Earthworks - Part 3: Construction procedures

This standard presents execution procedures for excavating, transporting and placing soils and rocks for the construction of earth-structures. It includes excavation and placement of rock materials underwater.
Dredging of soils and the associated hydraulic placement of fills are covered by Part 6 of this standard.
NOTE:
Execution of earthworks follows the conclusions of the earthworks design and optimisation phase (Part 1), which must anticipate soil and rock specificities and their suitability. In case some events could not be foreseen, additional design is performed during the execution of works

Erdarbeiten - Teil 3: Ausführung von Erdarbeiten

Diese Europäische Norm stellt Verfahren für den Aushub, Transport und Einbau von Böden und Fels für die Ausführung von Erdbauwerken und einen Leitfaden für die Erdarbeiten bereit. Sie behandelt außerdem den Aushub und Einbau von Felsmaterialien unter Wasser.
Das Nassbaggern von Böden und die damit verbundenen Auffüllungen im Spülverfahren sind durch FprEN 16907 6 und prEN 16907 7 abgedeckt.
Die Ausführung von Erdarbeiten richtet sich nach den Ergebnissen der Bemessungs- und Optimierungsphase der Erdarbeiten (prEN 16907 1), mit denen die Besonderheiten von Boden und Fels und ihre Eignung vorhergesehen werden sollten. Beim Eintreten von nicht vorhersehbaren Ereignissen werden zusätzliche Bemessungsschritte während der Ausführung der Erdarbeiten durchgeführt.

Terrassement - Partie 3 : Procédés de construction

Zemeljska dela - 3. del: Postopki izvajanja zemeljskih del

Ta standard opisuje postopke izvajanja izkopavanja, transporta ter vgradnje zemljin in kamnin za konstrukcijo zemeljskih struktur. Zajema izkopavanje in vgradnjo kamnitih materialov pod vodo. Izkopavanje zemljin in povezana hidravlična namestitev nasipov sta zajeti v 6. delu tega standarda. OPOMBA: Izvajanje zemeljskih del sledi sklepom faze projektiranja in optimizacije zemeljskih del (1. del), ki mora predvideti posebnosti zemljin in kamnin ter njihovo primernost. V primeru nekaterih dogodkov, ki jih ni bilo mogoče predvideti, se dodatno projektiranje izvede med izvajanjem del.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
29-Jan-2016
Publication Date
14-Mar-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
27-Feb-2019
Due Date
04-May-2019
Completion Date
15-Mar-2019

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Zemeljska dela - 3. del: Postopki izvajanja zemeljskih delErdarbeiten - Teil 3: Ausführung von ErdarbeitenTerrassement - Partie 3 : Procédés de constructionEarthworks - Part 3: Construction procedures93.020Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod zemljoEarthworks. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground worksICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 16907-3:2018SIST EN 16907-3:2019en,fr,de01-april-2019SIST EN 16907-3:2019SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 16907-3:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 16907-3
December
t r s z ICS
{ uä r t r English Version
Earthworks æ Part
uã Construction procedures Terrassement æ Partie
u ã Procédés de construction
Erdarbeiten æ Teil
uã Ausführung von Erdarbeiten This European Standard was approved by CEN on
s v May
t r s zä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23,
B-1040 Brussels

t r s z CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s x { r yæ uã t r s z ESIST EN 16907-3:2019

EN 16907-3:2018 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ............................................................................................................................................ 4 1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................... 5 2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 5 3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................... 5 4 General considerations ....................................................................................................................... 6 4.1 Prerequisites to execution of earthworks ................................................................................... 6 4.2 Climatic conditions ............................................................................................................................... 6 4.3 Environmental factors ........................................................................................................................ 6 4.4 Use of secondary manufactured materials and recycled materials ................................... 7 5 Excavation ............................................................................................................................................... 8 5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................... 8 5.2 Material type and excavation techniques .................................................................................... 8 5.3 Special considerations when excavating in rock ..................................................................... 10 5.4 Influence of excavated material end use .................................................................................... 11 5.5 Protection of cuts during construction ....................................................................................... 11 5.5.1 Stability during construction .......................................................................................................... 11 5.5.2 Water control/drainage ................................................................................................................... 12 5.5.3 Erosion .................................................................................................................................................... 12 5.5.4 Protection of subgrade...................................................................................................................... 12 5.6 Excavation under water.................................................................................................................... 13 5.6.1 General.................................................................................................................................................... 13 5.6.2 Equipment ............................................................................................................................................. 13 5.6.3 Tolerance requirement .................................................................................................................... 13 5.6.4 Underwater blasting .......................................................................................................................... 13 5.6.5 Supervision and monitoring ........................................................................................................... 14 5.6.6 Environmental protection ............................................................................................................... 14 6 Transportation .................................................................................................................................... 14 6.1 General.................................................................................................................................................... 14 6.2 Bulk earthworks .................................................................................................................................. 15 6.2.1 General.................................................................................................................................................... 15 6.2.2 Transportation on subgrade or capping layer ......................................................................... 16 6.2.3 Haul road ............................................................................................................................................... 16 6.3 Material type and bulk transportation ....................................................................................... 17 6.3.1 General.................................................................................................................................................... 17 6.3.2 Dust .......................................................................................................................................................... 17 6.3.3 Protection of existing structures and buried utilities ........................................................... 18 6.4 Road lorries........................................................................................................................................... 18 6.5 Alternative transport methods ...................................................................................................... 19 6.5.1 General.................................................................................................................................................... 19 6.5.2 Transport on water ............................................................................................................................ 19 6.5.3 Transport on train .............................................................................................................................. 19 6.6 Transportation of materials arising from tunnelling ............................................................ 19 7 Filling and compaction ...................................................................................................................... 21 7.1 Groups of material .............................................................................................................................. 21 7.2 Compaction specifications ............................................................................................................... 22 7.3 Preparation of fill area ...................................................................................................................... 22 7.4 Spreading ............................................................................................................................................... 23 SIST EN 16907-3:2019

EN 16907-3:2018 (E) 3 7.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 23 7.4.2 Compaction of embankment edges .............................................................................................. 25 7.4.3 Layer thickness .................................................................................................................................... 27 7.5 Compaction ........................................................................................................................................... 27 7.5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 27 7.5.2 Compaction equipment types ........................................................................................................ 28 7.5.3 Selection of compaction equipment ............................................................................................. 28 7.6 Filling under-water ............................................................................................................................ 30 7.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 30 7.6.2 Execution ............................................................................................................................................... 30 7.6.3 Fill material .......................................................................................................................................... 32 7.6.4 Embankment slopes .......................................................................................................................... 32 7.6.5 Replacement / displacement of soft soil .................................................................................... 33 Annex A (informative)

Organization and execution of trial sections ........................................... 34 Annex B (informative)

Conditions of use for main groups of material ........................................ 37 Annex C (informative)

Excavation machine types ............................................................................... 79 Annex D (informative)

Transportation equipment types ................................................................. 81 Annex E (informative)

Examples of national practices ...................................................................... 82 Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................... 85

SIST EN 16907-3:2019

EN 16907-3:2018 (E) 4 European foreword This document (EN 16907-3:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 396 “Earthworks”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2019, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by June 2019. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document is one of the European Standards within the framework series of EN 16907 on Earthworks, as follows: — Part 1: Principles and general rules; — Part 2: Classification of materials; — Part 3: Construction procedures (this document); — Part 4: Soil treatment with lime and/or hydraulic binders; — Part 5: Quality control; — Part 6: Land reclamation earthworks with dredged hydraulic fill; — Part 7: Hydraulic placement of waste. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 16907-3:2019

EN 16907-3:2018 (E) 5 1 Scope This European Standard provides execution procedures for excavating, transporting and placing soils and rocks for the construction of earth-structures and guidance for the work. Additionally, it includes excavation and placement of rock materials underwater. Dredging of soils and the associated hydraulic placement of fills are covered by EN 16907-6 and EN 16907-7. Execution of earthworks follows the conclusions of the earthworks design and optimization phase (EN 16907-1), which should anticipate soil and rock specificities and their suitability. In case some events could not be foreseen, additional design is performed during the execution of works. 2 Normative references The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 16907-1, Earthworks - Part 1: Principles and general rules EN 16907-2, Earthworks - Part 2: Classification of materials EN 16907-6, Earthworks - Part 6: Land reclamation earthworks with dredged hydraulic fill 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms, definitions and symbols given in EN 16907-1 and the following apply. ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/

ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp 3.1 trafficability ability of a material surface to support the passage of earthworks 3.2 compaction process of removing air from a soil normally by mechanical means 3.3 compactive effort energy applied to achieve compaction 3.4 over compaction condition that arises during compaction when sufficient air has been expelled from a fill such that further compactive effort results in elevated pore water pressures causing the fill surface to become unstable as the material “mattresses” Note 1 to entry: Over compaction of granular soils can also result in the crushing of individual particles thereby modifying the particle size distribution. SIST EN 16907-3:2019

EN 16907-3:2018 (E) 6 3.5 density index density state of a granular soil (natural or compacted) determined by comparing its void ratio (e) with the minimum (emin) and maximum (emax) attainable for the particular material

Note 1 to entry: The minimum and maximum void ratios correspond to the densest state (ID = 100 %) and loosest state (ID = 0 %) respectively (=[emax – e/ emax - emin] × 100 %). 3.6 fine soil soil with at least 15 % fines content, depending on national practices 3.7 fine active soil water-sensitive fine soil which exhibits specific shrinking/swelling properties to be taken into consideration for earthworks 4 General considerations 4.1 Prerequisites to execution of earthworks Before the beginning of construction, all geotechnical design issues should be solved, including temporary and permanent stability, erosion and settlements. All unresolved issues during design shall be identified to all parties and highlighted before the commencement of construction. In this case, the responsibility for closing out shall be made clear. Before the commencement of each part of works, the design of each part of the earthworks shall have been completed, including the assessment of the available materials and their suitability (see EN 16907-1 and EN 16907-2). 4.2 Climatic conditions Before commencing earthworks, the prevailing climatic conditions at the construction site shall be considered. Seasonal climatic variations can impose limiting factors on earthworks. During periods of rainfall, consideration should be given to suspending earthworks operations in wet sensitive materials. When necessary, the earth surfaces should be sealed to prevent the ingress of water. In dry climatic conditions, consideration should be given to preventing evaporative losses by covering the exposed earth surfaces with non-sensitive materials. NOTE Seasonal climatic considerations will vary depending on different regions. For example, a frozen ground surface may provide a temporary working platform that can enhance the excavation of soft soil. 4.3 Environmental factors All earthworks should comply with the relevant environmental legislation. Earthworks have the potential to harm the natural and built environment and therefore they should be planned in such a manner so as to minimize the potential for harm. The environmental factors to be considered during earthworks construction commonly include the following: Noise – European and national regulations should be considered. It is applying for receptors, e.g. domestic dwellings which are affected by the increase of noise beyond legal limits. Assessments should be made of the noise emissions of the various types of earthwork machinery and background noise level readings taken prior to commencement of the earthwork operations. SIST EN 16907-3:2019

EN 16907-3:2018 (E) 7 Consideration should be given to restricted working hours and to the construction of temporary noise barriers utilizing earth bunds or fencing. Contamination – if there are areas of contamination within an excavation, the activities should be controlled so as to prevent further contamination of the surrounding soil. Contaminated materials should be handled separately and if they are to be stockpiled, the surface upon which they are to be placed should be sealed and shaped to prevent the potential run-off of contaminated water. The potential effect on workers should also be considered and appropriate protective equipment provided. Appropriate equipment should be selected, to deal with the contaminated material. Dust – Earthwork operations have the potential to cause dust, particularly in fine graded soils in dry weather conditions. Dust should be controlled by spraying water onto the exposed surfaces. The potential for dust generation is limited if the exposed surfaces are covered with topsoil and seeded as works progress. Water courses protection – The most likely cause of pollution from earthworks is the siltation of surface water by uncontrolled silt laden run-off. Consideration shall therefore be given when planning the earthwork operation to the proposed dewatering system. Control measures can include the establishment of settlement ponds and the use of silt fences. Vibration shall be considered especially sensitivity of existing structures, or building or utilities to vibrations and sound shock waves. Normal earthwork operations are unlikely to cause harmful vibration levels, however blasting operations can cause considerable vibration and therefore have the potential to damage either the works or adjoining properties. In cases where vibration caused by blasting is likely to cause damage, blasting should be prohibited and replaced by ripping and/or hydraulic breaking. 4.4 Use of secondary manufactured materials and recycled materials For reasons of economy and environmental sustainability, the Earthworks Practitioner should consider the use of recycled materials and industrial by-products. These will typically include demolition arisings (crushed concrete, etc.) and industrial by-products such as pulverized fuel ash, burnt colliery shale, biomass ashes, slag, foundry sand and cement kiln dust, as well as quarrying processing by-products. The use of by-products and recycled materials presents special considerations for the Earthworks Practitioner. These considerations fall into two principle categories: legislative and geotechnical. Legislative considerations concern the environmental and waste licensing legislation that governs the use of such recycled materials and by-products. In order to prevent environmental harm, strict national legislative controls are normally applied to the use of such products. It should be noted that such materials are often considered as a “waste” and legislation governing such materials is often complex. The use of such materials should be carefully evaluated because of their potential to cause environmental harm during both the construction phase and the operation phase of the earthwork. Such harm is often associated with the creation of airborne pollution by dust and ground/surface water pollution by leachate. Geotechnical concerns relate to the unique characteristics of the recycled material and secondary manufactured products. These materials will often behave in a different manner to natural materials and due consideration shall be taken of this in their specification and use. Particular consideration should be given to the long-term durability of the materials in both the physical and chemical context as, particularly in the case of industrial secondary manufactured products, they may be susceptible to gradual chemical deterioration which can lead to failure of the earthwork. Testing regimes should be established to identify the nature of the material and to validate its consistency during use. SIST EN 16907-3:2019

EN 16907-3:2018 (E) 8 Processing by way of sizing or blending/mixing with other by-products or natural materials is often a means to achieve an environmentally and geotechnically suitable material. These activities should be subject to the same controls and considerations described above. 5 Excavation 5.1 General Excavation for earthworks is the process of forming cuttings or other excavations, normally by mechanical means, and includes the loading of the excavated material into transportation equipment. Excavation and loading is an integrated process. This section identifies the key considerations relating to excavation (and loading). The aim of the excavation process is to create the designed excavated earthworks profile. In so doing, the excavation should be planned not only to ensure that the excavated materials are maintained/protected during their excavation such that they are suitable for their intended use, but also to ensure that the excavation can be carried out safely and efficiently while ensuring that the excavation formation level/subgrade and the surrounding ground are undamaged by the excavation process. Excavation should not commence until the area to be filled is suitable for accepting material or that an appropriate temporary stockpile area is available. For colder climates, if the material in the cutting is sensitive to frost heave and if the frost will penetrate more than 0,5 m in the material in the final profil, boulders should be removed. 5.2 Material type and excavation techniques The type and nature of the material to be excavated is the most important consideration for the excavation process. The group of material (see informative Annex B) will determine the manner and the rate of excavation. It is therefore of fundamental importance to identify the material types to be excavated prior to the commencement of excavation. If an excavation contains mixed materials, consideration should be given to the need to separate the different grades during excavation or to mix them (e.g.: Frontal excavation). Table 1 identifies the main material types (described in Annex B) and their appropriate methods of mechanical excavation. SIST EN 16907-3:2019

EN 16907-3:2018 (E) 9 Table 1 — Material types Material type Possible excavation method Possible pre-processing Fine graded (all states) Backacter excavator Face shovel excavator Wheeled front loader Tracked front loader Push-loaded scraper Wet soils may require treatment with binder to permit scraper excavation. Granular (all grades) Backacter excavator Face shovel excavator Wheeled front loader Tracked front loader Push-loaded scraper None Dewatering may be necessary to permit excavation or to assist drying of materials. Rock – Weak Backacter excavator Face shovel excavator Wheeled front loader Tracked front loader Push-loaded scraper Scraper excavation will normally require ripping or blasting. Ripping or loosening by blasting will also aid other excavation methods. Rock – Strong Backacter excavator Face shovel excavator Wheeled front loader Blasting with explosives and/or breaking with hydraulic hammers. For some strong rocks heavy ripping can be considered. Chalk Backacter excavator Face shovel excavator Wheeled front loader Tracked front loader Push-loaded scraper The use of scrapers on some types of chalk may lead to disaggregation and instability of the material possibly necessitating the use of treatment with binder. If the need for the possible use of binders is to be avoided other means of excavation should be considered. For hard chalk ripping can be necessary. The excavation methods (machine types) listed in the preceding table are described in Annex C. Large excavators have a high break out force and can avoid blasting. Specialist excavation equipment such as long reach/low ground pressure excavators or draglines are often required for excavations in very poor soils or soils containing organic material. The former also have benefits in undertaking excavations in areas of difficult access, and in ground conditions imposing limitations regarding stability. It is possible to treat the excavated materials (e.g. with lime) during the excavation process (see Annex J of EN 16907-4:2018). SIST EN 16907-3:2019

EN 16907-3:2018 (E) 10 5.3 Special considerations when excavating in rock Excavation in rock places special demands on the earthworks, which do not exist when excavating in soil. Predicting the ease of excavation of rock and rock masses is very important in earthworks. In order to describe the excavation of rocks, different terms have been used, related to the principle of excavation and the mechanics of fracture. In this document, the term excavatability is used as a broad term that refers to the ease of excavation of rock and rock masses and includes the following methods: a) digging, when easy/very easy excavation conditions exist (soil or loose rocks); b) ripping, for moderate to difficult excavation conditions, (weak rocks, and weathered part of strong rocks); c) blasting for very difficult excavation conditions (strong rocks). The assessments to determine the ease or difficulty with which a rock mass may be excavated are based upon the consideration of: d) the rock materials forming the rock blocks within the in situ rock mass (because excavation entails fragmentation and rupture of the rock materials when the block volume is large); e) the nature, extent and orientation of the fractures; f) the geological structure with respect to folding and faulting and schistosity. Indirect assessment of these parameters can be based upon: — rock description (see EN 16907-2); — seismic velocity of P-wave and nature of the rock; — discontinuity spacing index and point load test; — geological strength index. NOTE Examples of such indirect methods can be found in Caterpillar tables (ref), Pettifer and Fookes, Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 27, 145–164; Bull eng Geol Environ (2010) 69:13–27 – Excavatability assessment of rock masses using the Geological Strength Index. In addition, the following information could be relevant: — relevant parameters on rock hardness, fractures, faulting and folding (direct or indirect); — information on the weathering, karstification, hydrogeology. In order to choose the appropriate method of excavation, the following information should be made available: — assessed geology of the rock mass; — performed boreholes with logs, lab testing and photos; — all constraints on existing structures, buildings, utilities, … which could influence the choice of the method of excavation. SIST EN 16907-3:2019

EN 16907-3:2018 (E) 11 If blasting is anticipated, then additional information should be gathered: — presence of water if any; — sensitivity of existing structures, or building or utilities to vibrations and sound shock waves; — for adjacent sensitive soil: restrictions regarding vibrations and direct impact from blasting. In addition, the following information could be relevant: — maximum particular speed for each range of frequency; — results of trial blasting, if any; — anticipated variation of the top of the rock mass to be blasted; — maximum size of blocks allowed in fill or other specifications on the grading

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