Eurocode 1: Actions on structures - Part 1-4: General actions - Wind actions

(1) EN 1991-1-4 gives guidance on the determination of natural wind actions for the structural design of building and civil engineering works for each of the loaded areas under consideration. This includes the whole structure or parts of the structure or elements attached to the structure, e. g. components, cladding units and their fixings, safety and noise barriers.
(2) This Part is applicable to:
- Buildings and civil engineering works with heights up to 200 m. See also (11) and (12).
- Bridges having no span greater than 200 m, provided that they satisfy the criteria for dynamic response, see (12) and 8.2.
(3) This part is intended to predict characteristic wind actions on land-based structures, their components and appendages.
(4) Certain aspects necessary to determine wind actions on a structure are dependent on the location and on the availability and quality of meteorological data, the type of terrain, etc. These need to be provided in the National Annex and Annex A, through National choice by notes in the text as indicated. Default values and methods are given in the main text, where the National Annex does not provide information.
(5) Annex A gives illustrations of the terrain categories and provides rules for the effects of orography including displacement height, roughness change, influence of landscape and influence of neighbouring structures.
(6) Annex B and C give alternative procedures for calculating the structural factor cscd.
(7) Annex D gives cscd factors for different types of structures.
(8) Annex E gives rules for vortex induced response and some guidance on other aeroelastic effects.
(9) Annex F gives dynamic characteristics of structures with linear behaviour
(10)  This part does not give guidance on local thermal effects on the characteristic wind, e.g. strong arctic thermal surface inversion or funnelling or tornadoes.
(11)  Guyed masts and lattice towers are treated in EN 1993-7-1 and lighting columns in EN 40
(12)  This part

Eurocode 1: Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke - Teil 1-4: Allgemeine Einwirkungen - Windlasten

Eurocode 1 : Actions sur les structures - Partie 1-4 : Actions générales - Actions du vent

(1)   L'EN 1991-1-4 indique comment déterminer les actions du vent naturel pour le calcul structurel des bâtiments et des ouvrages de génie civil, pour chacune des zones affectées par ces actions. Ceci inclut l'ensemble de la structure, certains de ses éléments constitutifs, voire des éléments qui y sont fixés, par exemple des composants, des éléments de façade et leurs fixations, des glissieres de sécurité et des écrans antibruit.
(2)   La présente partie s'applique aux :
3   bâtiments et ouvrages de génie civil dont la hauteur peut atteindre 200 m. Voir également (11) ;
3   ponts dont aucune travée n'est supérieure a 200 m, a condition qu'ils satisfassent aux criteres relatifs a la réponse dynamique, voir (11) et 8.2.
(3)   La présente partie est destinée a prévoir les actions caractéristiques du vent sur les structures terrestres, leurs composants et accessoires.
(4)   Certains aspects nécessaires pour déterminer les actions du vent sur une structure dépendent du lieu, de la disponibilité et de la qualité des données météorologiques, du type de terrain, etc. Ils doivent etre fournis dans l'Annexe Nationale et dans l'Annexe A, par un choix national comme l'indiquent les notes insérées dans le texte. Les valeurs par défaut et les méthodes a utiliser sont données dans le texte principal, lorsque l'Annexe Nationale ne fournit pas d'informations.
(5)   L'Annexe A fournit des illustrations de catégories de terrain ainsi que des regles pour les effets de l'orographie y compris la hauteur de déplacement, le changement de rugosité, l'influence du terrain et l'influence des structures avoisinantes.
(6)   Les Annexes B et C indiquent des procédures alternatives pour le calcul du coefficient structural cscd.
(7)   L'Annexe D donne les facteurs cscd pour différents types de structures.
(8)   L'Annexe E donne les regles relatives a la réponse au détachement tourbillonnaire ainsi que certaines recommandations concernant d'autres effets aéroélastiques.

Evrokod 1: Vplivi na konstrukcije – 1-4. del: Splošni vplivi – Obtežbe vetra

EN 1991-1-4 podaja smernice za določitev vplivov naravnega vetra na obtežene površine pri projektiranju konstrukcij stavb in gradbenih inženirskih objektov. To vključuje celotno konstrukcijo ali njene dele ter dele, pritrjene na konstrukcijo, npr. komponente, krovne elemente in njihove pritrditve, varnostne in protihrupne pregrade.
Ta standard velja za:
–   stavbe in gradbene inženirske objekte, ki niso višji od 200 m; glej tudi (11);
–   mostove z razponi, ki niso večji od 200 m, če ustrezajo pogojem dinamičnega odziva v (11) in 8.2.
Ta standard je predviden za napoved karakterističnih vplivov vetra na konstrukcije, temeljene na tleh, njihove komponente in dodane dele.
Določeni vidiki, potrebni za določitev obtežbe vetra na konstrukcije, so odvisni od lokacije ter razpoložljivosti in kakovosti meteoroloških podatkov, vrste terena itd. Te je treba določiti v nacionalnem dodatku in dodatku A ter z nacionalno izbiro, kot je to določeno v opombah. Kjer nacionalni dodatek ne določa ustreznih podatkov, veljajo vrednosti in metode, dane v tem standardu.
Ta standard ne vsebuje navodil glede lokalnih toplotnih učinkov na karakteristični veter, kot so močna arktična toplotna površinska inverzija, učinek dimnika ali tornadi.
Ta standard ne vsebuje navodil glede naslednjih pojavov:
–   vpliv vetra na palične stolpe z nevzporednimi pasovi;
–   vpliv vetra na jambore in dimnike s sidrnimi vrvmi;
–   torzijska nihanja, npr. visokih stavb s središčnim jedrom;
–   nihanje prekladnih konstrukcij mostov zaradi turbulence pri prečnem vetru;
–   mostovi s poševnimi zategami;
–   nihanja, pri katerih je treba upoštevati več kot samo osnovno obliko nihanja.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Sep-2005
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6100 - Translation of adopted SIST standards (Adopted Project)
Start Date
07-May-2007
Due Date
05-May-2008
Completion Date
29-Oct-2007

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Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 1991-1-4:2005
01-oktober-2005
1DGRPHãþD
SIST ENV 1991-2-4:1998
Evrokod 1: Vplivi na konstrukcije – 1-4. del: Splošni vplivi – Obtežbe vetra
Eurocode 1: Actions on structures - Part 1-4: General actions - Wind actions
Eurocode 1: Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke - Teil 1-4: Allgemeine Einwirkungen -
Windlasten

Eurocode 1 : Actions sur les structures - Partie 1-4 : Actions générales - Actions du vent

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 1991-1-4:2005
ICS:
91.010.30 7HKQLþQLYLGLNL Technical aspects
SIST EN 1991-1-4:2005 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 1991-1-4
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2005
ICS 91.010.30 Supersedes ENV 1991-2-4:1995
English version
Eurocode 1: Actions on structures - Part 1-4: General actions -
Wind actions

Eurocode 1: - Actions sur les structures - Partie 1-4: Eurocode 1: Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke - Teil 1-4:

Actions générales - Actions du vent Allgemeine Einwirkungen - Windlasten
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 4 June 2004.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2005 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 1991-1-4:2005: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 1991-1-4:2005 (E)
Contents Page
Section 1 General 9
1.1 Scope 9
1.2 Normative references 10
1.3 Assumptions 10
1.4 Distinction between Principles and Application Rules 10
1.5 Design assisted by testing and measurements 10
1.6 Definitions 10
1.7 Symbols 11
Section 2 Design situations 16
Section 3 Modelling of wind actions 17
3.1 Nature 17
3.2 Representations of wind actions 17
3.3 Classification of wind actions 17
3.4 Characteristic values 17
3.5 Models 17
Section 4 Wind velocity and velocity pressure 18
4.1 Basis for calculation 18
4.2 Basic values 18
4.3 Mean wind 19
4.3.1 Variation with height 19
4.3.2 Terrain roughness 19
4.3.3 Terrain orography 21
4.3.4 Large and considerably higher neighbouring structures 21
4.3.5 Closely spaced buildings and obstacles 22
4.4 Wind turbulence 22
4.5 Peak velocity pressure 22
Section 5 Wind actions 24
5.1 General 24
5.2 Wind pressure on surfaces 24
5.3 Wind forces 25
Section 6 Structural factor c c 28
s d
6.1 General 28
6.2 Determination of c c 28
s d
6.3 Detailed procedure 28
6.3.1 Structural factor c c 28
s d
6.3.2 Serviceability assessments 30
6.3.3 Wake buffeting 30
Section 7 Pressure and force coefficients 31
7.1 General 31
7.1.1 Choice of aerodynamic coefficient 31
7.1.2 Asymmetric and counteracting pressures and forces 32
7.1.3 Effects of ice and snow 32
7.2 Pressure coefficients for buildings 33
7.2.1 General 33
7.2.2 Vertical walls of rectangular plan buildings 34
7.2.3 Flat roofs 37
7.2.4 Monopitch roofs 40
7.2.5 Duopitch roofs 43
7.2.6 Hipped roofs 47
7.2.7 Multispan roofs 48
7.2.8 Vaulted roofs and domes 50
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
EN 1991-1-4:2005 (E)
7.2.9 Internal pressure 51
7.2.10 Pressure on walls or roofs with more than one skin 53
7.3 Canopy roofs 54
7.4 Free-standing walls, parapets, fences and signboards 61
7.4.1 Free-standing walls and parapets 61
7.4.2 Shelter factors for walls and fences 63
7.4.3 Signboards 63
7.5 Friction coefficients 64
7.6 Structural elements with rectangular sections 65
7.7 Structural elements with sharp edged section 67
7.8 Structural elements with regular polygonal section 67
7.9 Circular cylinders 69
7.9.1 External pressure coefficients 69
7.9.2 Force coefficients 71
7.9.3 Force coefficients for vertical cylinders in a row arrangement 74
7.10 Spheres 74
7.11 Lattice structures and scaffoldings 76
7.12 Flags 78
7.13 Effective slenderness λ and end-effect factor ψ 80
Section 8 Wind actions on bridges 82
8.1 General 82
8.2 Choice of the response calculation procedure 85
8.3 Force coefficients 85
8.3.1 Force coefficients in x-direction (general method) 85
8.3.2 Force in x-direction – Simplified Method 88
8.3.3 Wind forces on bridge decks in z-direction 89
8.3.4 Wind forces on bridge decks in y-direction 90
8.4 Bridge piers 91
8.4.1 Wind directions and design situations 91
8.4.2 Wind effects on piers 91
Annex A (informative) Terrain effects 92
A.1 Illustrations of the upper roughness of each terrain category 92
A.2 Transition between roughness categories 0, I, II, III and IV 93
A.3 Numerical calculation of orography coefficients 95
A.4 Neighbouring structures 100
A.5 Displacement height 101

Annex B (informative) Procedure 1 for determining the structural factor c c 102

s d
B.1 Wind turbulence 102
B.2 Structural factor 103
B.3 Number of loads for dynamic response 105
B.4 Service displacement and accelerations for serviceability assessments of a
vertical structure 105

Annex C (informative) Procedure 2 for determining the structural factor c c 108

s d
C.1 Wind turbulence 108
C.2 Structural factor 108
C.3 Number of loads for dynamic response 109
C.4 Service displacement and accelerations for serviceability assessments 109
Annex D (informative) c c values for different types of structures 111
s d
Annex E (informative) Vortex shedding and aeroelastic instabilities 114
E.1 Vortex shedding 114
E.1.1 General 114
E.1.2 Criteria for vortex shedding 114
E.1.3 Basic parameters for vortex shedding 115
E.1.4 Vortex shedding action 118
E.1.5 Calculation of the cross wind amplitude 118
E.1.6 Measures against vortex induced vibrations 128
E.2 Galloping 129
E.2.1 General 129
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
EN 1991-1-4:2005 (E)
E.2.2 Onset wind velocity 129
E.2.3 Classical galloping of coupled cylinders 131
E.3 Interference galloping of two or more free standing cylinders 133
E.4 Divergence and Flutter 134
E.4.1 General 134
E.4.2 Criteria for plate-like structures 134
E.4.3 Divergency velocity 134
Annex F (informative) Dynamic characteristics of structures 136
F.1 General 136
F.2 Fundamental frequency 136
F.3 Fundamental mode shape 141
F.4 Equivalent mass 143
F.5 Logarithmic decrement of damping 143
Bibliography 146
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
EN 1991-1-4:2005 (E)
Foreword

This document EN 1991-1-4:2005 has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC250 "Structural

Eurocode", the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2005, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by March 2010.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard : Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia,

Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
This European Standard supersedes ENV 1991-2-4: 1995.
CEN/TC 250 is responsible for all Structural Eurocodes.
Background of the Eurocode programme

In 1975, the Commission of the European Community decided on an action programme in the field of

construction, based on article 95 of the Treaty. The objective of the programme was the elimination of

technical obstacles to trade and the harmonisation of technical specifications.

Within this action programme, the Commission took the initiative to establish a set of harmonised

technical rules for the design of construction works which, in a first stage, would serve as an

alternative to the national rules in force in the Member States and, ultimately, would replace them.

For fifteen years, the Commission, with the help of a Steering Committee with Representatives of

Member States, conducted the development of the Eurocodes programme, which led to the first

generation of European codes in the 1980s.

In 1989, the Commission and the Member States of the EU and EFTA decided, on the basis of an

agreement between the Commission and CEN, to transfer the preparation and the publication of the

Eurocodes to the CEN through a series of Mandates, in order to provide them with a future status of

European Standard (EN). This links de facto the Eurocodes with the provisions of all the Council’s

Directives and/or Commission’s Decisions dealing with European standards (e.g. the Council Directive

89/106/EEC on construction products - CPD - and Council Directives 93/37/EEC, 92/50/EEC and

89/440/EEC on public works and services and equivalent EFTA Directives initiated in pursuit of setting

up the internal market).

The Structural Eurocode programme comprises the following standards generally consisting of a

number of Parts :
EN 1990 Eurocode : Basis of Structural Design
EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures
EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures

Agreement between the Commission of the European Communities and the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN)

concerning the work on EUROCODES for the design of building and civil engineering works (BC/CEN/03/89).

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
EN 1991-1-4:2005 (E)
EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures
EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures
EN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures
EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design
EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance
EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures

Eurocode standards recognise the responsibility of regulatory authorities in each Member State and

have safeguarded their right to determine values related to regulatory safety matters at national level

where these continue to vary from State to State.
Status and field of application of Eurocodes

The Member States of the EU and EFTA recognise that Eurocodes serve as reference documents for

the following purposes :

– as a means to prove compliance of building and civil engineering works with the essential

requirements of Council Directive 89/106/EEC, particularly Essential Requirement N°1 –

Mechanical resistance and stability – and Essential Requirement N°2 –Safety in case of fire ;

– as a basis for specifying contracts for construction works and related engineering services ;

– as a framework for drawing up harmonised technical specifications for construction products (ENs

and ETAs)

The Eurocodes, as far as they concern the construction works themselves, have a direct relationship

with the Interpretative Documents referred to in Article 12 of the CPD, although they are of a different

nature from harmonised product standards . Therefore, technical aspects arising from the Eurocodes

work need to be adequately considered by CEN Technical Committees and/or EOTA Working Groups

working on product standards with a view to achieving full compatibility of these technical

specifications with the Eurocodes.

The Eurocode standards provide common structural design rules for everyday use for the design of

whole structures and component products of both a traditional and an innovative nature. Unusual

forms of construction or design conditions are not specifically covered and additional expert

consideration will be required by the designer in such cases.

According to Art. 3.3 of the CPD, the essential requirements (ERs) shall be given concrete form in interpretative documents

for the creation of the necessary links between the essential requirements and the mandates for harmonised ENs and

ETAGs/ETAs.
According to Art. 12 of the CPD the interpretative documents shall :

a) give concrete form to the essential requirements by harmonising the terminology and the technical bases and indicating

classes or levels for each requirement where necessary ;

b) indicate methods of correlating these classes or levels of requirement with the technical specifications, e.g. methods of

calculation and of proof, technical rules for project design, etc. ;

c) serve as a reference for the establishment of harmonised standards and guidelines for European technical approvals.

The Eurocodes, de facto, play a similar role in the field of the ER 1 and a part of ER 2.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
EN 1991-1-4:2005 (E)
National Standards implementing Eurocodes

The National Standards implementing Eurocodes will comprise the full text of the Eurocode (including

any annexes), as published by CEN, which may be preceded by a National title page and National

foreword, and may be followed by a National annex.

The National annex may only contain information on those parameters which are left open in the

Eurocode for national choice, known as Nationally Determined Parameters, to be used for the design

of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the country concerned, i.e. :

– values and/or classes where alternatives are given in the Eurocode,
– values to be used where a symbol only is given in the Eurocode,
– country specific data (geographical, climatic, etc.), e.g. wind map,

– the procedure to be used where alternative procedures are given in the Eurocode.

It may also contain
– decisions on the use of informative annexes, and

– references to non-contradictory complementary information to assist the user to apply the

Eurocode.
Links between Eurocodes and harmonised technical specifications (ENs and ETAs)
for products

There is a need for consistency between the harmonised technical specifications for construction

products and the technical rules for works . Furthermore, all the information accompanying the CE

Marking of the construction products which refer to Eurocodes should clearly mention which Nationally

Determined Parameters have been taken into account.
Additional information specific for EN 1991-1-4

EN 1991-1-4 gives design guidance and actions for the structural design of buildings and civil

engineering works for wind.

EN 1991-1-4 is intended for the use by clients, designers, contractors and relevant authorities.

EN 1991-1-4 is intended to be used with EN 1990, the other Parts of EN 1991 and EN 1992-1999 for

the design of structures.
National annex for EN 1991-1- 4

This standard gives alternative procedures, values and recommendations for classes with notes

indicating where National choice may be made. Therefore the National Standard implementing

EN 1991-1-4 should have a National Annex containing Nationally Determined Parameters to be used

for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the relevant country.

National choice is allowed for EN 1991-1-4 through clauses:
1.1 (11) Note 1
1.5 (2)

see Art.3.3 and Art.12 of the CPD, as well as clauses 4.2, 4.3.1, 4.3.2 and 5.2 of ID 1.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
EN 1991-1-4:2005 (E)
4.1 (1)
4.2 (1)P Note 2
4.2 (2)P Notes 1, 2, 3 and 5
4.3.1 (1) Notes 1 and 2
4.3.2 (1)
4.3.2 (2)
4.3.3 (1)
4.3.4 (1)
4.3.5 (1)
4.4 (1) Note 2
4.5 (1) Notes 1 and 2
5.3 (5)
6.1 (1)
6.3.1 (1) Note 3
6.3.2 (1)
7.1.2 (2)
7.1.3 (1)
7.2.1 (1) Note 2
7.2.2 (1)
7.2.2 (2) Note 1
7.2.8 (1)
7.2.9 (2)
7.2.10 (3) Notes 1 and 2
7.4.1 (1)
7.4.3 (2)
7.6 (1) Note 1
7.7 (1) Note 1
7.8 (1)
7.10 (1) Note 1
7.11 (1) Note 2
7.13 (1)
7.13 (2)
8.1 (1) Notes 1 and 2
8.1 (4)
8.1 (5)
8.2 (1) Note 1
8.3 (1)
8.3.1 (2)
8.3.2 (1)
8.3.3 (1) Note 1
8.3.4 (1)
8.4.2 (1) Notes 1 and 2
A.2 (1)
E.1.3.3 (1)
E.1.5.1 (1) Notes 1 and 2
E.1.5.1 (3)
E.1.5.2.6 (1) Note 1
E.1.5.3 (2) Note 1
E.1.5.3 (4)
E.1.5.3 (6)
E.3 (2)
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
EN 1991-1-4:2005 (E)
Section 1 General
1.1 Scope

(1) EN 1991-1-4 gives guidance on the determination of natural wind actions for the structural design

of building and civil engineering works for each of the loaded areas under consideration. This includes

the whole structure or parts of the structure or elements attached to the structure, e. g. components,

cladding units and their fixings, safety and noise barriers.
(2) This Part is applicable to:
– Buildings and civil engineering works with heights up to 200 m. See also (11).

– Bridges having no span greater than 200 m, provided that they satisfy the criteria for dynamic

response, see (11) and 8.2.

(3) This part is intended to predict characteristic wind actions on land-based structures, their

components and appendages.

(4) Certain aspects necessary to determine wind actions on a structure are dependent on the location

and on the availability and quality of meteorological data, the type of terrain, etc. These need to be

provided in the National Annex and Annex A, through National choice by notes in the text as indicated.

Default values and methods are given in the main text, where the National Annex does not provide

information.

(5) Annex A gives illustrations of the terrain categories and provides rules for the effects of orography

including displacement height, roughness change, influence of landscape and influence of

neighbouring structures.

(6) Annex B and C give alternative procedures for calculating the structural factor c c .

s d
(7) Annex D gives c c factors for different types of structures.
s d

(8) Annex E gives rules for vortex induced response and some guidance on other aeroelastic effects.

(9) Annex F gives dynamic characteristics of structures with linear behaviour

(10) This part does not give guidance on local thermal effects on the characteristic wind, e.g. strong

arctic thermal surface inversion or funnelling or tornadoes.
(11) This part does not give guidance on the following aspects:
– wind actions on lattice towers with non-parallel chords
– wind actions on guyed masts and guyed chimneys
– torsional vibrations, e.g. tall buildings with a central core
– bridge deck vibrations from transverse wind turbulence
– cable supported bridges
– vibrations where more than the fundamental mode needs to be considered

NOTE 1 The National Annex may provide guidance on these aspects as non contradictory

complementary information.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
EN 1991-1-4:2005 (E)

NOTE 2 For wind actions on guyed masts, guyed chimneys and lattice towers with non-parallel chords,

see EN 1993-3-1, Annex A.
NOTE 3 For wind actions on lighting columns, see EN 40.
1.2 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through references in this text,

constitute provisions of this European standard. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or

revisions of any of these publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this

European standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions

of the normative documents indicated below. For undated references the latest edition of the

normative document referred to applies.
EN 1990 Eurocode: Basis of structural design
EN 1991-1-3 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures: Part 1-3: Snow loads

EN 1991-1-6 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures: Part 1-6: Actions during execution

EN 1991-2 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures: Part 2: Traffic loads on bridges
EN 1993-3-1 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures: Part 3-1: Masts and towers
1.3 Assumptions
(1)P The general assumptions given in EN 1990, 1.3 apply.
1.4 Distinction between Principles and Application Rules
(1)P The rules in EN 1990, 1.4 apply.
1.5 Design assisted by testing and measurements

(1) In supplement to calculations wind tunnel tests and proven and/or properly validated numerical

methods may be used to obtain load and response information, using appropriate models of the

structure and of the natural wind.

(2) Load and response information and terrain parameters may be obtained from appropriate full

scale data.

NOTE: The National Annex may give guidance on design assisted by testing and measurements.

1.6 Definitions

For the purposes of this European Standard, the definitions given in ISO 2394, ISO 3898 and ISO

8930 and the following apply. Additionally for the purposes of this Standard a basic list of definitions is

provided in EN 1990,1.5.
1.6.1
fundamental basic wind velocity

the 10 minute mean wind velocity with an annual risk of being exceeded of 0, 02, irrespective of wind

direction, at a height of 10 m above flat open country terrain and accounting for altitude effects (if

required)
1.6.2
basic wind velocity

the fundamental basic wind velocity modified to account for the direction of the wind being considered

and the season (if required)
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
EN 1991-1-4:2005 (E)
1.6.3
mean wind velocity

the basic wind velocity modified to account for the effect of terrain roughness and orography

1.6.4
pressure coefficient

external pressure coefficients give the effect of the wind on the external surfaces of buildings; internal

pressure coefficients give the effect of the wind on the internal surfaces of buildings.

The external pressure coefficients are divided into overall coefficients and local coefficients. Local

coefficients give the pressure coefficients for loaded areas of 1 m or less e.g. for the design of small

elements and fixings; overall coefficients give the pressure coefficients for loaded areas larger than

10 m .

Net pressure coefficients give the resulting effect of the wind on a structure, structural element or

component per unit area.
1.6.5
force coefficient

force coefficients give the overall effect of the wind on a structure, structural element or component as

a whole, including friction, if not specifically excluded
1.6.6
background response factor

the background factor allowing for the lack of full correlation of the pressure on the structure surface

1.6.7
resonance response factor

the resonance response factor allowing for turbulence in resonance with the vibration mode

1.7 Symbols
(1) For the purposes of this European standard, the following symbols apply

NOTE The notation used is based on ISO 3898:1999. In this Part the symbol dot in expressions indicates

the multiplication sign. This notation has been employed to avoid confusion with functional expressions.

(2) A basic list of notations is provided in EN 1990, 1.6 and the additional notations below are specific

to EN 1991-1-4.
Latin upper case letters
A area
A area swept by the wind
A reference area
ref
B background response part
C wind load factor for bridges
E Young’s modulus
F resultant friction force
F vortex exciting force at point j of the structure
F resultant wind force
H height of a topographic feature
I turbulence intensity
K mode shape factor; shape parameter
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
EN 1991-1-4:2005 (E)
K interference factor for vortex shedding
K reduction factor for parapets
K correlation length factor
K non dimensional coefficient
L length of the span of a bridge deck; turbulent length scale
L actual length of a downwind slope
L effective length of an upwind slope
L correlation length
L actual length of an upwind slope
N number of cycles caused by vortex shedding
N number of loads for gust response
R resonant response part
Re Reynolds number
R , R aerodynamic admittance
h b
S wind action
Sc Scruton number
S non dimensional power spectral density function
St Strouhal number
W weight of the structural parts contributing to the stiffness of a chimney
W total weight of a chimney
Latin lower case letters
a factor of galloping instability
a combined stability parameter for interference galloping

b width of the structure (the length of the surface perpendicular to the wind direction if

not otherwise specified)
c altitude factor
alt
c dynamic factor
c directional factor
dir
c (z) exposure factor
c force coefficient
c force coefficient of structures or structural elements without free-end flow
f,o
c lift force coefficient
f,l
c friction coefficient
c aerodynamic exciting coefficient
lat
c moment coefficient
c pressure coefficient
c probability factor
prob
c roughness factor
c orography factor
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
EN 1991-1-4:2005 (E)
c size factor
c seasonal factor
season

d depth of the structure (the length of the surface parallel to the wind direction if not

otherwise specified)
e eccentricity of a force or edge distance
f non dimensional frequency
h height of the structure
h obstruction height
ave
h displacement height
dis
k equivalent roughness
k peak factor
k terrain factor
k torsional stiffness
l length of a horizontal structure
m mass per unit length
m equivalent mass per unit length
n natural frequency of the structure of the mode i
n fundamental frequency of along wind vibration
1,x
n fundamental frequency of cross-wind vibration
1,y
n ovalling frequency
p annual probability of exceedence
q reference mean (basic) velocity pressure
q peak velocity pressure
r radius
s factor; coordinate
t averaging time of the reference wind speed, plate thickness
v onset wind velocity for galloping
v critical wind velocity for interference galloping
CIG
v critical wind velocity of vortex shedding
crit
v divergence wind velocity
div
v mean wind velocity
v fundamental value of the basic wind velocity
b,0
v basic wind velocity
w wind pressure
x horizontal distance of the site from the top of a crest
x-direction horizontal direction, perpendicular to the span
y-direction horizontal direction along the span
y maximum cross-wind amplitude at critical wind speed
max
z height above ground
z average height
ave
z-direction vertical direction
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
EN 1991-1-4:2005 (E)
z roughness length
z , z reference height for external wind action, internal pressure
e i
z distance from the ground to the considered component
z maximum height
max
z minimum height
min
z reference height for determining the structural factor
Greek upper case letters
Φ upwind slope
fundamental alongwind modal shape
1,x
Greek lower case letters
galloping instability parameter
combined stability parameter of interference galloping
δ logarithmic decrement of damping
aerodynamic logarithmic decrement of damping
logarithmic decrement of damping due to special devices
structural logarithmic decrement of damping
ε coefficient
bandwidth factor
frequency factor
variable
ϕ solidity ratio, blockage of canopy
slenderness ratio
opening ratio, permeability of a skin
up-crossing frequency; Poisson ratio; kinematic viscosity
θ torsional angle; wind direction
air density
standard deviation of the turbulence
standard deviation of alongwind acceleration
a,x
ψ reduction factor for multibay canopies
reduction factor of force coefficient for square sections with rounded corners
reduction factor of force coefficient for structural elements with end-effects
end-effect factor for circular cylinders
ψ shelter factor for walls and fences
exponent of mode shape
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
EN 1991-1-4:2005 (E)
Indices
crit critical
e external ; exposure
fr friction
i internal ; mode number
j current number of incremental area or point of a structure
m mean
p peak; parapet
ref reference
v wind velocity
x alongwind direction
y cross-wind direction
z vertical direction
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
EN 1991-1-4:2005 (E)
Section 2 Design situations

(1)P The relevant wind actions shall be determined for each design situation identified in accordance

with EN 1990, 3.2.

(2) In accordance with EN 1990, 3.2 (3)P other actions (such as snow, traffic or ice) which will modify

the effects due to wind should be taken into account.
NOTE See also EN 1991-1-3, EN 1991-2 and ISO FDIS12494

(3) In accordance with EN 1990, 3.2 (3)P, the changes to the structure during stages of execution

(such as different stages of the form of the structure, dynami
...

S L O V E N S K I SIST EN 1991-1-4
S T A N D A R D
oktober 2005
Evrokod 1: Vplivi na konstrukcije – 1-4. del: Splošni vplivi – Vplivi vetra
Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 1-4: General actions – Wind actions

Eurocode 1: Actions sur les structures – Partie 1-4: Actions générales – Actions du

vent
Eurocode 1: Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke – Teil 1-4: Allgemeine Einwirkungen –
Windlasten
5HIHUHQþQDR]QDND
ICS ICS 91.010.30 SIST EN 1991-1-4:2005 (sl)
Nadaljevanje na straneh od II do III ter od 2 do 129
!"#$%&
© 2007-11.
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 1991-1-4 : 2005
NACIONALNI UVOD

Standard SIST EN 1991-1-4 (sl), Evrokod 1: Vplivi na konstrukcije – 1-4. del: Splošni vplivi – Vplivi vetra,

2005, ima status slovenskega standarda in je istoveten evropskemu standardu EN 1991-1-4 (en),

Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 1-4: General actions – Wind actions, 2005.

NACIONALNI PREDGOVOR

Evropski standard EN 1991-1-4:2005 MH SULSUDYLO WHKQLþQL RGERU (YURSVNHJD NRPLWHMD ]D

standardizacijo CEN/TC 250 Konstrukcijski evrokodi, katerega tajništvo je v pristojnosti BSI.

Slovenski standard SIST EN 1991-1-4:2005 je prevod evropskega standarda EN 1991-1-4:2005. V

SULPHUXVSRUDJOHGHEHVHGLODVORYHQVNHJDSUHYRGDYWHPVWDQGDUGXMHRGORþLOHQL]YLUQLHYURSVNL

standard v angleškem jeziku. Slovensko izdajo standardaMHSULSUDYLOWHKQLþQLRGERU6,677&.21

Konstrukcije.
ZVEZA Z NACIONALNIMI STANDARDI

V standardu SIST EN 1991-1-4:2005 pomeni sklicevanje na evropske in mednarodne standarde, ki je

YNOMXþHQRYWDHYURSVNLVWDQGDUGVNOLFHYDQMHQDHQDNRYUHGQHVORYHQVNHVWDndarde, npr.:

EN 1991-1-4 pomeni SIST EN 1991-1-4.

V skladu s standardom EN 1991-1-4:2005 bo pripravljen nacionalni dodatek k standardu

SIST EN 1991-1-4:20051DFLRQDOQLGRGDWHNYVHEXMHDOWHUQDWLYQHSRVWRSNHYUHGQRVWLLQSULSRURþLOD]D

razrede z opombamLNLNDåHMRNMHVHODKNRXYHOMDYLQDFLRQDOQD izbira. Zato bo nacionalni dodatek

SIST EN 1991-1-4/A101 YVHERYDO QDFLRQDOQR GRORþHQH SDUDPHWUH NL MLK MH WUHED XSRUDELWL SUL

SURMHNWLUDQMXVWDYELQJUDGEHQLKLQåHQLUVNLKREMHNWRYNLERGRzgrajeni v Republiki Sloveniji.

Nacionalna izbira je v SIST EN 1991-1-4:2005 dovoljena v:
1.1 (11) Opomba 1 7.2.2 (2) Opomba 1
1.5 (2) 7.2.8 (1)
4.1 (1) 7.2.9 (2)
4.2 (1)P Opomba 2 7.2.10 (3) Opombi 1 in 2
4.2 (2)P Opombe 1, 2, 3 in 5 7.4.1 (1)
4.3.1 (1) Opombi 1 in 2 7.4.3 (2)
4.3.2 (1) 7.6 (1) Opomba 1
4.3.2 (2) 7.7 (1) Opomba 1
4.3.3 (1) 7.8 (1)
4.3.4 (1) 7.10 (1) Opomba 1
4.3.5 (1) 7.11 (1) Opomba 2
4.4 (1) Opomba 2 7.13 (1)
4.5 (1) Opombi 1 in 2 7.13 (2)
5.3 (5) 8.1 (1) Opombi 1 in 2
6.1 (1) 8.1 (4)
6.3.1 (1) Opomba 3 8.1 (5)
6.3.2 (1) 8.2 (1) Opomba 1
7.1.2 (2) 8.3 (1)
7.1.3 (1) 8.3.1 (2)
7.2.1 (1) Opomba 2 8.3.2 (1)
7.2.2 (1) 8.3.3 (1) Opomba 1
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 1991-1-4 : 2005
8.3.4 (1) E.1.5.2.6 (1) Opomba 1
8.4.2 (1) Opombi 1 in 2 E.1.5.3 (2) Opomba 1
A.2 (1) E.1.5.3 (4)
E.1.3.3 (1) E.1.5.3 (6)
E.1.5.1 (1) Opombi 1 in 2 E.3 (2)
E.1.5.1 (3)
PREDHODNA IZDAJA

SIST ENV 1991-2-4:1998 Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures – Part 2-4: Actions

on structures – Wind actions
OPOMBE
– Povsod, kjer se v besedilu standarda uporablja izraz “evropski standard”, v
SIST EN 1991-1-4:2005 to pomeni “slovenski standard”.
– Nacionalni uvod in nacionalni predgovor nista sestavni del standarda.

– Ta nacionalni dokument je istoveten EN 1991-1-4:2005 in je objavljen z dovoljenjem

CEN
Rue de Stassart 36
1050 Bruselj
Belgija

– This national document is identical with EN 1991-1-4:2005 and is published with the permission of

CEN
Rue de Stassart, 36
1050 Bruxelles
Belgium
III
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 1991-1-4 : 2005
(Prazna stran)
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
EVROPSKI STANDARD EN 1991-1-4
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM april 2005
ICS 91.010.30 1DGRPHãþD(191991-2-4:1995
Slovenska izdaja
Evrokod 1: Vplivi na konstrukcije – 1-4. del: Splošni vplivi – Vplivi vetra

Eurocode 1 – Actions on structures – Eurocode 1 – Actions sur les Eurocode 1 – Einwirkungen auf

Part 1-4: General actions – Wind structures – Partie 1-4: Actions Tragwerke – Teil 1-4:

actions générales – Actions du vent Allgemeine Einwirkungen –
Windlasten
Ta evropski standard je CEN sprejel dne 4. junija 2004.

ýODQLFH &(1 PRUDMR L]SROQMHYDWL QRWUDQMH SUHGSLVH SRVORYQLND &(1&(1(/(& V NDWHULPL MH

predpisano, da mora biti ta standard brez kakršnihkoli sprememb sprejet kot nacionalni standard.

Seznami najnovejših izdaj teh nacionalnih standardov in njihovi bibliografski podatki so na voljo pri

RVUHGQMHPVHNUHWDULDWXDOLþODQLFDK&(1

Ta evropski standard obstaja v treh izvirnih izdajah (angleški, francoski, nemški). Izdaje v drugih

MH]LNLKNLMLKþODQLFH&(1QD ODVWQRRGJRYRUQRVWSUHYHGHMR LQ L]GDMRWHUSULMDYLMR pri osrednjem

sekretariatu CEN, veljajo kot uradne izdaje.

ýODQLFH&(1VRQDFLRQDOQHXVWDQRYH]DVWDQGDUGL]DFLMR$YVWULMH%HOJLMH&LSUDýHãNHUHSXEOLNH

'DQVNH (VWRQLMH )LQVNH )UDQFLMH *UþLMH ,UVNH ,VODQGLMH ,WDOLMH /DWYLMH /LWYH /XNVHPEXUJD,

0DGåDUVNH 0DOWH 1HPþLMH 1L]R]HPVNH 1RUYHãNH 3ROMVNH 3RUWXJDOVNH 6ORYDãNH 6ORYHQLMH

âSDQLMHâYHGVNHâYLFHLQ=GUXåHQHJDNUDOMHVWYD
CEN
Evropski komite za standardizacijo
European Committee for Standardization
Europäisches Komitee für Normung
Comité Européen de Normalisation
Upravni center: Rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Bruselj
!’ (*)+
© 2005 CEN Lastnice avtorskih pravic so . Ref. št. EN 1991-1-4:2005: E
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 1991-1-4 : 2005
Vsebina Stran

1 Splošno ................................................................................................................................................ 9

1.1 3RGURþMHXSRUDEH.............................................................................................................................. 9

1.2 Zveze z drugimi standardi................................................................................................................. 9

1.3 Predpostavke.................................................................................................................................. 10

1.4 5D]OLNDPHGQDþHOLLQSUDYLOL ........................................................................................................... 10

1.5 Projektiranje, oprto na preskušanje in meritve .............................................................................. 10

1.6 Definicije ......................................................................................................................................... 10

1.7 Simboli ............................................................................................................................................ 11

2 Projektna stanja ................................................................................................................................. 15

3 Modeliranje vplivov vetra ................................................................................................................... 15

3.1 Narava vetra ................................................................................................................................... 15

3.2 Predstavitev vplivov vetra ............................................................................................................... 15

3.3 Razvrstitev vplivov vetra ................................................................................................................. 15

3.4 .DUDNWHULVWLþQHYUHGQRVWL ................................................................................................................ 15

3.5 Modeli ............................................................................................................................................. 16

4 Hitrost in tlak vetra ............................................................................................................................. 16

4.1 2VQRYHUDþXQDQMD........................................................................................................................... 16

4.2 Osnovne vrednosti.......................................................................................................................... 16

4.3 Srednji veter.................................................................................................................................... 17

4.3.1 Spreminjanje z višino................................................................................................................... 17

4.3.2 Hrapavost terena ......................................................................................................................... 17

4.3.3 Hribovitost terena......................................................................................................................... 19

4.3.4 9HOLNHLQREþXWQRYLãMHVRVHGQMHNRQVWUXNFLMH.............................................................................. 19

4.3.5 %OL]XVWRMHþHVWDYEHLQRYLUH ........................................................................................................ 19

4.4 Vetrna turbulenca............................................................................................................................ 19

4.5 Tlak pri QDMYHþMLhitrosti ob sunkih vetra.......................................................................................... 20

5 Vplivi vetra ......................................................................................................................................... 21

5.1 Splošno ........................................................................................................................................... 21

5.2 Tlak vetra na ploskve...................................................................................................................... 21

5.3 Sile vetra ......................................................................................................................................... 22

6 Konstrukcijski faktor c c .................................................................................................................... 23

s d

6.1 Splošno ........................................................................................................................................... 23

6.2 'RORþLWHYF c .................................................................................................................................. 23

s d

6.3 Podrobni postopek.......................................................................................................................... 24

6.3.1 Konstrukcijski faktor c c .............................................................................................................. 24

s d

6.3.2 Ocena uporabnosti ...................................................................................................................... 25

6.3.3 IntHUIHUHQþQLXþLQHN ..................................................................................................................... 25

7 Koeficienti tlaka in sile ....................................................................................................................... 25

7.1 Splošno ........................................................................................................................................... 25

7.1.1 ,]ELUDDHURGLQDPLþQHJDNRHILFLHQWD ............................................................................................. 26

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 1991-1-4 : 2005

7.1.2 $VLPHWULþQLLQXJRGQRGHOXMRþLWODNLLQVLOH ................................................................................... 26

7.1.3 8þLQHNOHGXLQVQHJD ................................................................................................................... 27

7.2 Koeficienti tlaka za stavbe .............................................................................................................. 27

7.2.1 Splošno ........................................................................................................................................ 27

7.2.2 1DYSLþQHVWHQHVWDYEVSUDYRNRWQLPWORULVRP ............................................................................. 28

7.2.3 Ravne strehe................................................................................................................................ 31

7.2.4 Enokapnice .................................................................................................................................. 33

7.2.5 Dvokapnice in koritaste strehe..................................................................................................... 35

7.2.6 Štirikapnice .................................................................................................................................. 38

7.2.7 9HþVOHPHQVNHVWUHKH .................................................................................................................. 40

7.2.8 Ukrivljene strehe in kupole........................................................................................................... 42

7.2.9 Notranji tlaki ................................................................................................................................. 43

7.2.10 7ODNQDYHþVORMQHVWHQHLQVWUHKH .............................................................................................. 45

7.3 Nadstrešnice................................................................................................................................... 46

7.4 3URVWRVWRMHþHVWHQHSDUDSHWLRJUDMHLQR]QDþHYDOQHWDEOH ........................................................... 52

7.4.1 3URVWRVWRMHþHVWHQHLQSDUDSHWL ................................................................................................... 52

7.4.2 Zavetni faktorji za stene in ograje................................................................................................ 54

7.4.3 2]QDþHYDOQHWDEOH ....................................................................................................................... 54

7.5 Koeficienti trenja ............................................................................................................................. 55

7.6 Konstrukcijski elementi s pravokotnim prerezom ........................................................................... 56

7.7 Konstukcijski elementi z ostrorobimi prerezi................................................................................... 58

7.8 Konstrukcijski elementi s pravilnim poligonalnim prerezom ........................................................... 58

7.9 .URåQLFLOLQGUL................................................................................................................................... 60

7.9.1 Koeficient zunanjega tlaka........................................................................................................... 60

7.9.2 Koeficienti sile.............................................................................................................................. 61

7.9.3 .RHILFLHQWLVLOH]DQDYSLþQHFLOLQGUHSRVWDYOMHQHYYUVWL .............................................................. 63

7.10 Krogle............................................................................................................................................ 64

7.11 3DOLþQHNRQVWUXNFLMHLQRGUL ........................................................................................................... 65

7.12 Zastave ......................................................................................................................................... 68

7.13 Efektivna vitkost l in faktor vitkosti y .......................................................................................... 69

8 Vplivi vetra na mostove...................................................................................................................... 70

8.2 ,]ELUDSRVWRSND]DUDþXQRG]LYD ..................................................................................................... 72

8.3 Koeficienti sile................................................................................................................................. 73

8.3.1 Koeficienti sile v smeri x (splošna metoda) ................................................................................. 73

8.3.2 Sile v smeri x (poenostavljena metoda)....................................................................................... 75

8.3.3 Sile vetra na preklade v smeri z................................................................................................... 76

8.3.4 Sile vetra na preklade v smeri y................................................................................................... 78

8.4 Podpore mostov.............................................................................................................................. 78

8.4.1 Smer vetra in projektna stanja..................................................................................................... 78

8.4.2 8þLQNLYHWUDQD podpore............................................................................................................... 78

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 1991-1-4 : 2005

Dodatek A (informativni): 8þLQNLWHUHQD ................................................................................................. 79

A.1 3ULND]QDMYHþMHKUDSDYRVWLUD]OLþQLKNDWHJRULMWHUHQD ..................................................................... 79

A.2 Prehod med hrapavostjo kategorij 0, I, II, III in IV .......................................................................... 80

A.3 1XPHULþQLUDþXQNRHILFLHQWDKULERYLWRVWL......................................................................................... 81

A.4 Sosednje konstrukcije .................................................................................................................... 85

A.5 =DãþLWena višina.............................................................................................................................. 86

Dodatek B (informativni): 1. pRVWRSHN]DGRORþLWHYNRQVWUXNFLMVNHJDIDNWRUMDF c ............................... 87

s d

B.1 Turbulenca vetra............................................................................................................................. 87

B.2 Konstrukcijski faktor........................................................................................................................ 88

B.3 âWHYLORREWHåE]DGLQDPLþQLRG]LY .................................................................................................. 90

B.4 3UHPLNLLQSRVSHãNL]DSUHYHUMDQMHVWDQMDXSRUDEQRVWLQDYSLþQLKNRQVWUXNFLM................................ 90

Dodatek C (informativni): 2.SRVWRSHN]DGRORþLWHYNRQVWUXNFLMVNHJDIDNWRUMDF c .............................. 93

s d

C.1 Turbulenca vetra ............................................................................................................................ 93

C.2 Konstrukcijski faktor ....................................................................................................................... 93

C.3 âWHYLORREWHåE]DGLQDPLþQLRG]LY .................................................................................................. 94

C.4 Premiki in pospeški za preverjanje stanja uporabnosti ................................................................. 94

Dodatek D (informativni): Vrednosti c c ]DUD]OLþQHYUVWHNRQVWUXNFLM .................................................. 95

s d

Dodatek E (informativni): Odcepljanje vrtincev in aeroelastiþQHQHVWDELOQRVWL .................................... 100

E.1 Odcepljanje vrtincev ..................................................................................................................... 100

E.1.1 Splošno...................................................................................................................................... 100

E.1.2 Kriterij za odcepljanje vrtincev................................................................................................... 100

E.1.3 Osnovni parametri za odcepljanje vrtincev ............................................................................... 100

E.1.4 Vpliv odcepljanja vrtincev.......................................................................................................... 103

E.1.5 5DþXQDPSOLWXGHSUHþQRQDVPHUYHWUD .................................................................................... 104

E.1.6 Ukrepi proti nihanju zaradi odcepljanja vrtincev........................................................................ 113

E.2 Galopiranje ................................................................................................................................... 113

E.2.1 Splošno...................................................................................................................................... 113

E.2.2 =DþHWQDKLWURVWYHWUD.................................................................................................................. 113

E.2.3 .ODVLþQRJDORSLUDQMHSRYH]DQLKFLOLQGURY .................................................................................. 116

E.3 ,QWHUIHUHQþQRJDORSLUDQMHGYHKDOLYHþSURVWRVWRMHþLKFLOLQGURY.................................................... 118

E.4 Divergenca in frfotanje ................................................................................................................. 118

E.4.1 Splošno...................................................................................................................................... 118

E.4.2 .ULWHULML]DSORãþDWHNRQVWUXNFLMH ................................................................................................ 119

E.4.3 'LYHUJHQþQDKLWURVW ................................................................................................................... 119

'RGDWHN) LQIRUPDWLYQL 'LQDPLþQHNDUDNWHULVWLNHNRQVWUXNFLM.......................................................... 121

F.1 Splošno......................................................................................................................................... 121

F.2 Prva lastna frekvenca ................................................................................................................... 121

F.3 Prva lastna nihajna oblika............................................................................................................. 125

F.4 Ekvivalentna masa........................................................................................................................ 126

F.5 /RJDULWPLþQRXSDGDQMHGXãHQMD.................................................................................................... 127

Literatura.............................................................................................................................................. 129

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 1991-1-4 : 2005
Predgovor

Ta dokument EN 1991-1-4:2005 MHSULSUDYLOWHKQLþQLRGERU&(17&.RQVWUXNFLMVNLHYURNRGL

katerega sekretariat je na BSI.

Ta evropski standard mora postati nacionalni standard z objavo istovetnega besedila ali z uradno

razglasitvijo najpozneje do oktobra 2005, nacionalni standardi, ki so z njim v nasprotju, pa morajo biti

umaknjeni najpozneje marca 2010.

3R GRORþLOLK notranjih predpisov CEN/CENELEC morajo ta evropski standard uvesti nacionalne

RUJDQL]DFLMH]DVWDQGDUGL]DFLMRQDVOHGQMLKGUåDY$YVWULMH%HOJLMH&LSUDýHãNHUHSXEOLNH'DQVNH

Estonije)LQVNH)UDQFLMH*UþLMH,VODQGLMH,UVNH,WDOLMH/DWYLMH/LWYH/XNVHPEXUJD0DGåDUVNH

0DOWH1HPþLMH1L]R]HPVNH1RUYHãNH3ROMVNH3RUWXJDOVNH6ORYDãNH6ORYHQLMHâSDQLMHâYHGVNH

âYLFHLQ=GUXåHQHJDNUDOMHVWYD
7DHYURSVNLVWDQGDUGQDGRPHãþD(19-2-4: 1995.
CEN/TC 250 je odgovoren za vse konstrukcijske evrokode.
Ozadje programa evrokodov

Komisija Evropskih skupnosti se je letaQDSRGODJLþOHQD5LPVNHSRJRGEHRGORþLODGD

VSUHMPHDNFLMVNLSURJUDPQDSRGURþMXJUDGEHQLãWYD&LOMSURJUDPDMHELORGVWUDQLWLWHKQLþQHRYLUHSri

trgovanju in uskladitiWHKQLþQe specifikacije.

Znotraj tega programa je Komisija spodbudila pripravo niza XVNODMHQLKWHKQLþQLKSUDYLO]DSURMHNWLUDQMH

gradbenih objektov, ki bi se sprva uporabljala NRW DOWHUQDWLYD UD]OLþQLP SUDYLORP YHOMDYQLP Y

pRVDPH]QLKGUåDYDKþODQLFDKNRQþQRSDELMLKnadomestila v celoti.

.RPLVLMDMHVSRPRþMRXSUDYQHJDRGERUDYNDWHUHPVRELOLSUHGVWDYQLNLGUåDYþODQLFSHWQDMVWOHWYRGLOD

razvoj programa evrokodov, katerega rezultat je bila prva generacija evrokodov v osemdesetih letih

20. stoletja.

/HWDVRVH.RPLVLMDLQGUåDYHþODQLFH(8LQ()7$RGORþLOHGDQDSRGODJLGRJRYRUD med

.RPLVLMRLQ&(1]YHþSRREODVWLOLSUHQHVHWDSULSUDYRLQREMDYOMDQMHHYURNRGRYQD&(1GDELHYURNRGL

YSULKRGQMHLPHOLVWDWXVHYURSVNLKVWDQGDUGRY (1 7RMHHYURNRGHGHMDQVNRSRYH]DOR]GRORþEDPL

YVHKGLUHNWLY6YHWDLQDOLRGORþEDPL.RPLVLMHNLVHQDQDãDMRQDHYURSVNHVWDQGDUGH QSU'LUHNWLYD

Sveta 89/106/EGS o gradbenih proizvodih (CPD) in Direktive Sveta 93/37/EGS, 92/50/EGS ter

89/440/EGS o javnih delih in storitvah ter ustrezne direktive EFTA, ki so bile sprejete za uveljavitev

notranjega trga).

3URJUDPNRQVWUXNFLMVNLKHYURNRGRYREVHJDQDVOHGQMHVWDQGDUGHNLLPDMRQDVSORãQRYHþGHORY

EN 1990 Evrokod: Osnove projektiranja konstrukcij
EN 1991 Evrokod 1: Vplivi na konstrukcije
EN 1992 Evrokod 2: Projektiranje betonskih konstrukcij
EN 1993 Evrokod 3: Projektiranje jeklenih konstrukcij
EN 1994 Evrokod 4: 3URMHNWLUDQMHVRYSUHåQLKMHNOHQLKLQEHWRQVNLKNRQVWUXNFLM
EN 1995 Evrokod 5: Projektiranje lesenih konstrukcij
EN 1996 Evrokod 6: Projektiranje zidanih konstrukcij
EN 1997 Evrokod 7: *HRWHKQLþQRSURMHNWLUDQMH

Dogovor med Komisijo Evropske skupnosti in Evropskim odborom za standardizacijo (CEN) o pripravi evrokodov za

projektiranje stavb in gradbenih ,-./-0,1243,57698:/93;6<7=>@?#A? BDC*AE0FAG0HI.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 1991-1-4 : 2005
EN 1998 Evrokod 8: Projektiranje potresnoodpornih konstrukcij
EN 1999 Evrokod 9: Projektiranje aluminijskih konstrukcij

Evrokodi priznavajRRGJRYRUQRVWSULVWRMQLKREODVWLYYVDNLGUåDYLþODQLFLLQMLPGRSXãþDMRSUDYLFR, da

vrednosti, povezane z varnostjo, GRORþDMRna nacionalni ravni,RGGUåDYHGRGUåDYHUD]OLþQR

6WDWXVLQSRGURþMHYHOMDYQRVWLHYURNRGRY

ýODQLFH(8LQ()7$SUL]QDYDMRHYURNRGHNRWUHIHUHQþQHGRNXPHQWH]DQDVOHGQMHQDPHQH

– NRWQDþLQ]Ddokazovanje ustreznosti stavb in gradbenih LQåHQLUVNLKREMHNWRYELVWYHQLP]DKWHYDP

Direktive Sveta 89/106/EGS, zlasti bistveni zahtevi št. 1 »Mehanska odpornost in stabilnost« in

ELVWYHQL]DKWHYLãWª9DUQRVWSULSRåDUX©

– kot podlago za specifikacijo pogodb za izvedbo gradbenih objektov in VSUHPOMDMRþHLQåHQLUVNH

storitve;

– kot okvir ]DSULSUDYRKDUPRQL]LUDQLKWHKQLþQLh specifikacij za gradbene proizvode (EN in ETA).

Ker se evrokodi nanašajo na gradbene objekte, so neposredno povezani z razlagalnimi dokumenti ,

QDYHGHQLPLYþOHQX'LUHNWLYHRJUDGEHQLKSURL]YRGLK &3' þHSUDYMHQMLKRYDQDUDYDGUXJDþQDRG

narave harmoniziranih standardov za proizvode =DWRPRUDMRWHKQLþQLRGERUL&(1LQDOLGHORYQH

VNXSLQH(27$NLSULSUDYOMDMRVWDQGDUGH]DSURL]YRGHXSRãWHYDWLWHKQLþQHYLGLNHHYURNRGRYGDELV

WHPGRVHJOLSRSROQRXVNODMHQRVWWHKQLþQLKVSHFLILNDFLM]HYURNRGL

Evrokodi vsebujejo skupna pravila za vsakdanjo rabo pri projektiranju RELþDMLK LQ LQRYDWLYQLK

konstrukcij kot celote ali posameznih konstrukcijskih delov. Evrokodi ne vsebujejo posebnih GRORþil za

nenavadne oblike konstrukcij ali nenavadne projektne pogoje. V teh primerih je potreben dodaten

strokoven razmislek projektanta.
Nacionalne izdaje evrokodov

Nacionalna izdaja evrokoda vsebuje poleg celotnega besedila evrokoda (z vsemi dodatki), kot ga je

objavil CEN, tudi morebitno nacionalno naslovnico, nacionalni predgovor in nacionalni dodatek.

Nacionalni dodatek lahko vsebuje le podatke o parametrih, ki so v evrokodu navedeni kot nacionalno

GRORþHQL SDUDPHWUL 1'3  7L SDUDPHWUL YHOMDMR ]D SURMHNWLUDQMH NRQVWUXNFLM VWDYE LQ gradbenih

LQåHQLUVNLKREMHNWRYYGUåDYLYNDWHULERGR]JUDMHQLTo so:
– vrednostiLQDOLUD]UHGLNMHUHYURNRGLGRSXãþDMRDOWHUQDWLYH
– vrednosti, kjer evrokodi navajajo le simbole;

– SRGDWNLVSHFLILþQL]DGUåDYR JHRJUDIVNLpodnebni itn.), kot je npr. karta snega;

– SRVWRSHNþHMLKHYURNRGGRSXãþDYHþ
– RGORþLWHYRXSRUDELLQIRUPDWLYQLKGRGDWNRY

– QDSRWNLRGRGDWQLKLQIRUPDFLMDKNLQLVRYQDVSURWMX]HYURNRGL]DSRPRþXSRUDEQLNX

JK23LM4NOP2QFRFTSL/-60UV? WDXY:/Z;1/84M[89,2; zveza med bistvenimi
...

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