Wind energy generation systems - Part 27-1: Electrical simulation models - Generic models (IEC 61400-27-1:2020)

This part of IEC 61400 defines standard electrical simulation models for wind turbines and wind
power plants. The specified models are time domain positive sequence simulation models,
intended to be used in power system and grid stability analyses. The models are applicable for
dynamic simulations of short term stability in power systems.
This document defines the generic terms and parameters for the electrical simulation models.
This document specifies electrical simulation models for the generic wind power plant
topologies / configurations currently on the market. The wind power plant models include wind
turbines, wind power plant control and auxiliary equipment. The wind power plant models are
described in a modular way which can be applied for future wind power plant concepts and with
different wind turbine concepts.
This document specifies electrical simulation models for the generic wind turbine
topologies/concepts/configurations currently on the market. The purpose of the models is to
specify the electrical characteristics of a wind turbine at the wind turbine terminals. The wind
turbine models are described in a modular way which can be applied for future wind turbine
concepts. The specified wind turbine models can either be used in wind power plant models or
to represent wind turbines without wind power plant relationships.
The electrical simulation models specified in IEC 61400-27-1 are independent of any software
simulation tool.

Windenergieanlagen - Teil 27-1: Elektrische Simulationsmodelle - Generische Modelle (IEC 61400-27-1:2020)

Systèmes de génération d’énergie éolienne - Partie 27-1: Modèles de simulation électrique - Modèles génériques (IEC 61400-27-1:2020)

Sistemi za proizvodnjo energije na veter - 27-1. del: Električni simulacijski modeli - Splošni modeli (IEC 61400-27-1:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Sep-2020
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
21-Sep-2020
Due Date
26-Nov-2020
Completion Date
22-Sep-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 61400-27-1:2020
01-november-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 61400-27-1:2015

Sistemi za proizvodnjo energije na veter - 27-1. del: Električni simulacijski modeli -

Splošni modeli (IEC 61400-27-1:2020)

Wind energy generation systems - Part 27-1: Electrical simulation models - Generic

models (IEC 61400-27-1:2020)

Windenergieanlagen - Teil 27-1: Elektrische Simulationsmodelle - Generische Modelle

(IEC 61400-27-1:2020)
Systèmes de génération d’énergie éolienne - Partie 27-1: Modèles de simulation
électrique - Modèles génériques (IEC 61400-27-1:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 61400-27-1:2020
ICS:
27.180 Vetrne elektrarne Wind turbine energy systems
SIST EN IEC 61400-27-1:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-1:2020
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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-1:2020
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 61400-27-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
September 2020
ICS 21.180 Supersedes EN 61400-27-1:2015 and all of its
amendments and corrigenda (if any)
English Version
Wind energy generation systems - Part 27-1: Electrical
simulation models - Generic models
(IEC 61400-27-1:2020)

Systèmes de génération d'énergie éolienne - Partie 27-1: Windenergieanlagen - Teil 27-1: Elektrische

Modèles de simulation électrique - Modèles génériques Simulationsmodelle - Generische Modelle

(IEC 61400-27-1:2020) (IEC 61400-27-1:2020)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2020-09-03. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 61400-27-1:2020 E
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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-1:2020
EN IEC 61400-27-1:2020 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 88/762/FDIS, future edition 2 of IEC 61400-27-1, prepared by IEC/TC 88 "Wind

energy generation systems" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by

CENELEC as EN IEC 61400-27-1:2020.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2021-06-03

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2023-09-03

document have to be withdrawn

This document supersedes EN 61400-27-1:2015 and all of its amendments and corrigenda (if any).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 61400-27-1:2020 was approved by CENELEC as a

European Standard without any modification.
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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-1:2020
EN IEC 61400-27-1:2020 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the

relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available

here: www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60050-415 1999 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - - -
Part 415: Wind turbine generator systems
IEC 61970-301 - Energy management system application EN IEC 61970-301 -
program interface (EMS-API) - Part 301:
Common information model (CIM) base
IEC 61970-302 - Energy management system application EN IEC 61970-302 -
program interface (EMS-API) - Part 302:
Common information model (CIM)
dynamics
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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-1:2020
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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-1:2020
IEC 61400-27-1
Edition 2.0 2020-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Wind energy generation systems –
Part 27-1: Electrical simulation models – Generic models
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 27.180 ISBN 978-2-8322-8505-3

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-1:2020
– 2 – IEC 61400-27-1:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 8

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 10

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 12

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 12

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviations and subscripts ............................................................ 12

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 12

3.2 Abbreviations and subscripts ................................................................................ 16

3.2.1 Abbreviations ................................................................................................. 16

3.2.2 Subscripts ..................................................................................................... 18

4 Symbols and units ......................................................................................................... 19

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 19

4.2 Symbols (units) ..................................................................................................... 19

5 Functional specification of models ................................................................................. 23

5.1 General specifications ........................................................................................... 23

5.2 Wind turbine models ............................................................................................. 24

5.3 Wind power plant models ...................................................................................... 25

6 Formal specification of modular structures of models ..................................................... 25

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 25

6.2 Wind turbine models ............................................................................................. 26

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 26

6.2.2 Type 1 ........................................................................................................... 26

6.2.3 Type 2 ........................................................................................................... 28

6.2.4 Type 3 ........................................................................................................... 30

6.2.5 Type 4 ........................................................................................................... 32

6.3 Auxiliary equipment models .................................................................................. 37

6.3.1 STATCOM ..................................................................................................... 37

6.3.2 Other auxiliary equipment .............................................................................. 38

6.4 Wind power plant models ...................................................................................... 38

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 38

6.4.2 Wind power plant control and communication ................................................ 39

6.4.3 Basic wind power plant .................................................................................. 40

6.4.4 Wind power plant with reactive power compensation ..................................... 41

7 Formal specification of modules .................................................................................... 42

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 42

7.2 Aerodynamic modules ........................................................................................... 43

7.2.1 Constant aerodynamic torque module ............................................................ 43

7.2.2 One-dimensional aerodynamic module .......................................................... 44

7.2.3 Two-dimensional aerodynamic module .......................................................... 44

7.3 Mechanical modules ............................................................................................. 46

7.3.1 Two mass module .......................................................................................... 46

7.3.2 Other mechanical modules ............................................................................ 46

7.4 Generator and converter system modules ............................................................. 46

7.4.1 Asynchronous generator module .................................................................... 46

7.4.2 Type 3A generator system module ................................................................. 47

7.4.3 Type 3B generator system module ................................................................. 48

7.4.4 Type 4 generator system module ................................................................... 49

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7.4.5 Reference frame rotation module ................................................................... 50

7.5 Electrical systems modules ................................................................................... 51

7.5.1 Electrical systems gamma module ................................................................. 51

7.5.2 Other electrical systems modules .................................................................. 52

7.6 Pitch control modules ............................................................................................ 52

7.6.1 Pitch control power module ............................................................................ 52

7.6.2 Pitch angle control module............................................................................. 53

7.7 Generator and converter control modules ............................................................. 54

7.7.1 Rotor resistance control module .................................................................... 54

7.7.2 P control module type 3 ................................................................................. 55

7.7.3 P control module type 4A ............................................................................... 58

7.7.4 P control module type 4B ............................................................................... 59

7.7.5 Q control module ........................................................................................... 60

7.7.6 Current limitation module ............................................................................... 63

7.7.7 Constant Q limitation module ......................................................................... 64

7.7.8 QP and QU limitation module ......................................................................... 65

7.8 Grid interfacing modules ....................................................................................... 66

7.8.1 Grid protection module .................................................................................. 66

7.8.2 Grid measurement module ............................................................................. 67

7.9 Wind power plant control modules......................................................................... 68

7.9.1 WP P control module ..................................................................................... 68

7.9.2 WP Q control module ..................................................................................... 69

7.10 Communication modules ....................................................................................... 71

7.10.1 General ......................................................................................................... 71

7.10.2 Communication delay module ........................................................................ 71

7.10.3 Linear communication module ....................................................................... 71

7.11 Electrical components modules ............................................................................. 72

7.11.1 Line module ................................................................................................... 72

7.11.2 Transformer module ...................................................................................... 72

7.11.3 Other electrical components modules ............................................................ 72

Annex A (informative) Estimation of parameters for single branch power collection

system model........................................................................................................................ 73

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 73

A.2 Description of method ........................................................................................... 73

A.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 73

A.2.2 Lines aggregation .......................................................................................... 73

A.2.3 Wind turbine transformers aggregation .......................................................... 74

A.3 Numerical example ............................................................................................... 75

Annex B (informative) Two-dimensional aerodynamic model ................................................ 78

B.1 Objective .............................................................................................................. 78

B.2 Wind speed input model ........................................................................................ 78

B.3 Parameters for power input module ....................................................................... 80

Annex C (informative) Implementation of generator systems modules with external

impedance ............................................................................................................................ 81

Annex D (normative) Block symbol library ............................................................................ 84

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 84

D.2 Switch ................................................................................................................... 84

D.3 Time step delay .................................................................................................... 84

D.4 Stand-alone ramp rate limiter ................................................................................ 85

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D.5 First order filter ..................................................................................................... 85

D.6 Lookup table ......................................................................................................... 86

D.7 Comparator ........................................................................................................... 86

D.8 Timer .................................................................................................................... 87

D.9 Anti windup integrator ........................................................................................... 88

D.10 Integrator with reset .............................................................................................. 88

D.11 First order filter with limitation detection ................................................................ 89

D.12 Rising edge detection ........................................................................................... 89

D.13 Falling edge detection ........................................................................................... 90

D.14 Delay flag ............................................................................................................. 90

D.15 Variable delay flag ................................................................................................ 91

D.16 Dead band ............................................................................................................ 92

D.17 Circuit breaker ...................................................................................................... 92

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 93

Figure 1 – Classification of power system stability according to IEEE/CIGRE Joint Task

Force on Stability Terms and Definitions [9] .......................................................................... 10

Figure 2 – Generic structure of WT models ........................................................................... 26

Figure 3 – Modular structure of the type 1A WT model .......................................................... 27

Figure 4 – Modular structure of the type 1B WT model .......................................................... 28

Figure 5 – Modular structure of the type 2 WT model ............................................................ 29

Figure 6 – Modular structure of the type 3A and type 3B WT models .................................... 30

Figure 7 – Modular generator control sub-structure of the type 3A and type 3B models......... 31

Figure 8 – Modular structure of the type 4A WT model .......................................................... 33

Figure 9 – Modular generator control sub-structure of the type 4A model .............................. 34

Figure 10 – Modular structure of the type 4B WT model ........................................................ 35

Figure 11 – Modular generator control sub-structure of the type 4B model ............................ 36

Figure 12 – Modular structure of STATCOM model ............................................................... 37

Figure 13 – Modular structure of the STATCOM control model .............................................. 37

Figure 14 – General structure of WP model .......................................................................... 38

Figure 15 – General modular structure of WP control and communication block .................... 39

Figure 16 – Single line diagram for basic WP model ............................................................. 40

Figure 17 – Single line diagram for WP model with reactive power compensation ................. 41

Figure 18 – Block diagram for constant aerodynamic torque module ..................................... 44

Figure 19 – Block diagram for one-dimensional aerodynamic module .................................... 44

Figure 20 – Block diagram for two-dimensional aerodynamic module .................................... 45

Figure 21 – Block diagram for two mass module ................................................................... 46

Figure 22 – Block diagram for type 3A generator system module .......................................... 47

Figure 23 – Block diagram for type 3B generator system module .......................................... 49

Figure 24 – Block diagram for type 4 generator system module ............................................ 50

Figure 25 – Block diagram for the reference frame rotation module ....................................... 51

Figure 26 – Single line diagram for electrical systems gamma module .................................. 52

Figure 27 – Block diagram for pitch control power module .................................................... 53

Figure 28 – Block diagram for pitch angle control module ..................................................... 54

Figure 29 – Block diagram for rotor resistance control module .............................................. 55

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Figure 30 – Block diagram for type 3 P control module ......................................................... 57

Figure 31 – Block diagram for type 3 torque PI ..................................................................... 58

Figure 32 – Block diagram for type 4A P control module ....................................................... 59

Figure 33 – Block diagram for type 4B P control module ....................................................... 60

Figure 34 – Block diagram for Q control module .................................................................... 62

Figure 35 – Block diagram for current limiter ......................................................................... 64

Figure 36 – Block diagram for constant Q limitation module .................................................. 65

Figure 37 – Block diagram for QP and QU limitation module ................................................. 65

Figure 38 – Block diagram for grid protection system ............................................................ 67

Figure 39 – Block diagram for u-f measurement .................................................................... 68

Figure 40 – Block diagram for WP power/frequency control module ...................................... 69

Figure 41 – Block diagram for WP reactive power/voltage control module ............................. 70

Figure 42 – Block diagram for communication delay module ................................................. 71

Figure 43 – Block diagram for linear communication module for an example with N

communication variables ....................................................................................................... 72

Figure A.1 – WP power collection system example ............................................................... 75

Figure B.1 – Turbine aerodynamics model proposed by Fortmann (2014) ............................. 78

Figure C.1 – Type 3A generator system module with parallel reactance ................................ 81

Figure C.2 – Type 3B generator system module with parallel reactance ................................ 82

Figure C.3 – Type 4 generator system module with parallel reactance .................................. 83

Figure D.1 – Block symbol for switch with a) a variable flag input and b) a constant

mode .................................................................................................................................... 84

Figure D.2 – Block symbol for single integration time step delay ........................................... 84

Figure D.3 – Block symbol for stand-alone ramp rate limiter .................................................. 85

Figure D.4 – Block diagram for implementation of the stand-alone ramp rate limiter .............. 85

Figure D.5 – Block symbol for first order filter with absolute limits, rate limits and

freeze flag ............................................................................................................................ 85

Figure D.6 – Block diagram for implementation of the first order filter with absolute

limits, rate limits and freeze state.......................................................................................... 86

Figure D.7 – Block diagram for implementation of the freeze state without filter (T = 0) ......... 86

Figure D.8 – Block symbol for lookup table ........................................................................... 86

Figure D.9 – Block symbols for comparators ......................................................................... 87

Figure D.10 – Block symbol for timer .................................................................................... 87

Figure D.11 – Function of timer ............................................................................................. 87

Figure D.12 – Block symbol for anti windup integrator ........................................................... 88

Figure D.13 – Block diagram for implementation of anti windup integrator ............................. 88

Figure D.14 – Block symbol for integrator with reset ............................................................. 88

Figure D.15 – Block symbol for first order filter with limitation detection ................................ 89

Figure D.16 – Block diagram for implementation of first order filter with limitation

detection ............................................................................................................................... 89

Figure D.17 – Block symbol rising edge detection ................................................................. 89

Figure D.18 – Block diagram for rising edge detection .......................................................... 90

Figure D.19 – Block symbol falling edge detection ................................................................ 90

Figure D.20 – Block diagram for falling edge detection ......................................................... 90

Figure D.21 – Block symbol for delay flag ............................................................................. 90

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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-1:2020
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Figure D.22 – Block diagram for implementation of delay flag ............................................... 91

Figure D.23 – Block symbol for delay flag ............................................................................. 91

Figure D.24 – Block diagram for implementation of variable delay flag .................................. 92

Figure D.25 – Block symbol dead band ................................................................................. 92

Figure D.26 – Block symbol for circuit breaker ...................................................................... 92

Table 1 – Modules used in type 1A model ............................................................................. 27

Table 2 – Modules used in type 1B model ............................................................................. 28

Table 3 – Modules used in type 2 model ............................................................................... 29

Table 4 – Modules used in type 3A model ............................................................................. 31

Table 5 – Modules used in type 3B model ............................................................................. 32

Table 6 – Modules used in type 4A model ............................................................................. 34

Table 7 – Modules used in type 4B model ............................................................................. 36

Table 8 – Modules used in STATCOM model ........................................................................ 38

Table 9 – Modules used in WP control and communication model ..................
...

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