Energy performance of buildings - Application of calculation of energy use to existing buildings

Energy labelling of buildings requires a method valid for both new and existing buildings, and treating them in an equivalent way.
In new buildings all required information exists to compute energy use, when necessary using conventional occupancy data; but the actual energy use is not available. In existing buildings, actual energy use is known in some cases from energy meters, but often some information, such as U-values of components or actual air change rate is missing. Since energy use for space heating and cooling strongly depends on occupants' behaviour and that different uses are involved, actual energy use cannot be used for energy labelling of the building without correction.
Therefore, a methodology should be developed to get the same results from different sets of data. The work will propose a methodology to assess missing data and to calculate a "standard" energy use for space heating and cooling. This work item also includes a methodology that allows determining the energy effectiveness of possible improvements.

Energieeffizienz von Gebäuden - Bewertung des Energieverbrauchs und Festlegung der Leistungsindikatoren

Diese Norm legt die Energieverwendungszwecke fest, die bei der Festlegung von Leistungsindikatoren der Energieeffizienz neuer und bereits bestehender Gebäude zu berücksichtigen sind und enthält Folgendes:
a)   Ein Verfahren zur Berechnung des Zielleistungsindikators, einem Normenergieverwendungszweck, der nicht vom Verhalten der Gebäudenutzer, den tatsächlichen Wetterbedingungen und weiteren tatsächlichen (Umwelt  oder Eingangs )Bedingungen abhängig ist. Für die Anwendung dieses Verfahrens stellen die Gebäudebelegung, das Klima und einige weitere Daten, die nicht vom Gebäude selbst abhängig sind, konventionelle Daten dar, die von der bestimmungsgemäßen Nutzung des Gebäudes und der betrachteten Klimazone abhängen.
b)   Ein Verfahren zur Bewertung des Funktionsleistungsindikators auf der Grundlage der Bezugsenergie.
c)   Eine Verfahrensweise zur Verbesserung des Vertrauens in das Gebäudeberechnungsmodell durch einen Vergleich mit dem tatsächlichen Energieverbrauch.
d)   Ein Verfahren zur Bewertung der Energieeffizienz durch mögliche Verbesserungen.
Es ist die Aufgabe der nationalen Körperschaften festzulegen, unter welchen Bedingungen und für welche Gebäudetypen die verschiedenen Leistungsindikatoren gelten.

Performance énergétique des bâtiments - Evaluation de l'énergie utilisée et définition des indices de performance

Energijske lastnosti stavb – Ugotavljanje porabe energije in definicije ocenitev Energetska učinkovitost stavb

General Information

Status
Not Published
Technical Committee
Current Stage
4020 - Public enquire (PE) (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-May-2005
Due Date
01-May-2005
Completion Date
01-May-2005

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SLOVENSKI oSIST prEN 15203:2005
PREDSTANDARD
maj 2005
Energijske karakteristike stavb – Ugotavljanje porabe energije in definicije
ocenitev
Energy performance of buildings - Assessment of energy use and definition of
ratings
ICS 91.120.10 Referenčna številka
oSIST prEN 15203:2005(en)

© Standard je založil in izdal Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje ali kopiranje celote ali delov tega dokumenta ni dovoljeno

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD
DRAFT
prEN 15203
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
March 2005
ICS
English version
Energy performance of buildings - Assessment of energy use
and definition of ratings

Performance énergétique des bâtiments - Evaluation de Energetische Verhalten von Gebäuden - Evaluierung des

l'énergie utilisée et définition des indices de performance Energieverbrauchs von Gebäuden und Definition der

Leistungsindikatoren

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 89.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which

stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language

made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice and

shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2005 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 15203:2005: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
prEN 15203 :2005 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................5

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................7

4 Symbols and abbreviations ..................................................................................................................9

5 Assessment of energy use of buildings............................................................................................10

6 Delivered energy, primary energy, emissions and energy costs ...................................................14

7 Calculated rating..................................................................................................................................17

8 Operational rating................................................................................................................................19

9 Validated building calculation model ................................................................................................22

10 Planning of retrofit measures for existing buildings .......................................................................25

11 Report ...................................................................................................................................................26

Annex A (normative) Methods for collecting building data.........................................................................28

Annex B (normative) Assessing the used amounts of energyware ...........................................................31

Annex C (informative) Conventional input data related to occupancy......................................................33

Annex D (informative) Confidence intervals.................................................................................................35

Annex E (informative) Other uses of energy ................................................................................................38

Annex F (informative) Calorific values of fuels ............................................................................................39

Annex G (informative) Energy monitoring ...................................................................................................42

Annex H (informative) List of possible measures for reducing energy use.............................................45

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prEN 15203:2005 (E)
Foreword

This document (prEN 15203:2005) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 89 “Thermal

performance of buildings and building components”, the secretariat of which is held by SIS.

This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

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prEN 15203 :2005 (E)
Introduction
Energy assessments of buildings are carried out for various purposes, such as:

a) Judging compliance with building regulations expressed in terms of a limitation on energy use or a related

quantity;

b) Transparency in commercial operations through the certification and/or display of a level of energy

performance (energy certification);

c) Monitoring of the energy efficiency of the building including heating, ventilation and air conditioning

systems

d) Helping in planning retrofit measures, through prediction of energy savings which would result from

various actions.

Energy certification of buildings requires a method that is applicable to both new and existing buildings, and

which treats them in an equivalent way. Therefore, a methodology to obtain equivalent results from different

sets of data is presented in this standard. A methodology to assess missing data and to calculate a "standard"

energy use for space heating and cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting is provided. This

standard also includes a methodology that allows assessment of the energy effectiveness of possible

improvements.
Two principal types of ratings for buildings are proposed in this standard:

1) The asset rating is obtained by calculation for standardised conditions, but there can be different

ways of assembling the input data – from drawings and design values for new buildings, from

drawings, site surveys and rules derived from building typology for existing buildings, and by

improving on the latter by making use of metered energy.

2) The operational rating is obtained by metering and summing up all delivered energywares.

Because of the differences in the way these two ratings are obtained, they cannot be compared directly.

However, the difference between the two ratings for the same building can be used to assess the cumulative

effects of actual construction, systems and operating conditions versus standard ones and the contribution of

energy uses not included in the asset rating.
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prEN 15203:2005 (E)
1 Scope

This standard defines the uses of energy to be taken into account for setting energy performance ratings for

new and existing buildings, and provides:

a) A method to compute the asset rating, a standard energy use that does not depend on occupant

behaviour, actual weather and other actual (environment or input) conditions. For this, occupancy, climate

and some other data that do not depend on the building itself are conventional ones, depending on the

intended use of the building and on the climatic zone considered.
b) A method to assess the operational rating, based on the delivered energy.

c) A methodology to improve confidence in the building calculation model by comparison with actual energy

consumption.
d) A method to assess the energy effectiveness of possible improvements.

It is up to national bodies to define under which conditions and for which types of buildings the various ratings

apply.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 410, Glass in building – Determination of luminous and solar characteristics of glazing

EN 673, Glass in building – Determination of thermal transmittance (U value) – Calculation method

EN 12412-2, Thermal performance of windows, doors and shutters – Determination of thermal transmittance

by hot box method – Part 2: Frames

EN 13187, Thermal performance of buildings – Qualitative detection of thermal irregularities in building

envelopes – Infrared method

prEN wi 1+3, Energy performance of buildings — Methods for expressing energy performance and for energy

certification of buildings

prEN wi 2, Energy performance of buildings — Overall energy use, primary energy and CO emissions

prEN wi 7, Heating systems in buildings – Method for calculation of system energy requirements and system

efficiencies – Part 1: General

prEN wi 8, Heating systems in buildings – Method for calculation of system energy requirements and system

efficiencies – Part 2.1: Space heating emission systems

prEN wi 9, Heating systems in buildings – Method for calculation of system energy requirements and system

efficiencies –
Part 2.2.1: Boilers
Part 2.2.2: Heat pumps
Part 2.2.3: Heating generation – Thermal solar systems
Part 2.2.4: Performance and quality of CHP

Part 2.2.5: Performance and quality of district heating and large volume systems

Part 2.2.6: Performance of other renewables (heat and electricity)
Part 2.2.7: Space heating generation – Biomass combustion systems

prEN wi 10, Heating systems in buildings - Method for calculation of system energy requirements and system

efficiencies – Part 2.3: Space heating distribution systems
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
prEN 15203 :2005 (E)

prEN wi 11, Heating systems in buildings – Method for calculation of system energy requirements and system

efficiencies – Part 3.1: Domestic hot water systems, including generation efficiency and the tap water

requirements

prEN wi 12, Calculation of room temperatures and of load and energy for buildings with room conditioning

systems

prEN wi 13, Energy performance of buildings – Energy requirements for lighting — Part 1: Lighting energy

estimation

prEN wi 14, Energy performance of buildings – Calculation of energy use for space heating and cooling

prEN wi 17, Thermal performance of buildings – Calculation of energy use for space heating and cooling –

General criteria and validation procedures for detailed calculations

prEN wi 20+21, Ventilation for buildings – Calculation methods for energy requirements due to ventilation

systems in buildings

prEN wi 22, Calculation methods for energy efficiency improvements by the application of integrated building

automation systems

prEN ISO 6946:2005, Building components and building elements – Thermal resistance and thermal

transmittance – Calculation method
EN ISO 7345, Thermal insulation – Physical quantities and definitions

prEN ISO 10077-1:2004, Thermal performance of windows, doors and shutters – Calculation of thermal

transmittance – Part 1: General

EN ISO 10077-2, Thermal performance of windows, doors and shutters – Calculation of thermal transmittance

– Part 2: Numerical method for frames

prEN ISO 10211:2005, Thermal bridges in building construction – Heat flows and surface temperatures –

Detailed calculations

EN ISO 12567 (all parts), Thermal performance of windows and doors – Determination of thermal

transmittance by hot box method

EN ISO 12569, Thermal insulation in buildings – Determination of air change in buildings - Tracer gas dilution

method

EN ISO 13790, Thermal performance of buildings – Calculation of energy use for space heating

prEN ISO 14683:2005, Thermal bridges in building construction – Linear thermal transmittance – Simplified

methods and default values

EN ISO 15927-4 , Hygrothermal performance of buildings – Calculation and presentation of climatic data –

Part 4: Hourly data for assessing the annual energy use for heating and cooling

prEN ISO 15927-6:2004, Hygrothermal performance of buildings – Calculation and presentation of climatic

data – Part 6: Accumulated temperature differences (degree-days)

ISO 9869, Thermal insulation – Building elements – In-situ measurement of thermal resistance and thermal

transmittance
ISO 13600, Technical energy systems – Basic concepts

ISO 13601, Technical energy systems – Structure for analysis – Energyware supply and demand sectors

1) To be published.
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prEN 15203:2005 (E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 7345 and the following

apply.
3.1
rating

evaluation of the energy performance of a building based on the weighted sum of the calculated or metered

use of energy carriers.
3.2
asset rating

rating based on calculations of the energy used by a building for heating, cooling, ventilation, hot water and

lighting, with standard input data related to internal and external climates and occupancy

NOTE It represents the intrinsic energy potential of a building under standardised conditions of weather and

occupancy This is particularly relevant to certification of standard performance. The asset rating represents a weighted

sum per energyware of the total energy for heating, hot water heating, cooling, ventilation and lighting. This rating

quantifies the calculated energy intensity of the building under standardised conditions for a given set of energy end uses.

3.3
design rating

rating based on calculations using building drawings and design values, calculated for a building at the design

phase

NOTE The design rating is calculated on the basis of building plans, whereas the asset rating is calculated using data

for the building as actually constructed.
3.4
tailored rating

rating based on calculations of the energy used by the building for heating, cooling, ventilation, hot water and

lighting, with actual climate and occupancy data
3.5
operational rating
rating based on measured energy use

NOTE The operational rating is the weighted sum of all energywares used by the building. It is a measure of the in-

use performance of the building. This is particularly relevant to certification of actual performance The operational rating

represents the sum per energyware of the total energy used by the building, as measured by meters or other means

described in Annex B. This rating quantifies the total actual energy use of the building.

3.6
building

inhabited construction as a whole, including its envelope, and heating, ventilation and air conditioning

systems
3.7
new building

building at design stage or under construction or (for operational rating) too recently constructed to have

reliable records of energy use
3.8
existing building

building that is erected, for which actual data necessary to assess the energy use according to this standard

are known or can be measured
3.9
building calculation model
mathematical model of the building used to calculate its energy use
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prEN 15203 :2005 (E)

NOTE Most models used in this standard are defined in international standards. Several models may be necessary

to assess the energy use for all purposes.
3.10
validated building calculation model

building calculation model in which one or more parameters are adjusted so that its results do not significantly

differ from the measured reality
3.11
confidence interval
interval that has a high probability (e.g. 95 %) to include the actual value
NOTE Annex D provides ways to assess such intervals.
3.12
reasonably possible
can be achieved at a reasonable cost
3.13
reasonable cost
investment that is accepted by all parties to reach a given purpose

NOTE This cost strongly depends on the purpose of the effort. For example, the cost of a rating could be relatively

large if it is to provide an official certificate to put the building on the market or for displaying the building performance to

the public, but reduced if it is simply for statistical purpose.
3.14
energy carrier

substance or phenomenon that can be used to produce mechanical work or heat or to operate chemical or

physical processes [ISO 13600:1997]
3.15
energyware

tradable commodity used mainly to produce mechanical work or heat, or to operate chemical or physical

processes, and listed in Annex A of ISO 13600. [ISO 13600:1997]

NOTE Energywares form a proper subset of energy carriers. The set of energy carriers is open.

3.16
energyware consumption system

technical energy system consuming energyware and in many cases also other energy carriers and producing

products and services [ISO 13600:1997]
NOTE Buildings are such systems.
3.17
renewable energy

energy from sources that will not be exhausted during the lifetime of mankind, such as solar energy (thermal

and photovoltaic), wind, hydraulic, biomass

NOTE In ISO 13602-1:2002, renewable resource is defined as 'natural resource for which the ratio of the creation of

the natural resource to the output of that resource from nature to the technosphere is equal to or greater than one.

3.18
primary energy
energy that has not been subjected to any conversion or transformation process

NOTE For a building, it is the energy used to produce the energy delivered to the building. It is the delivered energy

divided by the conversion or transformation factor of each form of energy.
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prEN 15203:2005 (E)
3.19
delivered energy
energy supplied to the building from the last market agent

NOTE The boundaries of the building include all internal and external areas associated with the building, where

energy is consumed or produced (see 5.1). The energy produced by the building itself, for example using solar water

heater, photovoltaic systems or co-generation and delivered back to the market is reported separately. Delivered energy is

presented per energyware.
3.19
energy use of a building

total energy per energy carrier delivered to the energy systems for heating, cooling, ventilation, hot water

heating, lighting, appliances, etc.

NOTE Appliances are not explicitly included in the asset rating and in the ‘inter alia’ subset of energy end uses in

Article 2 of the EPBD , but they are in fact included in the total energy use of the building.

3.20
auxiliary energy

energy used by heating, cooling, domestic water, lighting and ventilation systems to transform the delivered

energy into the useful energy

NOTE This includes energy for fans, pumps, pilot flames, electronics, etc., but not the energy that is transformed.

3.21
calorific value

quantity of heat produced by complete combustion, at a constant pressure equal to 101 320 Pa, of a unit

amount of fuel

NOTE The gross calorific value includes the heat recovered when condensing the water vapour resulting from the

combustion of hydrogen. The net calorific value does not take account of this latent heat.

4 Symbols and abbreviations
Table 1 —Symbols and units
Symbol Quantity Unit
A area m²
concentration -
C cost €
accumulated temperature differences (degree-days) K d
f factor -
solar irradiance J/m²
E energyware amount kg, m³, kWh, MJ, etc.
occupancy h, h/d, %
Q quantity of heat or energy J
time, time interval d, h, s
V airflow rate m³/h, m³/s
Φ heat flow rate, power W
GCV gross calorific value of an energyware MJ/unit, kWh/unit
Celsius temperature °C

) DIRECTIVE 2002/91/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 16 December 2002 on the

energy performance of buildings
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
prEN 15203 :2005 (E)

NOTE Hours can be used as the unit of time instead of seconds for all quantities involving time (i.e. for time periods

as well as for air change rates), but in that case the unit of energy is Watt-hours [Wh] instead of Joules.

Table 2 — Subscripts
a automation and control m measured
c cooling n net
CO2 related to CO emissions o operational
d Delivered, day p primary
E electricity rc recovered
e external rn renewable
ex exported s system
g Related to gains st standard
h heating t total
i internal v ventilation
i,j,k numbering indices w hot water
L limit Y year, annual
l lighting
5 Assessment of energy use of buildings
5.1 Building boundaries

The boundaries for the energy performance assessment shall be clearly defined for all energy carriers before

the calculation. It includes all inside and outside areas associated with the building, where energy is

consumed or produced.

For insulated buildings, it is defined by the building envelope for heat flows, the main building meters for gas,

electricity, district heating and water, the loading port of the storage facility for liquid and solid energywares,

and the smoke exhaust of chimney and connection to main wastewater duct for losses.

If a part of a building system (e.g..boiler, chiller, cooling tower, etc.) is outside the building envelope, it is

nevertheless considered to be inside the boundaries.

A building may refer to a group of adjacent buildings as a whole or parts thereof that have been designed or

altered to be used separately. If one building in a row of similar buildings are to be assessed, heat flows

through partition walls are neglected in the balance.

If adjacent buildings do not have the same type of use, and hence not the same internal design or actual

temperature, heat flows through partition walls are taken into account in the balance.

NOTE In many cases, buildings in rows have the same use and, for calculation purposes, the internal temperature of

all the buildings can be assumed to be the same, and these partition walls can be taken to be adiabatic. However, if the

external envelope is well insulated and partition walls are not, these heat flows can contribute an appreciable amount of

heat gains and losses.

The way the building envelope is considered to calculate heat flows is defined in prEN wi 14.

5.2 Types of ratings

This standard proposes two principal options for energy rating of buildings, the first being calculated, the

second being based on measurements. These options are the asset rating and the operational rating.

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prEN 15203:2005 (E)

Figure 1 — The operational rating includes all energy uses under actual conditions, while the asset

rating includes only some uses, and for standard conditions

The asset rating is based on calculations of the energy used by the building for heating, cooling, ventilation,

hot water and lighting, with standard input data related to climate and occupancy (see 7.2). This rating

provides an assessment of the energy efficiency of the building under standardised conditions that enables a

comparison to be made between different buildings within climatic main regions and with identical or at least

similar activities.

The operational rating is based on measurement of energy use (see Clause 8). The operational rating

measures the in-use performance of a building, including all deviations between theoretical properties in

calculations and realised properties (air-infiltration, heat transfer, generation efficiency, control, etc.) and is

influenced by the way the building is maintained and operated. It cannot therefore be used to provide

prospective purchasers or tenants with like-for-like comparisons between buildings. It assists those trying to

improve the efficiency of building operation and allows displaying the actual energy performance of a building.

It can also provide useful feedback to the owners, occupiers and designers of new buildings if assessed a few

years after occupation and compared to the calculated asset rating, for the same set of energy end uses.

Only asset rating and operational ratings are used for building energy performance certification.

The design rating is similar to the asset rating, but based on building drawing and design intentions. It can be

used to get a building permit.

The tailored rating is an asset rating, in which either actual climatic data or actual occupancy related data or

both are used instead of standard ones. This can be used to compare two buildings having different climates

or different uses, to compare retrofit scenarios, to optimise energy performance, etc.

The calculation models and input used for the asset rating can be validated against the operational rating,

providing more confidence in the model (see Clause 9). The validated model can then be used to compute a

more accurate asset rating, or to study the effect of retrofit scenarios.

The types of rating are summarised in Table 3. The type of rating (asset rating or operational rating) to be

used for certification of different building types is defined in national regulations.

Table 3 —Types of ratings
Input data
Name Use Climate Building Utility or purpose
Design Standard StandardDrawings Building permit
Calculated Asset Standard Standard Actual Certificate, regulation

Tailored Depending on purpose Actual Optimisation, comparisons, retrofit planning

Measured Operational Actual Actual Actual Certification, regulation
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prEN 15203 :2005 (E)
5.3 Input and output
5.3.1 General
This standard needs and provides the following information:
5.3.2 Necessary inputs
5.3.2.1 Inputs for calculated ratings
a) Annual energy use for heating, calculated according to prEN wi 14;
b) Annual energy use for cooling, calculated according to prEN wi 14;
c) Annual energy use for hot water, calculated according to prEN wi 11;
d) Annual energy use for lighting, calculated according to prEN wi 13;
e) Annual energy use for ventilation, calculated according to prEN wi 20;
f) Effect of automation and controls, assessed according to prEN wi 22;

g) Conversion factors from delivered energy to primary energy and CO production, according to prEN wi 2.

5.3.2.2 Inputs for operational rating and calculation model validation
h) Metered energy use for all energywares.
5.3.3 Additional inputs
The following information is normally provided on a national level:
i) Gross calorific value of energywares;

j) Standard data related to occupancy (temperature, humidity, airflow rate, internal gains, hot water use, and

standard energy use for appliances other than heating, cooling, ventilation, hot water and lighting);

k) Standard climatic data.
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prEN 15203:2005 (E)
Figure 2 — Inputs to this standard and outputs from this standard
5.3.4 Provided output
For certification and regulation purposes this standard provides:

l) Asset rating: the calculated energy use of the building under standard conditions;

m) Operational rating, based on metered energy use;
For obtaining building permits this standard provides:
n) Design rating;
For other purposes this standard provides:

o) Validated building calculation model that can be used to assess the effect of measures to be taken for

improving the energy performance, including combinations thereof;
p) Tailored rating.

These outputs are used for expressing the energy performance of the building and establishing energy

performance requirements according to prEN wi 1+3.
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prEN 15203 :2005 (E)
6 Delivered energy, primary energy, emissions and energy costs
6.1 Energy uses

The total calculated energy used by the building shall comprise the annual energy use for the following

purposes:
 heating;
 cooling;
 ventilation systems;
 hot water;
 lighting.
Each energy use includes auxiliary energy and losses of systems.

Energy uses for other purposes (e.g. electrical appliances, cooking, industrial processes) are not included in

the calculated energy use but the total metered energy will normally include these other uses.

6.2 Delivered energy
6.2.1 General

For each of the purposes listed in 6.1, the energy use is calculated for standardised use and climate according

to the standards cited in 6.2.2. The results are allocated to energy carriers for eac

...

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