polyimide composites ........................................................... 237

6.15.1 Effects of elevated temperatures ............................................................. 237

6.15.2 Coefficient of thermal expansion ............................................................. 246

6.15.3 HERMES development programme ........................................................ 246

6.16 Characteristics of thermoplastic-based composites .............................................. 248

6.16.1 General ................................................................................................... 248

6.16.2 Characteristics ........................................................................................ 248

6.17 Thermoplastic matrix materials ............................................................................. 249

6.17.1 General ................................................................................................... 249

6.17.2 Chemistry ................................................................................................ 249

6.17.3 Influence of processing conditions .......................................................... 250

6.17.4 Commercial thermoplastic matrix ............................................................ 255

6.17.5 Polymer forms ......................................................................................... 257

6.18 Fibres for thermoplastic composites ..................................................................... 258

6.18.1 General ................................................................................................... 258

6.18.2 Prepreg ................................................................................................... 259

6.18.3 Mixtures .................................................................................................. 259

6.19 Thermoplastic matrix composites .......................................................................... 260

6.20 Typical properties of thermoplastic composites ..................................................... 261

6.20.1 Effects of elevated temperatures ............................................................. 261

6.20.2 Effects at low and cryogenic temperatures .............................................. 266

6.20.3 Moisture (hygrothermal) effects ............................................................... 266

6.20.4 Influence of stress concentrations ........................................................... 269

6.20.5 Impact resistance .................................................................................... 269

6.21 Specialist properties of thermoplastic composites ................................................. 269

6.21.1 Outgassing and offgassing characteristics .............................................. 269

6.21.2 Thermal expansion characteristics .......................................................... 270

6.21.3 Thermal cycling ....................................................................................... 270

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6.21.4 Damping properties ................................................................................. 270

6.21.5 Radiation effects ..................................................................................... 271

6.22 Thermoplastic composites test methods and standards ........................................ 272

6.22.1 Standard procedures ............................................................................... 272

6.22.2 Matrix characterisation ............................................................................ 276

6.23 General design aspects of thermoplastic composites ........................................... 279

6.23.1 Adequate design ..................................................................................... 279

6.23.2 Residual stresses .................................................................................... 279

6.23.3 Effect of manufacturing practices on material properties ......................... 279

6.23.4 Manufacturing faults and damage tolerance ............................................ 280

6.24 Joints in thermoplastic composites ....................................................................... 285

6.24.1 Bonded joints .......................................................................................... 285

6.24.2 Mechanically fastened ............................................................................. 288

6.25 Manufacture of thermoplastic composites ............................................................. 288

6.25.1 General ................................................................................................... 288

6.25.2 Prepreg and laminates ............................................................................ 290

6.25.3 Mixture products ..................................................................................... 290

6.26 Fabrication techniques for thermoplastic composites ............................................ 290

6.26.1 Choice of fabrication method ....................
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-01:2021
01-oktober-2021

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o strukturnih materialih - 1. del: Pregled in lastnosti

materialov ter aplikacije

Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part 1: Overview and material

properties and applications
Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 1: Übersicht und
Materialeigenschaften und Anwendungen

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux - Partie 1: Vue d’ensemble,

propriétés des matériaux et applications
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TR 17603-32-01
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-01:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-01:2021
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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17603-32-01:2021
TECHNICAL REPORT
FINAL DRAFT
FprCEN/TR 17603-32-01
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
July 2021
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Structural materials handbook - Part
1: Overview and material properties and applications

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel des matériaux structuraux Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch der

- Partie 1: Vue d'ensemble, propriétés des matériaux et Konstruktionswerkstoffe - Teil 1: Übersicht und

applications Materialeigenschaften und Anwendungen

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. FprCEN/TR 17603-32-01:2021 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................. 32

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 33

1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 34

1.1 Scope ..................................................................................................................... 34

1.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 34

1.1.2 Polymer composites .................................................................................. 34

1.1.3 Advanced materials ................................................................................... 34

1.2 Polymer-based composites ..................................................................................... 35

1.2.1 Background ............................................................................................... 35

1.2.2 European space industry perspective........................................................ 41

1.3 Metal and ceramic-based composites ..................................................................... 42

1.3.1 Background ............................................................................................... 42

1.3.2 Materials technology ................................................................................. 42

1.4 Structural materials ................................................................................................. 47

1.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 47

1.4.2 Materials ................................................................................................... 47

1.4.3 Composite terminology ............................................................................. 49

1.4.4 Simultaneous material and part manufacturing ......................................... 49

1.4.5 Case studies and examples ...................................................................... 50

1.5 References ............................................................................................................. 50

1.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 50

1.5.2 ECSS documents ...................................................................................... 51

2 Material characteristics and selection ................................................................ 52

2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 52

2.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 52

2.1.2 Material availability .................................................................................... 52

2.2 Basic features of composite materials for space use .............................................. 52

2.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 52

2.2.2 Types of composites ................................................................................. 53

2.3 Reinforcement fibres ............................................................................................... 53

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2.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 53

2.3.2 Carbon fibres for CFRP ............................................................................. 53

2.3.3 Aramid fibres for ARP ............................................................................... 54

2.3.4 Glass fibres ............................................................................................... 55

2.4 Matrix systems ........................................................................................................ 56

2.4.1 Epoxy resins ............................................................................................. 56

2.4.2 Cyanate esters .......................................................................................... 56

2.4.3 Other thermosetting resins ........................................................................ 57

2.4.4 Thermoplastic matrix ................................................................................. 57

2.4.5 Non-polymer matrix ................................................................................... 57

2.5 Common fibre, prepreg and resin systems ............................................................. 58

2.5.1 Commercial products ................................................................................ 58

2.5.2 Prepreg ..................................................................................................... 59

2.5.3 Manufacturing aspects .............................................................................. 59

2.6 Triaxial woven fabric ............................................................................................... 61

2.6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 61

2.6.2 TWF weave ............................................................................................... 61

2.7 References ............................................................................................................. 63

2.7.1 General ..................................................................................................... 63

3 Materials data for laminate design ...................................................................... 64

3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 64

3.2 Polymer matrices .................................................................................................... 64

3.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 64

3.2.2 Epoxy: Mechanical properties ................................................................... 64

3.3 Reinforcement fibres ............................................................................................... 68

3.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 68

3.3.2 Carbon fibres ............................................................................................ 68

3.3.3 Mechanical properties ............................................................................... 70

3.3.4 Thermal properties .................................................................................... 72

3.3.5 Composite manufacturing aspects ............................................................ 72

3.4 Woven cloths and fabrics ........................................................................................ 74

3.5 Weave types ........................................................................................................... 74

3.6 Areal weight ............................................................................................................ 75

3.7 Warp and weft characteristics ................................................................................. 75

3.8 Single and unidirectional composite plies ............................................................... 76

3.9 Design allowables ................................................................................................... 82

3.9.1 General ..................................................................................................... 82

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3.9.2 Notation for design allowable data ............................................................ 83

3.9.3 Unidirectional carbon HT composite .......................................................... 84

3.9.4 Unidirectional carbon HM composite ......................................................... 87

3.9.5 Unidirectional glass composite .................................................................. 90

3.9.6 Single ply fabric carbon HT composite ...................................................... 91

3.9.7 Single ply fabric aramid composite ............................................................ 93

3.10 References ............................................................................................................. 94

3.10.1 General ..................................................................................................... 94

3.10.2 Sources ..................................................................................................... 95

4 Laminate mechanical properties ......................................................................... 96

4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 96

4.2 Load - strain curves ................................................................................................ 96

4.3 Effects of elevated temperature .............................................................................. 98

4.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 98

4.3.2 Carbon/epoxy composites ......................................................................... 98

4.3.3 Aramid/epoxy composite ......................................................................... 102

4.4 Effects of low and cryogenic temperatures ........................................................... 103

4.4.1 Material properties variation .................................................................... 103

4.4.2 Modification to failure criteria ................................................................... 103

4.4.3 Carbon/epoxy composites ....................................................................... 103

4.4.4 Aramid/epoxy composites ....................................................................... 125

4.4.5 Glass/epoxy composites ......................................................................... 126

4.5 Moisture (hygrothermal) effects ............................................................................ 136

4.5.1 Effects of hygrothermal environment ....................................................... 136

4.5.2 Moisture effects on carbon fibre composites ........................................... 137

4.5.3 Carbon/epoxy composites ....................................................................... 139

4.5.4 Aramid/epoxy composites ....................................................................... 143

4.6 Influence of stress concentrations ......................................................................... 148

4.6.1 General ................................................................................................... 148

4.6.2 Carbon/epoxy composites ....................................................................... 149

4.7 Effects of fatigue loading....................................................................................... 152

4.7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 152

4.7.2 General damage mechanisms ................................................................ 152

4.7.3 Effect of lay-up ........................................................................................ 155

4.7.4 Effects of type of loading ......................................................................... 158

4.7.5 Effects of hygrothermal environment ....................................................... 159

4.7.6 Effects of central holes ............................................................................ 163

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4.8 References ........................................................................................................... 166

4.8.1 General ................................................................................................... 166

5 Specialist properties of composites ................................................................. 168

5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 168

5.2 Outgassing and offgassing ................................................................................... 168

5.2.1 General ................................................................................................... 168

5.2.2 Materials with satisfactory outgassing characteristics .............................. 169

5.3 Thermal expansion ............................................................................................... 170

5.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 170

5.3.2 CTE data on the constituents of composite materials .............................. 170

5.3.3 CTE data on unidirectional composites ................................................... 173

5.4 Damping properties .............................................................................................. 173

5.4.1 General ................................................................................................... 173

5.4.2 Analytical notation ................................................................................... 174

5.5 Damping: unidirectional composites ..................................................................... 175

5.5.1 Carbon/epoxy .......................................................................................... 175

5.5.2 Glass/epoxy ............................................................................................ 178

5.5.3 Aramid/epoxy .......................................................................................... 180

5.6 Damping: multidirectional composites ................................................................... 180

5.6.1 Carbon/epoxy .......................................................................................... 180

5.6.2 Glass/epoxy ............................................................................................ 189

5.6.3 Aramid/epoxy .......................................................................................... 194

5.7 Radiation effects ................................................................................................... 194

5.7.1 Aramid composites .................................................................................. 194

5.8 Radio frequency transparency .............................................................................. 195

5.8.1 General ................................................................................................... 195

5.8.2 Aramid composites .................................................................................. 195

5.9 Thermal conductivity ............................................................................................. 196

5.9.1 General ................................................................................................... 196

5.9.2 Materials ................................................................................................. 196

5.10 References ........................................................................................................... 197

5.10.1 General ................................................................................................... 197

5.10.2 Sources ................................................................................................... 200

5.10.3 ECSS documents .................................................................................... 200

6 Options in polymer composites ........................................................................ 201

6.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 201

6.2 New and development reinforcement fibres .......................................................... 201

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6.2.1 Types of new fibres ................................................................................. 201

6.3 Polyethylene fibres ............................................................................................... 204

6.3.1 General ................................................................................................... 204

6.3.2 Fibre characteristics ................................................................................ 204

6.3.3 Fibre applications .................................................................................... 205

6.3.4 Composite development ......................................................................... 205

6.3.5 Potential space applications .................................................................... 206

6.4 Ceramic and refractory fibres ................................................................................ 206

6.5 Characteristics of bismaleimide composites.......................................................... 207

6.5.1 Characteristics ........................................................................................ 207

6.6 Bismaleimide resins .............................................................................................. 208

6.6.1 Resin chemistry ...................................................................................... 208

6.6.2 Commercial resin systems ...................................................................... 208

6.6.3 Toughened bismaleimide systems .......................................................... 208

6.6.4 Cured neat resin properties ..................................................................... 210

6.7 Fibres for bismaleimide composites ...................................................................... 210

6.8 Bismaleimide composites ..................................................................................... 211

6.8.1 Basic materials data for laminate design ................................................. 211

6.8.2 Single composite plies ............................................................................ 212

6.8.3 Unidirectional composites ....................................................................... 213

6.8.4 Quasi-isotropic laminates ........................................................................ 214

6.9 Typical properties of bismaleimide composites ..................................................... 217

6.9.1 Elevated temperature hygrothermal stability............................................ 217

6.9.2 Toughness .............................................................................................. 221

6.9.3 Microcracking .......................................................................................... 222

6.9.4 HERMES development programme ........................................................ 223

6.10 Manufacture of bismaleimide composites ............................................................. 224

6.10.1 Product forms .......................................................................................... 224

6.10.2 Autoclave ................................................................................................ 224

6.11 Characteristics of polyimide-based composites .................................................... 226

6.11.1 Characteristics ........................................................................................ 226

6.11.2 Potential applications .............................................................................. 226

6.12 Polyimide resins ................................................................................................... 227

6.12.1 General ................................................................................................... 227

6.12.2 Resin chemistry ...................................................................................... 227

6.12.3 Commercial resin systems ...................................................................... 228

6.12.4 Cure reaction .......................................................................................... 229

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6.12.5 Manufacturing techniques ....................................................................... 229

6.13 Fibres for polyimide composites ............................................................................ 232

6.13.1 General ................................................................................................... 232

6.13.2 Carbon fibres .......................................................................................... 232

6.13.3 Aramid fibres ........................................................................................... 234

6.14 Polyimide composites ........................................................................................... 234

6.14.1 Basic materials data for laminate design ................................................. 234

6.14.2 Unidirectional .......................................................................................... 234

6.14.3 Bidirectional ............................................................................................ 236

6.15 Typical properties of polyimide composites ........................................................... 237

6.15.1 Effects of elevated temperatures ............................................................. 237

6.15.2 Coefficient of thermal expansion ............................................................. 246

6.15.3 HERMES development programme ........................................................ 246

6.16 Characteristics of thermoplastic-based composites .............................................. 248

6.16.1 General ................................................................................................... 248

6.16.2 Characteristics ........................................................................................ 248

6.17 Thermoplastic matrix materials ............................................................................. 249

6.17.1 General ................................................................................................... 249

6.17.2 Chemistry ................................................................................................ 249

6.17.3 Influence of processing conditions .......................................................... 250

6.17.4 Commercial thermoplastic matrix ............................................................ 255

6.17.5 Polymer forms ......................................................................................... 257

6.18 Fibres for thermoplastic composites ..................................................................... 258

6.18.1 General ................................................................................................... 258

6.18.2 Prepreg ................................................................................................... 259

6.18.3 Mixtures .................................................................................................. 259

6.19 Thermoplastic matrix composites .......................................................................... 260

6.20 Typical properties of thermoplastic composites ..................................................... 261

6.20.1 Effects of elevated temperatures ............................................................. 261

6.20.2 Effects at low and cryogenic temperatures .............................................. 266

6.20.3 Moisture (hygrothermal) effects ............................................................... 266

6.20.4 Influence of stress concentrations ........................................................... 269

6.20.5 Impact resistance .................................................................................... 269

6.21 Specialist properties of thermoplastic composites ................................................. 269

6.21.1 Outgassing and offgassing characteristics .............................................. 269

6.21.2 Thermal expansion characteristics .......................................................... 270

6.21.3 Thermal cycling ....................................................................................... 270

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6.21.4 Damping properties ................................................................................. 270

6.21.5 Radiation effects ..................................................................................... 271

6.22 Thermoplastic composites test methods and standards ........................................ 272

6.22.1 Standard procedures ............................................................................... 272

6.22.2 Matrix characterisation ............................................................................ 276

6.23 General design aspects of thermoplastic composites ........................................... 279

6.23.1 Adequate design ..................................................................................... 279

6.23.2 Residual stresses .................................................................................... 279

6.23.3 Effect of manufacturing practices on material properties ......................... 279

6.23.4 Manufacturing faults and damage tolerance ............................................ 280

6.24 Joints in thermoplastic composites ....................................................................... 285

6.24.1 Bonded joints .......................................................................................... 285

6.24.2 Mechanically fastened ............................................................................. 288

6.25 Manufacture of thermoplastic composites ............................................................. 288

6.25.1 General ................................................
...

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