Prefabricated timber stairs - Mechanical test methods

This Technical Specification gives test methods for prefabricated timber stairs. These stairs are  made from timber and/or wood-based materials.
The methods included in this document can also be used for single components used in stairs (e.g. steps, handrails, balusters, …).
This document  does not consider the overall structure design of these elements. Stairs that are designed to contribute to the overall stability of the works or to the strength of the structure are not covered by this standard.
The surfaces of the timber elements may be exposed or covered by finishes.
NOTE 1   Where stairs are supplied with a finish or covering, some basic characteristics will not be covered by this standard and references should be made to the appropriate product standard (e.g. colour fastness of carpet finishes)
NOTE 2   Where the term "stair" is used in this document, it may also apply to individual element or component where appropriate
Tests can be carried out on a complete fully assembled system according to manufacturer installation instructions or on individual components.
A fully assembled stair test cannot be used to evaluate individual components.
There is no particular hierarchy of sequences or the need to carry out all the tests.

Vorgefertigte Holztreppen - Mechanische Prüfverfahren

Diese Technische Spezifikation enthält Prüfverfahren für vorgefertigte Holztreppen. Diese Treppen sind aus Holz und/oder Holzwerkstoffen hergestellt.
Die in diesem Dokument enthaltenen Verfahren können auch für einzelne Bestandteile der Treppen (z. B. Stufen, Handläufe, Geländerstäbe, ) angewendet werden.
Dieses Dokument berücksichtigt nicht die Planung der Gesamtkonstruktion dieser Elemente. Treppen, die so aus¬gelegt sind, dass sie die Gesamtstabilität der baulichen Anlage oder die Festigkeit der Konstruktion unter¬stützen, sind nicht Gegenstand der vorliegenden Norm.
Die Oberflächen der Holzelemente können ungeschützt oder behandelt sein.
ANMERKUNG 1   Wenn die Treppen mit einer Oberflächenbehandlung oder einem Belag geliefert werden, sind einige grundlegende Eigenschaften durch diese Norm nicht abgedeckt und es sollte auf die entsprechende Produktnorm verwiesen werden (z. B. im Hinblick auf die Farbechtheit von Teppichauflagen).
ANMERKUNG 2   Der Begriff Treppe in diesem Dokument kann auch für einzelne Elemente oder Bestandteile gelten.
Die Prüfungen können an einem vollständigen, nach den Einbauanweisungen des Herstellers montierten System oder an einzelnen Bestandteilen durchgeführt werden.
Die Prüfung einer vollständig montierten Treppe kann nicht für die Beurteilung einzelner Bestandteile zu¬grunde gelegt werden.
Eine bestimmte Reihenfolge für die Durchführung der Prüfungen ist nicht festgelegt und es müssen auch nicht alle Prüfungen durchgeführt werden.

Escaliers préfabriqués en bois - Méthodes d'essai mécaniques

La présente Spécification technique donne des méthodes d’essai pour les escaliers préfabriqués en bois. Ces escaliers sont réalisés en bois et/ou en matériaux à base de bois.
Les méthodes incluses dans le présent document peuvent également être utilisées pour de simples composants utilisés dans les escaliers (par exemple, marches, mains courantes, balustres, …).
Le présent document ne concerne pas la conception générale de la structure de ces éléments. Les escaliers conçus pour contribuer à la stabilité générale de l'ouvrage ou à la résistance de la structure ne sont pas couverts par la présente norme.
Les surfaces des éléments en bois peuvent être exposées ou couvertes d'une finition.
NOTE 1   Si les escaliers sont fournis avec une finition ou un revêtement, certaines caractéristiques de base ne sont pas couvertes par  la présente norme et il convient de se référer à la norme de produit appropriée (solidité de la couleur des moquettes, par exemple).
NOTE 2   Lorsque le terme « escalier » est utilisé dans le présent document, il peut également s’appliquer , le cas échéant, à un élément ou composant individuel.
Les essais peuvent être effectués sur un système complet entièrement assemblé conformément aux instructions de mise en œuvre du fabricant ou sur des composants individuels.
Un essai sur un escalier entièrement assemblé ne peut pas être utilisé pour évaluer les composants individuels.
Il n’existe pas de hiérarchie particulière des séquences ni de nécessité d’effectuer tous les essais.
NOTE   la nature des essais et des éléments utilisés peut être spécifiée par les réglementations nationales.

Predizdelane lesene stopnice - Mehanske preskusne metode

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Mar-2008
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
15-Jan-2008
Due Date
21-Mar-2008
Completion Date
05-Mar-2008

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15680:2008
01-april-2008
Predizdelane lesene stopnice - Mehanske preskusne metode
Prefabricated timber stairs - Mechanical test methods
Vorgefertigte Holztreppen - Mechanische Prüfverfahren
Escaliers préfabriqués en bois - Méthodes d'essai mécaniques
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 15680:2007
ICS:
19.060 Mehansko preskušanje Mechanical testing
91.060.30 Stropi. Tla. Stopnice Ceilings. Floors. Stairs
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15680:2008 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 15680:2008
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 15680:2008
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
CEN/TS 15680
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
November 2007
ICS 91.060.30
English Version
Prefabricated timber stairs - Mechanical test methods

Escaliers préfabriqués en bois - Méthodes d'essai Vorgefertigte Holztreppen - Mechanische Prüfverfahren

mécaniques

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 24 September 2007 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their

comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS available

promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the CEN/TS)

until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2007 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 15680:2007: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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CEN/TS 15680:2007 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................5

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................6

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................6

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................6

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................7

4 Determination of mechanical strength of balusters under static load on prefabricated

railing system : handrails or balustrades ...........................................................................................7

4.1 General....................................................................................................................................................7

4.2 Principle..................................................................................................................................................7

4.3 Equipment..............................................................................................................................................7

4.4 Conditioning...........................................................................................................................................9

4.5 Sampling.................................................................................................................................................9

4.6 Procedure...............................................................................................................................................9

4.7 Results..................................................................................................................................................10

5 Determination of mechanical strength under distributed static load of prefabricated

systems : handrails or balustrades ...................................................................................................10

5.1 General..................................................................................................................................................10

5.2 Principle................................................................................................................................................10

5.3 Equipment............................................................................................................................................10

5.3.1 Support structure.................................................................................................................................10

5.3.2 Distributed load application system..................................................................................................10

5.4 Conditioning.........................................................................................................................................11

5.5 Sampling...............................................................................................................................................11

5.6 Procedure.............................................................................................................................................11

5.7 Calculated value...................................................................................................................................11

5.8 Test results...........................................................................................................................................12

6 Determination of mechanical strength under dynamic loads of prefabricated systems :

handrails or balustrades .....................................................................................................................12

6.1 General..................................................................................................................................................12

6.2 Principle................................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Equipment............................................................................................................................................12

6.3.1 Support structure.................................................................................................................................12

6.3.2 Hanging impact body system.............................................................................................................12

6.3.3 Survey system......................................................................................................................................13

6.4 Conditioning.........................................................................................................................................13

6.5 Sampling...............................................................................................................................................13

6.6 Procedure.............................................................................................................................................13

6.7 Results..................................................................................................................................................14

7 Determination of mechanical strength under vertical static load on handrails............................14

7.1 General..................................................................................................................................................14

7.2 Principle................................................................................................................................................14

7.3 Equipment............................................................................................................................................14

7.4 Conditioning.........................................................................................................................................14

7.5 Sampling...............................................................................................................................................15

7.6 Procedure.............................................................................................................................................15

7.7 Results..................................................................................................................................................15

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8 Determination of mechanical strength under concentrated static loads on panels of

prefebricated systems: handrails or balustrades ............................................................................15

8.1 General.................................................................................................................................................15

8.2 Principle................................................................................................................................................16

8.3 Equipment............................................................................................................................................16

8.3.1 Support structure................................................................................................................................16

8.3.2 Virtually rigid anchorage system.......................................................................................................16

8.3.3 Loading application and measurement system ...............................................................................16

8.3.4 Survey system.....................................................................................................................................16

8.4 Conditioning........................................................................................................................................16

8.5 Sampling...............................................................................................................................................16

8.6 Procedure.............................................................................................................................................16

8.7 Results..................................................................................................................................................17

9 Determination of load bearing capacity for flights of stairs ...........................................................17

9.1 General.................................................................................................................................................17

9.2 Principle................................................................................................................................................17

9.3 Equipment............................................................................................................................................18

9.3.1 Support structure................................................................................................................................18

9.3.2 Distributed load application system..................................................................................................18

9.4 Conditioning........................................................................................................................................18

9.5 Sampling...............................................................................................................................................18

9.6 Procedure.............................................................................................................................................18

9.7 Characteristic value............................................................................................................................18

9.8 Results..................................................................................................................................................19

10 Determination of flight deflection under distributed static load ....................................................19

10.1 General.................................................................................................................................................19

10.2 Principle................................................................................................................................................19

10.3 Equipment............................................................................................................................................19

10.3.1 Support structure................................................................................................................................19

10.3.2 Load application system.....................................................................................................................19

10.3.3 Survey system.....................................................................................................................................19

10.4 Conditioning........................................................................................................................................19

10.5 Sampling...............................................................................................................................................19

10.6 Procedure.............................................................................................................................................20

10.7 Results..................................................................................................................................................20

11 Determination of mechanical strength under dynamic loads on steps included in flights

or on flights of stairs in prefebricated stairs....................................................................................20

11.1 General.................................................................................................................................................20

11.2 Principle................................................................................................................................................20

11.3 Equipment............................................................................................................................................20

11.3.1 Support structure................................................................................................................................20

11.3.2 Hanging impact body system ............................................................................................................21

11.3.3 Survey system.....................................................................................................................................21

11.4 Conditioning........................................................................................................................................21

11.5 Sampling...............................................................................................................................................21

11.6 Procedure.............................................................................................................................................21

11.7 Results..................................................................................................................................................21

12 Determination of bending strength of steps of prefabricated stairs .............................................21

12.1 General.................................................................................................................................................21

12.2 Principle................................................................................................................................................22

12.3 Equipment............................................................................................................................................22

12.3.1 Support structure................................................................................................................................22

12.3.2 Load application and measurement system.....................................................................................22

12.3.3 Survey system.....................................................................................................................................22

12.4 Conditioning........................................................................................................................................22

12.5 Sampling...............................................................................................................................................22

12.6 Procedure.............................................................................................................................................22

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12.7 Characteristic value.............................................................................................................................23

12.8 Results..................................................................................................................................................23

13 Determination of step deflection under vertical static load ............................................................23

13.1 General..................................................................................................................................................23

13.2 Principle................................................................................................................................................23

13.3 Equipment............................................................................................................................................23

13.3.1 Support structure.................................................................................................................................23

13.3.2 Load application and measurement system.....................................................................................23

13.3.3 Survey system......................................................................................................................................24

13.4 Conditioning.........................................................................................................................................24

13.5 Sampling...............................................................................................................................................24

13.6 Procedure.............................................................................................................................................24

13.7 Results..................................................................................................................................................24

14 Test laboratory.....................................................................................................................................24

Annex A (informative) Examples of calculation on ultimate limit states.....................................................25

A.1 Test until failure ...................................................................................................................................25

A.1.1 Examples with 3 series .......................................................................................................................25

A.1.2 Example with 10 series .......................................................................................................................26

A.2 Test without failure..............................................................................................................................28

A.2.1 Example with 3 series .........................................................................................................................28

A.2.2 Example with 10 series .......................................................................................................................28

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................29

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CEN/TS 15680:2007 (E)
Foreword

This document (CEN/TS 15680:2007) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 175 “Round and

sawn timber”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
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CEN/TS 15680:2007 (E)
Introduction

There are a number of methods of evaluating the mechanical performance of stairs. These include:

- testing,
- calculation,
- conventional accepted performance.
All methods have equal validity.
This standard identifies a number of possible test methods which can be used.
1 Scope

This Technical Specification gives test methods for prefabricated timber stairs. These stairs are made from

timber and/or wood-based materials.

The methods included in this document can also be used for single components used in stairs (e.g. steps,

handrails, balusters, …).

This document does not consider the overall structure design of these elements. Stairs that are designed to

contribute to the overall stability of the works or to the strength of the structure are not covered by this

standard.
The surfaces of the timber elements may be exposed or covered by finishes.

NOTE 1 Where stairs are supplied with a finish or covering, some basic characteristics will not be covered by this

standard and references should be made to the appropriate product standard (e.g. colour fastness of carpet finishes)

NOTE 2 Where the term "stair" is used in this document, it may also apply to individual element or component where

appropriate

Tests can be carried out on a complete fully assembled system according to manufacturer installation

instructions or on individual components.
A fully assembled stair test cannot be used to evaluate individual components.

There is no particular hierarchy of sequences or the need to carry out all the tests.

NOTE The nature of used tests and elements can be given by national regulations.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1991-1-1, Eurocode 1 : Actions on structures – Part 1-1:General actions – Densities, self-weight, imposed

loads for buildings
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CEN/TS 15680:2007 (E)
EN 14076 : 2004, Timber stairs – Terminology

PrEN 15644 : 2007, Traditionally designed prefabricated stairs made of solid wood – Specifications and

requirements.
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 14076:2004 and in prEN 15644:2007

apply.
4 Determination of mechanical strength of balusters under static load on
prefabricated railing system : handrails or balustrades
4.1 General

This test provides a method to determine mechanical strength under concentrated static load of balusters

made also with different materials, being a part of prefabricated railing system, handrails or balustrades.

This test applies to all handrails or balustrades of any material used for their construction, as usually installed

and used, according to producer recommendations, in a construction. It does not apply to handrails or

balustrades made on site and/or installed with building works.
4.2 Principle

Application of a concentrated load on a standardized conical element put between two balusters, checking

deformations and possible breaks of these elements and their anchorages.

NOTE The conical element is the concentrated load application device made with rigid material ( for wood > 700

kg/m ), cone-shaped or frustum of cone, with 30° summit angle and base diameter > 200 mm.

4.3 Equipment

4.3.1 A support structure which is composed by rigid frame to fix the components system of, balustrade or

handrail , according to producer instruction : such a frame shall allow the installation of different components

in horizontal or vertical position (balustrade or handrail), see Figure 1.
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CEN/TS 15680:2007 (E)
Figure 1 — Example of a support structure
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CEN/TS 15680:2007 (E)

4.3.2 Virtually rigid anchorage system of upper element of handrail or balustrade.

4.3.3 Concentrated load application system including cone-shape or frustum of cone interposed element as

above-mentioned
4.4 Conditioning

Temperature and air humidity of the laboratory shall be specified in test report.

4.5 Sampling
For 3 tests, the sampling is composed at least by 6 balusters.
4.6 Procedure

 For individual components, tested system shall be fixed into the support structure;

 The top of the tested element, next to load application point of the balusters, shall be locked, to avoid

deformations during load application;

 Put load application system, so that the interposition cone is placed between two balusters on the worst

position, typically closest to the half of their height, measured between the lowest and the upper

anchorage;

 Apply the load according to tested element's use (see prEN 15644:2007, Table A.3); load application

shall be progressive (not less than 5 s) and in direction towards the external side of the balustrade or

handrail (see Figure 2) and maintain for 15 minutes ;

 Measure the largest distance between the two balusters, within 2 minutes of load application and at the

end of the test or note the damage, if any, at the level checked or done ;
 The test shall be repeated for each sample (at least 3 pairs of balusters).
Figure 2 — Example of load application
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4.7 Results

At the end of the test, check and record any possible deterioration on tested element which compromise its

integrity and it functionality :
 damages of each component of element or relevant anchorage system;
 Specify equipment used;

 Record deformation in each measurement point and the arrow marked under and after loading.

5 Determination of mechanical strength under distributed static load of
prefabricated systems : handrails or balustrades
5.1 General

This test provides a method to determine mechanical strength under distributed static loads of prefabricated

systems, (handrails or balustrades) as protection for free fall, made by the composition of different

components (handrails, balusters, panels and apron linings) made also with different materials.

It applies to all handrails or balustrades of any material used for their construction, as usually installed and

used, according to producer recommendations, in a construction. It does not apply to handrails or balustrades

made on site and/or installed with building works.
NOTE This test does not apply to the support system (for example newel).
5.2 Principle

Application of a standardized horizontal distributed static load to handrails or balustrades, until rupture or to

the minimum load determined in accordance with EN 1991-1-1and its national annexes.

If not specified in national regulation, the material partial safety factor γ = 1,5 is to be used for the minimum

value of three test. This factor γ becomes 1,3 fo
...

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