Electric double-layer capacitors for use in hybrid electric vehicles - Test methods for electrical characteristics

This document describes the methods for testing electrical characteristics of electric
double-layer capacitor cells (hereinafter referred to as "capacitor") used for peak power
assistance in hybrid electric vehicles.
All the tests in this document are type tests.
This document can also be applicable to the capacitor used in idling reduction systems (start
and-stop systems) for the vehicles.
This document can also be applicable to the capacitor modules consisting of more than one
cell.
NOTE Annex E provides information on endurance cycling test.

Elektrische Doppelschichtkondensatoren für die Verwendung in Hybridelektrofahrzeugen - Prüfverfahren für die elektrischen Kennwerte

Condensateurs électriques à double couche pour véhicules électriques hybrides - Méthodes d'essai des caractéristiques électriques

NEW!IEC 62576:2018 est disponible sous forme de IEC 62576:2018 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente. L'IEC 62576:2018 décrit les méthodes d'essai des caractéristiques électriques des cellules de condensateur électrique à double couche (ci-après dénommé "condensateur") utilisées pour l'assistance en puissance de crête dans les véhicules électriques hybrides. Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2009. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente: a) des informations sur le champ d'application du présent document ont été ajoutées dans l'Article 1; b) les définitions de certains termes de l'Article 3 ont été améliorées; c) la description des procédures d'essai de l'Article 4 a été clarifiée; d) des informations sur l'essai cyclique d'endurance ont été ajoutées (Annexe E).

Elektronski dvoplastni kondenzatorji za hibridna električna vozila - Metode za preskušanje električnih karakteristik

Ta dokument opisuje metode za preskušanje električnih karakteristik celic elektronskih dvoplastnih kondenzatorjev (v nadaljevanju »kondenzator«), ki se uporabljajo kot podpora vršni moči v hibridnih električnih vozilih.
Vsi preskusi, obravnavani v tem dokumentu, so tipski preskusi.
Ta dokument je mogoče uporabljati tudi za kondenzator, ki se uporablja v sistemih za skrajšanje časa prostega teka vozil (sistemi zagon-zaustavitev).
Ta dokument je mogoče uporabljati tudi za kondenzatorske module, ki so sestavljeni iz več kot ene celice.
OPOMBA: Dodatek E podaja informacije o cikličnem preskusu vzdržljivosti.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Sep-2018
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Jul-2018
Due Date
10-Sep-2018
Completion Date
07-Sep-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 62576:2018
01-oktober-2018
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 62576:2010
(OHNWURQVNLGYRSODVWQLNRQGHQ]DWRUML]DKLEULGQDHOHNWULþQDYR]LOD0HWRGH]D
SUHVNXãDQMHHOHNWULþQLKNDUDNWHULVWLN

Electric double-layer capacitors for use in hybrid electric vehicles - Test methods for

electrical characteristics

Elektrische Doppelschichtkondensatoren für die Verwendung in Hybridelektrofahrzeugen

- Prüfverfahren für die elektrischen Kennwerte
Condensateurs électriques à double couche pour véhicules électriques hybrides -
Méthodes d'essai des caractéristiques électriques
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 62576:2018
ICS:
31.060.01 Kondenzatorji na splošno Capacitors in general
43.120 (OHNWULþQDFHVWQDYR]LOD Electric road vehicles
SIST EN IEC 62576:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62576:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62576:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 62576
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
June 2018
ICS 31.060.99; 43.120 Supersedes EN 62576:2010
English Version
Electric double-layer capacitors for use in hybrid electric vehicles
- Test methods for electrical characteristics
(IEC 62576:2018)

Condensateurs électriques à double couche pour véhicules Elektrische Doppelschichtkondensatoren für die

électriques hybrides - Méthodes d'essai des Verwendung in Hybridelektrofahrzeugen - Prüfverfahren für

caractéristiques électriques die elektrischen Kennwerte
(IEC 62576:2018) (IEC 62576:2018)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2018-03-27. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 62576:2018 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62576:2018
EN IEC 62576:2018
European foreword

The text of document 69/486/CDV, future edition 2 of IEC 62576, prepared by IEC/TC 69 "Electric

road vehicles and electric industrial trucks" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and

approved by CENELEC as EN IEC 62576:2018.
The following dates are fixed:
(dop) 2018-12-27
• latest date by which the document has to be
implemented at national level by
publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
• latest date by which the national (dow) 2021-03-27
standards conflicting with the
document have to be withdrawn
This document supersedes EN 62576:2010.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62576:2018 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 61881-3:2012 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61881-3:2012 (not modified).

IEC 61881-3:2012/A1:2013 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61881-3:2012/A1:2013 (not modified).

IEC 62391 Series NOTE Harmonized as EN 62391 Series.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62576:2018
IEC 62576
Edition 2.0 2018-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Electric double-layer capacitors for use in hybrid electric vehicles –
Test methods for electrical characteristics
Condensateurs électriques à double couche pour véhicules électriques hybrides –
Méthodes d'essai des caractéristiques électriques
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.060.99; 43.120 ISBN 978-2-8322-5341-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62576:2018
– 2 – IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Tests methods ............................................................................................................... 10

4.1 Capacitance, internal resistance, and maximum power density ............................. 10

4.1.1 Circuit for measurement ................................................................................ 10

4.1.2 Test equipment .............................................................................................. 10

4.1.3 Measurement procedure ................................................................................ 11

4.1.4 Calculation method for capacitance ............................................................... 12

4.1.5 Calculation method for internal resistance ..................................................... 12

4.1.6 Calculation method for maximum power density ............................................ 13

4.2 Voltage maintenance characteristics ..................................................................... 13

4.2.1 Circuit for measurement ................................................................................ 13

4.2.2 Test equipment .............................................................................................. 14

4.2.3 Measurement procedures .............................................................................. 15

4.2.4 Calculation of voltage maintenance rate ........................................................ 16

4.3 Energy efficiency .................................................................................................. 16

4.3.1 Circuit for test ................................................................................................ 16

4.3.2 Test equipment .............................................................................................. 16

4.3.3 Measurement procedures .............................................................................. 17

4.3.4 Calculation of energy efficiency ..................................................................... 18

Annex A (informative) Endurance test: continuous application of rated voltage at high

temperature .......................................................................................................................... 20

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 20

A.2 Test procedure ...................................................................................................... 20

A.2.1 Test condition ................................................................................................ 20

A.2.2 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 20

A.2.3 Judgment criteria ........................................................................................... 20

Annex B (informative) Heat equilibrium time of capacitors .................................................... 22

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 22

B.2 Heat equilibrium time of capacitors ....................................................................... 22

Annex C (informative) Charging/discharging efficiency and measurement current ................ 24

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 24

C.2 Charging efficiency, discharging efficiency, and current ........................................ 24

Annex D (informative) Procedures for setting the measurement current of capacitor

with uncertain nominal internal resistance ............................................................................. 26

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 26

D.2 Current setting procedures for measurement of capacitor ..................................... 26

D.3 Example of setting current for determining capacitor characteristics ..................... 26

Annex E (informative) Endurance cycling test ...................................................................... 27

E.1 General ................................................................................................................. 27

E.2 Test method .......................................................................................................... 27

E.2.1 Test temperature ........................................................................................... 27

E.2.2 Test equipment .............................................................................................. 27

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SIST EN IEC 62576:2018
IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018 – 3 –

E.2.3 Preconditioning .............................................................................................. 27

E.2.4 Initial measurements ..................................................................................... 27

E.2.5 Test steps ...................................................................................................... 27

E.2.6 Test ............................................................................................................... 28

E.2.7 End of test criteria ......................................................................................... 28

E.2.8 Post treatment ............................................................................................... 29

E.2.9 Final measurement ........................................................................................ 29

E.2.10 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 29

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 30

Figure 1 – Basic circuit for measuring capacitance, internal resistance and maximum

power density ....................................................................................................................... 10

Figure 2 – Voltage–time characteristics between capacitor terminals in capacitance

and internal resistance measurement .................................................................................... 11

Figure 3 – Basic circuit for measuring the voltage maintenance characteristics ..................... 14

Figure 4 – Time characteristics of voltage between capacitor terminals in voltage

maintenance test .................................................................................................................. 15

Figure 5 – Voltage-time characteristics between capacitor terminals in

charging/discharging efficiency test ...................................................................................... 17

Figure B.1 – Heat equilibrium times of capacitors (from 85 °C to 25 °C) ................................ 22

Figure B.2 – Heat equilibrium times of capacitors (from –40 °C to 25 °C) .............................. 23

Figure B.3 – Temperature changes of capacitors' central portions ........................................ 23

Figure E.1 – Endurance cycling test steps ............................................................................ 28

Table D.1 – Example of setting current for measurement of capacitor ................................... 26

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SIST EN IEC 62576:2018
– 4 – IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITORS FOR USE IN
HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES – TEST METHODS
FOR ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as "IEC

Publication(s)"). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and

non-governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates

closely with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined

by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62576 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 69: Electric

road vehicles and electric industrial trucks.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2009. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) information on applicability of this document has been added in Clause 1;
b) the definitions of some terms in Clause 3 have been improved;
c) the description of test procedures in Clause 4 has been clarified;
d) information on endurance cycling test has been added (Annex E).
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62576:2018
IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018 – 5 –
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
69/486/CDV 69/539/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62576:2018
– 6 – IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018
INTRODUCTION

The electric double-layer capacitor (capacitor) is used as an energy storage system for

vehicles. Capacitor-installed electric vehicles are commercialized with an eye to improving

fuel economy by recovering regenerative energy, and by peak power assistance during

acceleration, etc. Although standards for capacitors already exists (IEC 62391 series), those

for electric vehicles involve patterns of use, usage environment, and values of current that are

quite different from those assumed in the existing standards. Standard evaluation and test

methods will be useful for both auto manufacturers and capacitor suppliers to speed up the

development and lower the costs of such capacitors. With these points in mind, this document

aims to provide basic and minimum specifications in terms of the methods for testing

electrical characteristics, and to create an environment that supports the expanding market of

electric vehicles and large capacity capacitors. Additional practical test items to be

standardized should be reconsidered after technology and market stabilization of capacitors

for electric vehicles. Regarding endurance, which is important in practical use, just a basic

concept is set forth in the informative annexes.
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SIST EN IEC 62576:2018
IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018 – 7 –
ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITORS FOR USE IN
HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES – TEST METHODS
FOR ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
1 Scope

This document describes the methods for testing electrical characteristics of electric

double-layer capacitor cells (hereinafter referred to as "capacitor") used for peak power

assistance in hybrid electric vehicles.
All the tests in this document are type tests.

This document can also be applicable to the capacitor used in idling reduction systems (start

and-stop systems) for the vehicles.

This document can also be applicable to the capacitor modules consisting of more than one

cell.
NOTE Annex E provides information on endurance cycling test.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
ambient temperature
temperature of the air, in the immediate vicinity of a capacitor
3.2
applied voltage
voltage (V) applied between the terminals of a capacitor
3.3
calculation end voltage

voltage (V) at a selected end point for calculating the characteristics including capacitance

under a state of voltage decrease during discharge
3.4
calculation start voltage

voltage (V) at a selected start point for calculating the characteristics including capacitance

under a state of voltage decrease during discharge
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62576:2018
– 8 – IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018
3.5
capacitance
ability of a capacitor to store electrical charge (F)
3.6
charge accumulated electrical energy

amount of charged energy (J) accumulated from the beginning to the end of charging

3.7
charge current
current (A) required to charge a capacitor
3.8
charging efficiency

efficiency under specified charging conditions, and ratio (%) of stored energy to charge

accumulated electrical energy

Note 1 to entry: This value is calculated from the internal resistance of a capacitor.

Note 2 to entry: Refer to Formula C.8.
3.9
constant voltage charging

charging during which the voltage is maintained at a constant value regardless of charge

current or temperature
3.10
discharge accumulated electrical energy

amount of discharged energy (J) accumulated from the beginning to the end of discharging

3.11
discharge current
current (A) required to discharge a capacitor
3.12
discharging efficiency

efficiency under specified discharging conditions, and ratio (%) of discharge accumulated

electrical energy to stored energy

Note 1 to entry: This value is calculated from the internal resistance of a capacitor.

Note 2 to entry: Refer to Formula C.10.
3.13
electric double-layer capacitor
capacitor

device that stores electrical energy using a double layer in an electrochemical cell, and whose

positive and negative electrodes are of the same material

Note 1 to entry: The electrolytic capacitor is not included in capacitor of this document.

3.14
energy efficiency

ratio (%) of discharge accumulated electrical energy to charge accumulated electrical energy

under specified charging and discharging conditions
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62576:2018
IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018 – 9 –
3.15
internal resistance

combined resistance (Ω) of constituent material specific resistance and inside connection

resistance of a capacitor
3.16
maximum power density
greatest electrical power output of a capacitor per mass (W/kg) or volume (W/l)
3.17
nominal internal resistance

nominal value of the internal resistance (R ) to be used in design and measurement condition

setting (Ω), generally at the ambient temperature
3.18
post-treatment

discharging and storage of a capacitor under specified ambient conditions (temperature,

humidity, and pressure) after tests

Note 1 to entry: Generally, post-treatment implies that a capacitor is discharged and stored until its inner

temperature attains thermal equilibrium with the surrounding temperature before its electrical characteristics are

measured.
3.19
pre-conditioning

charging and discharging and storage of a capacitor under specified ambient conditions

(temperature, humidity, and pressure) before testing.

Note 1 to entry: Generally, pre-conditioning implies that a capacitor is discharged and stored until its inner

temperature attains thermal equilibrium with the surrounding temperature, before its electrical characteristics are

measured.
3.20
rated voltage

maximum DC voltage (V) that may be applied continuously for a certain time under the upper

category temperature to a capacitor so that a capacitor can exhibit specified demand

characteristics
Note 1 to entry: This voltage is the setting voltage in capacitor design.

Note 2 to entry: The endurance test using the rated voltage is described in Annex A.

3.21
ambient temperature

temperature of air in the vicinity of the device under test, in this document (25 ± 2) °C

3.22
stored energy
energy (J) stored in a capacitor
3.23
upper category temperature

highest ambient temperature at which a capacitor is designed to operate continuously

3.24
voltage maintenance characteristics

ability of a capacitor to maintain the voltage, with its terminals open, after a specified time

period subsequent to the charging
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62576:2018
– 10 – IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018
3.25
voltage maintenance rate
ratio of voltage maintenance

ratio of the voltage at the open-ended terminals to the charge voltage after a specified time

period subsequent to the charging of a capacitor
4 Tests methods
4.1 Capacitance, internal resistance, and maximum power density
4.1.1 Circuit for measurement

The capacitance and the internal resistance shall be measured by using the constant current

and constant voltage charging and the constant current discharging. Figure 1 shows the basic

circuit to be used for the measurement.
Power supply
IEC
Key
I constant-current
U constant-voltage
A DC ammeter
V DC voltage recorder
S changeover switch
Cx capacitor under test
constant current discharger
a) constant current charging
b) constant voltage charging
Figure 1 – Basic circuit for measuring capacitance, internal resistance
and maximum power density
4.1.2 Test equipment

The test equipment shall be capable of constant current charging, constant voltage charging,

constant current discharging, and continuous measurement of the current and the voltage

between the capacitor terminals in time-series as shown in Figure 2. The test equipment shall

be able to set the current and the voltage with the accuracy equal to ±1 % or less, and to measure

the current and voltage with accuracy equal to ±0,1 %.

The power supply shall provide the constant charge current for the capacitor charge with 95 %

efficiency, set the duration of constant voltage charge, and provide a discharge current

---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62576:2018
IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018 – 11 –

corresponding to the specified discharge efficiency. The DC voltage recorder shall be capable

of conducting measurements and recording with a sampling interval of 10 ms or less.

Magnified figure
Time (s)
IEC
Key
U rated voltage (V)
U calculation start voltage (V)
U calculation end voltage (V)
∆U voltage drop (V)
T constant voltage charging duration (s)
Figure 2 – Voltage–time characteristics between capacitor terminals
in capacitance and internal resistance measurement
4.1.3 Measurement procedure

Measurements shall be carried out in accordance with the following procedures using the test

equipment specified in 4.1.2.
a) Pre-conditioning

Before measurement, the capacitors shall be fully charged and fully discharged, and then

incubated for 2 h to 6 h under the ambient temperature or that specified by the related

standards.

NOTE 1 The heat equilibrium time, which provides a reference for the soaking time, is described in Annex B.

NOTE 2 Charging and discharging can be repeated if necessary until the capacity and internal resistance are

stabilized.
EXAMPLE

Charge and discharge the sample using the current specified by the manufacturer in the following order:

1) fully discharge;
2) charge up to U ;
3) discharge down to 0,5 U ;
4) repeat 2) and 3) ten times.
b) Sample setting
Fit the sample capacitors with the test equipment.
c) Test equipment setup

Unless otherwise specified by related standards, the test equipment shall be set up in the

following manner.

1) Set the constant current I for charging. At this current, the capacitors shall be able to

charge with 95 % charging efficiency based on their nominal internal resistance R .

The current value is calculated by I = U /38R . The constant current value or the

c R N
Voltage (V)
...

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