Language resource management -- Semantic annotation framework -- Part 7: Spatial information

This document provides a framework for encoding a broad range of spatial information and spatiotemporal information relating to motion as expressed in natural language texts. This document includes references to locations, general spatial entities, spatial relations (involving topological, orientational, and metric values), dimensional information, motion events, paths, and event-paths triggered by motions.

Gestion des ressources linguistiques -- Cadre d'annotation sémantique -- Partie 7: Information spatiale

Upravljanje jezikovnih virov - Ogrodje za semantično označevanje - 7. del: Prostorske informacije

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
20-Oct-2019
Publication Date
11-Feb-2021
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
28-Jan-2021
Due Date
04-Apr-2021
Completion Date
12-Feb-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 24617-7:2021
01-marec-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST ISO 24617-7:2018
Upravljanje jezikovnih virov - Ogrodje za semantično označevanje - 7. del:
Prostorske informacije
Language resource management -- Semantic annotation framework -- Part 7: Spatial
information

Gestion des ressources linguistiques -- Cadre d'annotation sémantique -- Partie 7:

Information spatiale
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 24617-7:2020
ICS:
01.020 Terminologija (načela in Terminology (principles and
koordinacija) coordination)
35.240.30 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in information,
informatiki, dokumentiranju in documentation and
založništvu publishing
SIST ISO 24617-7:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 24617-7:2021
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SIST ISO 24617-7:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 24617-7
Second edition
2020-05
Language resource management —
Semantic annotation framework —
Part 7:
Spatial information
Gestion des ressources linguistiques — Cadre d'annotation
sémantique —
Partie 7: Information spatiale
Reference number
ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 24617-7:2021
ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 24617-7:2021
ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 List of tags .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Overview ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6 Motivation and requirements ................................................................................................................................................................. 6

7 Specification of the spatial annotation scheme .................................................................................................................... 7

7.1 Overview: annotation vs. representation......................................................................................................................... 7

7.2 Metamodel .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.3 Abstract syntax ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Representation of spatial annotations .......................................................................................................................................10

8.1 XML-based concrete syntax: outline .................................................................................................................................10

8.1.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................10

8.1.2 Basic element types ....................................................................................................................................................10

8.1.3 Links ........................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.1.4 Root element ....................................................................................................................................................................11

8.2 Conventions for tagging ...............................................................................................................................................................11

8.2.1 Naming conventions ..................................................................................................................................................11

8.2.2 Convention for inline tagging extents .........................................................................................................12

8.3 Specification of attributes for basic entity tags .......................................................................................................12

8.3.1 for no-locational spatial entities...............................................................................................12

8.3.2 ..................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.3.3 ....................................................................................................................................................................................16

8.3.4 for event-paths ..............................................................................................................................17

8.3.5 .............................................................................................................................................................................17

8.3.6 for non-motion eventualities ........................................................................................................18

8.3.7 for various types of spatial relations ...........................................................................19

8.3.8 ..........................................................................................................................................................................20

8.4 Link tags .....................................................................................................................................................................................................21

8.4.1 ..............................................................................................................................................................................21

8.4.2 .................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.4.3 ......................................................................................................................................................................23

8.4.4 ...............................................................................................................................................................................24

8.5 Root tag: ............................................................................................................................................................................26

Annex A (informative) Quantification over spatial entities and eventualities ......................................................27

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................32

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST ISO 24617-7:2021
ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT), see Foreword - Supplementary information.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 4, Language resource management.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 24617-7:2014), which has been technically

revised. It aims at satisfying the requirements and recommendations laid down in ISO 24617-6.

The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows.

— Event-paths (), which are triggered by motions, are restored as objects of a basic entity

type in concrete syntaxes as well as in the abstract syntax.

— It focuses on spatial relations only, thus tagging them as . There are no

or as such. Path adjuncts are treated as pathDefining spatial relations, tagged as

.

— The movement link () is very much modified to conform to the general link structure, as

specified in ISO 24617-6. This general link structure minimally consists of a relation type and two

required arguments, represented by two attribute names, @figure and @ground, which are single

entity structures and sets of entity structures, respectively. The addition of optional (implied)

attributes such as @trigger (relator) for or @bounds for is allowed.

— The measure link () is generalized to accommodate not only spatial measures such as

distances but temporal or spatio-temporal measures that include durations, time amounts or

speeds. The two optional attributes @endPoint1 and @endPoint2 are also generalized to apply to

areas (oceans) or borderlines (rivers, mountain ranges) with a new attribute @bounds, replacing

those two attributes.

— As a result, most of the specifications of the attribute-value assignments to each of the entity types

and those of the link types, represented in extended BNF, or XML DTD (data type declarations), are

revised. The UML figures representing them are also revised or deleted.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 24617-7:2021
ISO 24617-7:2020(E)

— The list of tags associated with entity structures and link structures is presented in a tabular form

to make these structures more comparable in a visual way. This list has been given in Clause 4,

Table 1.

— To make the document more compact and less burdensome for the readers, Annex A, Guidelines, has

been deleted.
A list of all parts in the ISO 24617 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST ISO 24617-7:2021
ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
Introduction

The automatic recognition of spatial information in natural language is currently attracting considerable

attention in the fields of computational linguistics and artificial intelligence. The development of

algorithms that exhibit “spatial awareness” promises to add needed functionality to natural language

processing (NLP) systems, from named entity recognition to question-answering and text-based

inference. However, in order for such systems to reason spatially, they require the enrichment of textual

data with the annotation of spatial information in language. This involves a large range of linguistic

constructions, including spatially anchoring events, descriptions of objects in motion, viewer-relative

descriptions of scenes, absolute spatial descriptions of locations, and many other constructions.

This document provides normative specifications not only for spatial information, but also for

information content in motion and various other types of event in language.

In this document, Clause 8 treats the representation of static and dynamic spatial annotations

by introducing an XML-based concrete syntax for representing spatial-related or motion-related

annotations. This concrete syntax is based on the abstract syntax that is presented in Clause 7 with a

metamodel as a part of the specification of the spatial annotation structure. An informative Annex A is

provided with a brief introduction to the annotation and interpretation of quantified spatial entities

and eventualities including motions and event-paths.

A formal semantics, based on the abstract syntax, will be provided as part of a future new work item

within the semantic annotation framework. This will be coordinated with the temporal semantics

and specification of ISO 24617-1, thereby producing a rich semantics that will be directly useable by

practitioners in computational linguistics and other communities (see Clause 6).
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 24617-7:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
Language resource management — Semantic annotation
framework —
Part 7:
Spatial information
1 Scope

This document provides a framework for encoding a broad range of spatial information and

spatiotemporal information relating to motion as expressed in natural language texts. This document

includes references to locations, general spatial entities, spatial relations (involving topological,

orientational, and metric values), dimensional information, motion events, paths, and event-paths

triggered by motions.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 24617-1, Language resource management — Semantic annotation framework (SemAF) — Part 1: Time

and events (SemAF-Time, ISO-TimeML)

ISO 24617-6, Language resource management — Semantic annotation framework — Part 6: Principles of

semantic annotation (SemAF Principles)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 24617-1 and ISO 24617-6, and

the following apply.
3.1
document creation location
dcl

unique place or set of places associated with a document that represents the location (3.7) in which the

document was created

Note 1 to entry: Some collaboratively written documents, such as GoogleDoc documents and chat logs, might

refer not only to a single location but also to a set of locations spread out across the world. Besides, for example,

the creation place of the Hebrew bible or the creation place of each of the books in it is uncertain. The attribute @

dcl will, therefore, have the value "false", understood to mean "unspecified", while the value "true", is understood

to mean"specified".

1) GoogleDoc is an example of a suitable product available commercially. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of this product.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST ISO 24617-7:2021
ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
3.2
event
eventuality
something that can be said to obtain or hold true, to happen or to occur

Note 1 to entry: This is a very broad notion of event that includes all kinds of actions, states, processes, etc. It

is not to be confused with the narrower notion of event (as opposed to the notion of "state") as something that

happens at a certain point in time (e.g. the clock striking two or waking up) or during a short period of time (e.g.

laughing). In TimeML, the term “event” is used in a broader sense and is equivalent to the term “eventuality”.

[SOURCE: ISO 24617-1:2012, 3.4, modified – The Note 1 to entry has been reworded.]

3.3
event-path
dynamic path
trajectory
dynamic route

directed path (3.15) followed by a mover (3.12) and coincident with a motion-event (3.10)

Note 1 to entry: Unlike (static) paths such as roads or circular tracks, event-paths are each triggered by a specific

motion-event, characterized as being finite directed paths each with a start and an end.

3.4
extent
textual segment that is a string of character segments in text to be annotated

EXAMPLE Tokens, words, and non-contiguous phrases (e.g. a complex verb like "look ... up") are extents.

3.5
figure

entity that is considered the focal object, which is related to some reference object

3.6
ground
landmark
entity that acts as reference for a figure (3.5)
Note 1 to entry: “landmark” is often used by cognitive semanticists.
3.7
location

point or finite area that is positioned within a space (3.19) or a series of such points or areas

Note 1 to entry: places (3.16), paths (3.15), and event-paths (3.3) are subtypes of locations.

3.8
measure
magnitude of a spatial dimension or relation
EXAMPLE Distance is a spatial relation.
3.9
measure relation
link that relates a measure (3.8) to an object that is being measured

Note 1 to entry: The bounds of a measured object are sometimes specified for a measure relation. They can be

points or areas like a city, or lines like a river or mountain range.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 24617-7:2021
ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
3.10
motion
motion-event

action or process involving the translocation of a spatial object, transformation of some spatial property

of an object, or change in the conformation of an object
Note 1 to entry: A motion is a particular kind of eventuality (3.2).
3.11
movement relation

link that relates a mover (3.12) to an event-path (3.3) which the mover (3.12) traverses

Note 1 to entry: A movement link is triggered by a motion (3.10).
3.12
mover
moving object
entity that undergoes a change of its location

Note 1 to entry: A mover can either be the agent of a motion as one who walked to the station or one that is simply

caused to move like a stone thrown into a well, while the thrower is not considered to be the mover in the sense

of the term defined.
3.13
non-consuming tag
tag (3.19) that has no associated extent (3.4)
Note 1 to entry: The extent (3.4) of a non-consuming tag is a null string.

EXAMPLE In an example, John ate an apple but Mary a pear, there are at least two ways of marking up the

tag, one with its extent or target filled in with a nonnull string of characters, or audio or visual elements,

and the other with an empty string:
a) John ate an apple, but Mary ∅ a pear;
e1 e2
b) 1)
2) (non-consuming tag)
3.14
orientation relation
orientational relation
directional relation

link that relates one location as a figure (3.5) to another location as a ground (3.6) that expresses the

spatial disposition or direction of a spatial object within a frame of reference
3.15
path
static path
route
location (3.7) that consists of a series of locations

Note 1 to entry: A spatial object path is a location where the focus is on the potential for traversal or which

functions as a boundary. This includes common nouns like road, coastline, and river and proper names like Route

66 and Kangamangus Highway. Some nouns, such as valley, can be ambiguous. It can be understood as a path

(3.15) in we walked down the valley or as a place (3.16) in we live in the valley.

Note 2 to entry: A path might be represented as an undirected graph whose vertices are locations and whose

edges signify continuity; i.e., unlike an event-path (3.3), a path has no inherent directionality.

3.16
place
geographic or administrative entity that is situated at a location (3.7)
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST ISO 24617-7:2021
ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
3.17
qualitative spatial relation
topological link

abstract static relation between regions (3.18) or spaces (3.19), expressing their connectedness or

continuity
3.18
region
connected, non-empty point-set defined by a domain and its boundary points

Note 1 to entry: The term "region" as defined does not refer to a political or administrative region such as "the

Canary Islands" or "Hong Kong, SAR", where SAR is the acronym of “Special Administrative Region”.

3.19
space

dimensional extent in which objects and events (3.2) have a relative position and direction

3.20
spatial entity, non-locational
non-locational spatial entity

object that is situated at a unique location (3.7) for some period of time, and typically has the potential

to undergo translocation

Note 1 to entry: A non-locational spatial entity, tagged , as defined, is distinct from genuine spatial

entities that consists of three types of locational entities, places, paths, and event-paths. It is an object that

participates in a spatial or motional relation. In John is sitting in a car, both John and car could be understood as

spatial entities or as being the figure (3.5) and the ground (3.6), respectively, of the sitting-in situation.

Note 2 to entry: In the first edition of this document, non-locational spatial entities were tagged .

They are now tagged to allow their use in both spatial and non-spatial contexts, as in: I left a purse in the

car (spatial context) that I had rented Ф (non-spatial context) last week.
3.21
spatial relation

segment or series of segments of a text that rebounds to qualitative spatial relations (3.17) or

orientational relations (3.14), or to movement relations (3.11) indirectly through the specification of the

bounds of paths (3.15) or event-paths (3.3)
3.22
tag
element name

name associated with textual segments for annotation or for a relation between these segments

Note 1 to entry: The following are three kinds of tag for annotation:

a) extent tag, which is associated with textual segments referring to basic entities or signals;

b) link tag, for representing spatial relations; and
c) root tag, for the closure of annotations.
4 List of tags

See Table 1, where each tag is braced with a pair of angled brackets for the name of an XML element. For

other representation formats, the tags have no such brackets. These tags, especially the event-path tag,

may be non-consuming tags (see 3.13) having an empty string of characters as @target value, called

"extent".
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 24617-7:2021
ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
Table 1 — Tags with ID prefixes
Entities Tags ID prefixes Examples Comments
Basic entities: spatial entities, relations, and eventualities
place pl Osaka, city
path p Highway 1,
street, river
non-locational x (in a) car non-locational entities that are
spatial entity spatially involved

spatial relation sr in, on, north-east, type = “topological” | “directional” |

“topoDirectional” | “pathDefining” |
from, to, for, towards
“goal-defining”
motion m drive, travel translocational
non-motional e live, work inherited from ISO 24617-1 TimeML
eventuality
event-path ep empty extent non-consuming tag,
spatio-temorally definable
measure me 500 miles extendible to spatio-temporal
measures
100 km/h
Links: link structures <@figure, @ground, @relType>
qualitative spa- qsL Relates one location as a figure to
tial link another as a ground
orientational link oL Relates one location to another possi-
bly with some
point of reference
movement link mvL Relates a mover to an event-path
measure link meL Relates a measure to an object, possi-
bly with the
specification of its bounds
Root element
spatial annotation sp closure of spatial annotation
5 Overview

Human languages impose diverse linguistic constructions for expressing concepts of space, of spatially-

anchored events, and of spatial configurations that relate in complex ways to the situations in which

they are used. One area that deserves further development regarding the connection between natural

language and formal representations of space is the automatic enrichment of textual data with spatial

annotations. There is a growing demand for such annotated data, particularly in the context of the

semantic web. Moreover, textual data routinely make reference to objects moving through space over

time. Integrating such information derived from textual sources into a geosensor data system can

enhance the overall spatiotemporal representation in changing and evolving situations, such as when

tracking objects through space with limited image data. It follows that verbal subjective descriptions

of spatial relations need to be translated into metrically meaningful positional information. A central

research question currently hindering progress in interpreting textual data is the lack of a clear

separation of the information that can be derived directly from linguistic interpretation and further

information that requires contextual interpretation. In order to avoid building incorrect deductions

into the annotations themselves, mark-up schemes should avoid over-annotating the text. Solutions to

the language-space mapping problem and its grounding in geospatial data are urgently required for

this purpose.

There are many applications and tasks that would benefit from a robust spatial mark-up language, such

as the one specified in this document.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST ISO 24617-7:2021
ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
These applications and tasks include the following:
a) creating a visualization of objects from a verbal description of a scene;

b) identifying the spatial relations associated with a sequence of processes and events from a news

article;

c) determining an object location or tracking a moving object from a verbal description;

d) translating viewer-centric verbal descriptions into other relative descriptions or absolute

coordinate descriptions;
e) constructing a route given a route description;

f) constructing a spatial model of an interior or exterior space given a verbal description;

g) integrating spatial descriptions with information from other media.

The goal of this document is not to provide a formalism that fully represents the complexity of spatial

language, but rather to capture these complex constructions in text in order to provide an inventory

of how spatial information is presented in natural language. For example, many texts have no explicit

frame of
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 24617-7
Second edition
2020-05
Language resource management —
Semantic annotation framework —
Part 7:
Spatial information
Gestion des ressources linguistiques — Cadre d'annotation
sémantique —
Partie 7: Information spatiale
Reference number
ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 List of tags .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Overview ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6 Motivation and requirements ................................................................................................................................................................. 6

7 Specification of the spatial annotation scheme .................................................................................................................... 7

7.1 Overview: annotation vs. representation......................................................................................................................... 7

7.2 Metamodel .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.3 Abstract syntax ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Representation of spatial annotations .......................................................................................................................................10

8.1 XML-based concrete syntax: outline .................................................................................................................................10

8.1.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................10

8.1.2 Basic element types ....................................................................................................................................................10

8.1.3 Links ........................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.1.4 Root element ....................................................................................................................................................................11

8.2 Conventions for tagging ...............................................................................................................................................................11

8.2.1 Naming conventions ..................................................................................................................................................11

8.2.2 Convention for inline tagging extents .........................................................................................................12

8.3 Specification of attributes for basic entity tags .......................................................................................................12

8.3.1 for no-locational spatial entities...............................................................................................12

8.3.2 ..................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.3.3 ....................................................................................................................................................................................16

8.3.4 for event-paths ..............................................................................................................................17

8.3.5 .............................................................................................................................................................................17

8.3.6 for non-motion eventualities ........................................................................................................18

8.3.7 for various types of spatial relations ...........................................................................19

8.3.8 ..........................................................................................................................................................................20

8.4 Link tags .....................................................................................................................................................................................................21

8.4.1 ..............................................................................................................................................................................21

8.4.2 .................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.4.3 ......................................................................................................................................................................23

8.4.4 ...............................................................................................................................................................................24

8.5 Root tag: ............................................................................................................................................................................26

Annex A (informative) Quantification over spatial entities and eventualities ......................................................27

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................32

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT), see Foreword - Supplementary information.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 4, Language resource management.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 24617-7:2014), which has been technically

revised. It aims at satisfying the requirements and recommendations laid down in ISO 24617-6.

The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows.

— Event-paths (), which are triggered by motions, are restored as objects of a basic entity

type in concrete syntaxes as well as in the abstract syntax.

— It focuses on spatial relations only, thus tagging them as . There are no

or as such. Path adjuncts are treated as pathDefining spatial relations, tagged as

.

— The movement link () is very much modified to conform to the general link structure, as

specified in ISO 24617-6. This general link structure minimally consists of a relation type and two

required arguments, represented by two attribute names, @figure and @ground, which are single

entity structures and sets of entity structures, respectively. The addition of optional (implied)

attributes such as @trigger (relator) for or @bounds for is allowed.

— The measure link () is generalized to accommodate not only spatial measures such as

distances but temporal or spatio-temporal measures that include durations, time amounts or

speeds. The two optional attributes @endPoint1 and @endPoint2 are also generalized to apply to

areas (oceans) or borderlines (rivers, mountain ranges) with a new attribute @bounds, replacing

those two attributes.

— As a result, most of the specifications of the attribute-value assignments to each of the entity types

and those of the link types, represented in extended BNF, or XML DTD (data type declarations), are

revised. The UML figures representing them are also revised or deleted.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24617-7:2020(E)

— The list of tags associated with entity structures and link structures is presented in a tabular form

to make these structures more comparable in a visual way. This list has been given in Clause 4,

Table 1.

— To make the document more compact and less burdensome for the readers, Annex A, Guidelines, has

been deleted.
A list of all parts in the ISO 24617 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
Introduction

The automatic recognition of spatial information in natural language is currently attracting considerable

attention in the fields of computational linguistics and artificial intelligence. The development of

algorithms that exhibit “spatial awareness” promises to add needed functionality to natural language

processing (NLP) systems, from named entity recognition to question-answering and text-based

inference. However, in order for such systems to reason spatially, they require the enrichment of textual

data with the annotation of spatial information in language. This involves a large range of linguistic

constructions, including spatially anchoring events, descriptions of objects in motion, viewer-relative

descriptions of scenes, absolute spatial descriptions of locations, and many other constructions.

This document provides normative specifications not only for spatial information, but also for

information content in motion and various other types of event in language.

In this document, Clause 8 treats the representation of static and dynamic spatial annotations

by introducing an XML-based concrete syntax for representing spatial-related or motion-related

annotations. This concrete syntax is based on the abstract syntax that is presented in Clause 7 with a

metamodel as a part of the specification of the spatial annotation structure. An informative Annex A is

provided with a brief introduction to the annotation and interpretation of quantified spatial entities

and eventualities including motions and event-paths.

A formal semantics, based on the abstract syntax, will be provided as part of a future new work item

within the semantic annotation framework. This will be coordinated with the temporal semantics

and specification of ISO 24617-1, thereby producing a rich semantics that will be directly useable by

practitioners in computational linguistics and other communities (see Clause 6).
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
Language resource management — Semantic annotation
framework —
Part 7:
Spatial information
1 Scope

This document provides a framework for encoding a broad range of spatial information and

spatiotemporal information relating to motion as expressed in natural language texts. This document

includes references to locations, general spatial entities, spatial relations (involving topological,

orientational, and metric values), dimensional information, motion events, paths, and event-paths

triggered by motions.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 24617-1, Language resource management — Semantic annotation framework (SemAF) — Part 1: Time

and events (SemAF-Time, ISO-TimeML)

ISO 24617-6, Language resource management — Semantic annotation framework — Part 6: Principles of

semantic annotation (SemAF Principles)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 24617-1 and ISO 24617-6, and

the following apply.
3.1
document creation location
dcl

unique place or set of places associated with a document that represents the location (3.7) in which the

document was created

Note 1 to entry: Some collaboratively written documents, such as GoogleDoc documents and chat logs, might

refer not only to a single location but also to a set of locations spread out across the world. Besides, for example,

the creation place of the Hebrew bible or the creation place of each of the books in it is uncertain. The attribute @

dcl will, therefore, have the value "false", understood to mean "unspecified", while the value "true", is understood

to mean"specified".

1) GoogleDoc is an example of a suitable product available commercially. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of this product.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
3.2
event
eventuality
something that can be said to obtain or hold true, to happen or to occur

Note 1 to entry: This is a very broad notion of event that includes all kinds of actions, states, processes, etc. It

is not to be confused with the narrower notion of event (as opposed to the notion of "state") as something that

happens at a certain point in time (e.g. the clock striking two or waking up) or during a short period of time (e.g.

laughing). In TimeML, the term “event” is used in a broader sense and is equivalent to the term “eventuality”.

[SOURCE: ISO 24617-1:2012, 3.4, modified – The Note 1 to entry has been reworded.]

3.3
event-path
dynamic path
trajectory
dynamic route

directed path (3.15) followed by a mover (3.12) and coincident with a motion-event (3.10)

Note 1 to entry: Unlike (static) paths such as roads or circular tracks, event-paths are each triggered by a specific

motion-event, characterized as being finite directed paths each with a start and an end.

3.4
extent
textual segment that is a string of character segments in text to be annotated

EXAMPLE Tokens, words, and non-contiguous phrases (e.g. a complex verb like "look ... up") are extents.

3.5
figure

entity that is considered the focal object, which is related to some reference object

3.6
ground
landmark
entity that acts as reference for a figure (3.5)
Note 1 to entry: “landmark” is often used by cognitive semanticists.
3.7
location

point or finite area that is positioned within a space (3.19) or a series of such points or areas

Note 1 to entry: places (3.16), paths (3.15), and event-paths (3.3) are subtypes of locations.

3.8
measure
magnitude of a spatial dimension or relation
EXAMPLE Distance is a spatial relation.
3.9
measure relation
link that relates a measure (3.8) to an object that is being measured

Note 1 to entry: The bounds of a measured object are sometimes specified for a measure relation. They can be

points or areas like a city, or lines like a river or mountain range.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
3.10
motion
motion-event

action or process involving the translocation of a spatial object, transformation of some spatial property

of an object, or change in the conformation of an object
Note 1 to entry: A motion is a particular kind of eventuality (3.2).
3.11
movement relation

link that relates a mover (3.12) to an event-path (3.3) which the mover (3.12) traverses

Note 1 to entry: A movement link is triggered by a motion (3.10).
3.12
mover
moving object
entity that undergoes a change of its location

Note 1 to entry: A mover can either be the agent of a motion as one who walked to the station or one that is simply

caused to move like a stone thrown into a well, while the thrower is not considered to be the mover in the sense

of the term defined.
3.13
non-consuming tag
tag (3.19) that has no associated extent (3.4)
Note 1 to entry: The extent (3.4) of a non-consuming tag is a null string.

EXAMPLE In an example, John ate an apple but Mary a pear, there are at least two ways of marking up the

tag, one with its extent or target filled in with a nonnull string of characters, or audio or visual elements,

and the other with an empty string:
a) John ate an apple, but Mary ∅ a pear;
e1 e2
b) 1)
2) (non-consuming tag)
3.14
orientation relation
orientational relation
directional relation

link that relates one location as a figure (3.5) to another location as a ground (3.6) that expresses the

spatial disposition or direction of a spatial object within a frame of reference
3.15
path
static path
route
location (3.7) that consists of a series of locations

Note 1 to entry: A spatial object path is a location where the focus is on the potential for traversal or which

functions as a boundary. This includes common nouns like road, coastline, and river and proper names like Route

66 and Kangamangus Highway. Some nouns, such as valley, can be ambiguous. It can be understood as a path

(3.15) in we walked down the valley or as a place (3.16) in we live in the valley.

Note 2 to entry: A path might be represented as an undirected graph whose vertices are locations and whose

edges signify continuity; i.e., unlike an event-path (3.3), a path has no inherent directionality.

3.16
place
geographic or administrative entity that is situated at a location (3.7)
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ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
3.17
qualitative spatial relation
topological link

abstract static relation between regions (3.18) or spaces (3.19), expressing their connectedness or

continuity
3.18
region
connected, non-empty point-set defined by a domain and its boundary points

Note 1 to entry: The term "region" as defined does not refer to a political or administrative region such as "the

Canary Islands" or "Hong Kong, SAR", where SAR is the acronym of “Special Administrative Region”.

3.19
space

dimensional extent in which objects and events (3.2) have a relative position and direction

3.20
spatial entity, non-locational
non-locational spatial entity

object that is situated at a unique location (3.7) for some period of time, and typically has the potential

to undergo translocation

Note 1 to entry: A non-locational spatial entity, tagged , as defined, is distinct from genuine spatial

entities that consists of three types of locational entities, places, paths, and event-paths. It is an object that

participates in a spatial or motional relation. In John is sitting in a car, both John and car could be understood as

spatial entities or as being the figure (3.5) and the ground (3.6), respectively, of the sitting-in situation.

Note 2 to entry: In the first edition of this document, non-locational spatial entities were tagged .

They are now tagged to allow their use in both spatial and non-spatial contexts, as in: I left a purse in the

car (spatial context) that I had rented Ф (non-spatial context) last week.
3.21
spatial relation

segment or series of segments of a text that rebounds to qualitative spatial relations (3.17) or

orientational relations (3.14), or to movement relations (3.11) indirectly through the specification of the

bounds of paths (3.15) or event-paths (3.3)
3.22
tag
element name

name associated with textual segments for annotation or for a relation between these segments

Note 1 to entry: The following are three kinds of tag for annotation:

a) extent tag, which is associated with textual segments referring to basic entities or signals;

b) link tag, for representing spatial relations; and
c) root tag, for the closure of annotations.
4 List of tags

See Table 1, where each tag is braced with a pair of angled brackets for the name of an XML element. For

other representation formats, the tags have no such brackets. These tags, especially the event-path tag,

may be non-consuming tags (see 3.13) having an empty string of characters as @target value, called

"extent".
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
Table 1 — Tags with ID prefixes
Entities Tags ID prefixes Examples Comments
Basic entities: spatial entities, relations, and eventualities
place pl Osaka, city
path p Highway 1,
street, river
non-locational x (in a) car non-locational entities that are
spatial entity spatially involved

spatial relation sr in, on, north-east, type = “topological” | “directional” |

“topoDirectional” | “pathDefining” |
from, to, for, towards
“goal-defining”
motion m drive, travel translocational
non-motional e live, work inherited from ISO 24617-1 TimeML
eventuality
event-path ep empty extent non-consuming tag,
spatio-temorally definable
measure me 500 miles extendible to spatio-temporal
measures
100 km/h
Links: link structures <@figure, @ground, @relType>
qualitative spa- qsL Relates one location as a figure to
tial link another as a ground
orientational link oL Relates one location to another possi-
bly with some
point of reference
movement link mvL Relates a mover to an event-path
measure link meL Relates a measure to an object, possi-
bly with the
specification of its bounds
Root element
spatial annotation sp closure of spatial annotation
5 Overview

Human languages impose diverse linguistic constructions for expressing concepts of space, of spatially-

anchored events, and of spatial configurations that relate in complex ways to the situations in which

they are used. One area that deserves further development regarding the connection between natural

language and formal representations of space is the automatic enrichment of textual data with spatial

annotations. There is a growing demand for such annotated data, particularly in the context of the

semantic web. Moreover, textual data routinely make reference to objects moving through space over

time. Integrating such information derived from textual sources into a geosensor data system can

enhance the overall spatiotemporal representation in changing and evolving situations, such as when

tracking objects through space with limited image data. It follows that verbal subjective descriptions

of spatial relations need to be translated into metrically meaningful positional information. A central

research question currently hindering progress in interpreting textual data is the lack of a clear

separation of the information that can be derived directly from linguistic interpretation and further

information that requires contextual interpretation. In order to avoid building incorrect deductions

into the annotations themselves, mark-up schemes should avoid over-annotating the text. Solutions to

the language-space mapping problem and its grounding in geospatial data are urgently required for

this purpose.

There are many applications and tasks that would benefit from a robust spatial mark-up language, such

as the one specified in this document.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 24617-7:2020(E)
These applications and tasks include the following:
a) creating a visualization of objects from a verbal description of a scene;

b) identifying the spatial relations associated with a sequence of processes and events from a news

article;

c) determining an object location or tracking a moving object from a verbal description;

d) translating viewer-centric verbal descriptions into other relative descriptions or absolute

coordinate descriptions;
e) constructing a route given a route description;

f) constructing a spatial model of an interior or exterior space given a verbal description;

g) integrating spatial descriptions with information from other media.

The goal of this document is not to provide a formalism that fully represents the complexity of spatial

language, but rather to capture these complex constructions in text in order to provide an inventory

of how spatial information is presented in natural language. For example, many texts have no explicit

frame of spatio-temporal reference, thus making it impossible to annotate such an unspecified frame

of reference. The interpretation of spatial prepositions, such as on in a book on the desk vs a picture on

the wall requires a handbook of its own dealing with different senses or uses of spatial prepositions

beyond a set of annotation guidelines. Any detailed classification of motion verbs in English alone is

again beyond the scope of this document.

All of the examples in the current document have been taken from English datasets. The specification

language for spatial annotation proposed in this document can be seen as a version for English only and

its applicability to other languages is still pending.
6 Motivation and requirements

This document aims to formulate the requirements for static and dynamic spatial annotation standards.

It considers ISO 24612, which requires standoff annotation, and ISO 24617-6, which provides a set of

basic guidelines to formulate annotation structures for semantic interpretation, and builds on previous

work, including ISO 24617-1 and other spatial representations and calculi, especially Reference [10].

Natural language abounds with descriptions of motion. Our exp
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019
01-oktober-2019
Upravljanje jezikovnih virov - Ogrodje za semantično označevanje - 7. del:
Prostorske informacije
Language resource management -- Semantic annotation framework -- Part 7: Spatial
information

Gestion des ressources linguistiques -- Cadre d'annotation sémantique -- Partie 7:

Information spatiale
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019
ICS:
01.020 Terminologija (načela in Terminology (principles and
koordinacija) coordination)
35.240.30 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in information,
informatiki, dokumentiranju in documentation and
založništvu publishing
oSIST ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019
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oSIST ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 24617-7
ISO/TC 37/SC 4 Secretariat: KATS
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2019-06-20 2019-09-12
Language resource management — Semantic annotation
framework —
Part 7:
Spatial information
Gestion des ressources linguistiques — Cadre d'annotation sémantique —
Partie 7: Information spatiale
ICS: 01.020
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2019
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oSIST ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019
ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
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Email: copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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oSIST ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019
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oSIST ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019
ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword .......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 1

4 List of tags .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Overview ............................................................................................................................................................ 6

6 Motivation and requirements ..................................................................................................................... 7

7 Outline of the modifications in the second edition ............................................................................. 8

7.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.2 Implementing event-paths in a concrete syntax .................................................................................. 8

7.3 Spatial relations ............................................................................................................................................... 8

7.4 Links ..................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.5 Generalizing the measure link () ............................................................................................. 9

7.6 Modified specification of attribute-value assignments ..................................................................... 9

7.7 List of tags in a tabular form .................................................................................................................... 10

7.8 Deletion of Annex A Guidelines ............................................................................................................... 10

8 Specification of the spatial annotation scheme ................................................................................. 10

8.1 Overview: annotation vs. representation ............................................................................................ 10

8.2 Metamodel ...................................................................................................................................................... 10

8.3 Abstract syntax ............................................................................................................................................. 12

9 Representation of spatial annotations ................................................................................................. 13

9.1 XML-based concrete syntax: outline ..................................................................................................... 13

9.1.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................................................... 13

9.1.2 Basic element types ..................................................................................................................................... 13

9.1.3 Links .................................................................................................................................................................. 14

9.1.4 Root element .................................................................................................................................................. 14

9.2 Conventions for tagging ............................................................................................................................. 14

9.2.1 Naming conventions .................................................................................................................................... 14

9.2.2 Convention for inline tagging extents ................................................................................................... 15

9.3 Specification of Attributes for Basic entity tags ................................................................................ 16

9.3.1 for no-locational spatial entities .......................................................................................... 16

9.3.2 ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

9.3.3 .............................................................................................................................................................. 19

9.3.4 for event-paths ................................................................................................................... 20

9.3.5 ......................................................................................................................................................... 20

9.3.6 for non-motion eventualities .................................................................................................. 22

9.3.7 for various types of spatial relations ........................................................................... 22

9.3.8 ...................................................................................................................................................... 24

9.4 Link tags .......................................................................................................................................................... 25

9.4.1 .......................................................................................................................................................... 25

9.4.2 ............................................................................................................................................................ 26

9.4.3 ................................................................................................................................................... 27

ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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oSIST ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019
ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019(E)

9.4.4 ........................................................................................................................................................... 28

9.5 Root tag: ........................................................................................................................................ 29

9.6 Summary .......................................................................................................................................................... 30

9.6.1 Identifier .......................................................................................................................................................... 30

9.6.2 Renaming attributes for ................................................................................................... 31

9.6.3 Reallocation of attributes .......................................................................................................................... 31

9.6.4 Shared attributes .......................................................................................................................................... 32

9.6.5 IDREF or IDREFS as value .......................................................................................................................... 32

Annex A (informative) Quantification over spatial entities and eventualities .................................... 33

A.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................................................. 33

A.2 Quantification attributes .................................................................................................................................. 33

A.3 Generalized quantifiers ..................................................................................................................................... 33

A.4 Scoping relations ................................................................................................................................................. 34

A.5 Interpretation with illustrations ................................................................................................................... 34

A.5.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................................................. 34

A.5.2 Scoping relations revisited ........................................................................................................................... 35

A.5.3 Paths and event-paths .................................................................................................................................... 35

A.5.4 Quantification .................................................................................................................................................... 36

A.6 Concluding Remarks........................................................................................................................................... 37

Bibliographical references ...................................................................................................................................... 39

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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oSIST ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019
ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO

collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 37, Language and Terminology, Subcommittee

SC 4, Language resource management.

This edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 24617-7:2014(E)), which has been technically

revised.

ISO 24617 consists of the following parts, under the general title Language resource management —

Semantic annotation framework (SemAF):
— Part 1: Time and events (TimeML)
— Part 2: Dialogue acts (SemAF-DA)
— Part 4: Semantic roles (SemAF-SR)
— Part 5: Discourse structures (SemAF-DS)
— Part 6: Principles of semantic annotation (SemAF principles)
— Part 7: Spatial information
— Part 8: Semantic relations in discourse, core annotation schema (DR-core)
— Part 9: Reference (RAF)
— Part 10: Visual information (VoxML)
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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oSIST ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019
ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019(E)
— Part 11: Measurable quantitative information (MQI)
— Part 12: Quantification
— Part 13: Gestures
— Part 14: Spatial semantics
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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oSIST ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019
ISO/DIS 24617-7:2019(E)
Introduction

The automatic recognition of spatial information in natural language is currently attracting considerable

attention in the fields of computational linguistics and artificial intelligence. The development of

algorithms that exhibit “spatial awareness” promises to add needed functionality to NLP systems, from

named entity recognition to question-answering and text-based inference. However, in order for such

systems to reason spatially, they require the enrichment of textual data with the annotation of spatial

information in language. This involves a large range of linguistic constructions, including spatially

anchoring events, descriptions of objects in motion, viewer-relative descriptions of scenes, absolute

spatial descriptions of locations, and many other constructions.

This part of ISO 24617 was developed in collaboration with the spatial annotation working group at

Brandeis University with the aim to provide an International Standard for the representation of spatial

information relating to locations, motions and non-motion events in language.

NOTE The spatial annotation working group at Brandeis University is headed by James Pustejovsky,

jampesp@cs.brandeis.edu, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, U.S.A.

This part of ISO 24617 provides normative specifications not only for spatial information, but also for

information content in motion and various other types of event in language.
The main parts of this part of ISO 24617 consist of the following:
a) Scope;
b) Normative references;
c) Terms and definitions;
d) List of tags or names of elements;
e) Overview;
f) Motivation and requirements;
g) Modifications: Changes introduced;
h) Specification of the spatial annotation structure;
i) Representation of static and dynamic spatial annotations.

Clause 9 treats (i) by introducing an XML-based concrete syntax for representing spatial-related or

motion-related annotations. This concrete syntax is based on the abstract syntax that is presented in

Clause 8 with a metamodel as a part of (h). An informative annex A is provided with a brief introduction

to the annotation and interpretation of quantified spatial entities and eventualities including motions and

event-paths.

A formal semantics, based on the abstract syntax, will be provided as part of a future new work item

within the semantic annotation framework. This will be coordinated with the temporal semantics and

specification of ISO 24617-1 (TimeML), thereby producing a rich semantics that will be directly useable

by practitioners in computational linguistics and other communities (see Clause 6). The multilingual

extension of the spatial and motion-related annotation scheme presented in this document will also be

treated in a separate part of the ISO 24617- series in the near future.

NOTE Although the schema and DTD are not part of the present document as normative annexes, they will both

be found in a webpage managed by the Brandeis Spatial Annotation Working Group.
vi © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 24617-7:2014(E)
Language resource management — Semantic annotation
framework — Part 7: Spatial information
1 Scope

This part of ISO 24617 provides a framework for encoding a broad range not only of spatial information,

but also of spatiotemporal information relating to motion as expressed in natural language texts. This

part of ISO 24617 includes references to locations, general spatial entities, spatial relations (involving

topological, orientational, and metric values), dimensional information, motion events, paths, and event-

paths triggered by motions.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 24612, Language resource management – Linguistic annotation framework (LAF)

ISO 24617-1, Language resource management — Semantic annotation framework (SemAF) — Part 1:

Time and events (TimeML)

ISO 24617-6, Language resource management — Semantic annotation framework (SemAF) — Part 6:

Principles of semantic annotation (SemAF principles)
ISO/IEC 14977, Information technology — Syntactic metalanguage — Extended BNF
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 24617-1, ISO 24617-6, and the

following apply.

NOTE For the sake of easier reference, some of the terms are listed with XML element names (tags), as

in 3.2 event, eventuality, .
3.1
document creation location
dcl

unique place or set of places associated with a document that represents the location (3.7) in which the

document was created

Note 1 to entry: Some collaboratively written documents, such as GoogleDoc documents and chat logs, might refer

not only to a single location but also to a set of locations spread out across the world. Besides, for example, the

GoogleDoc is an example of a suitable product available commercially. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of these products.

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creation place of the Hebrew bible or the creation place of each of the books in it is uncertain. The attribute @dcl

will, therefore, have the value "false" which is to be understood to mean "unspecified", while the value "true" is to

be understood to mean "specified".
3.2
event
eventuality

something that can be said to obtain or hold true, to happen or to occur

Note 1 to entry: This is a very broad notion of event, also known in the literature as “eventuality” and includes all

kinds of actions, states, processes, etc. It is not to be confused with the narrower notion of event (as opposed to the

notion of "state") as something that happens at a certain point in time (e.g. the clock striking two or waking up) or

during a short period of time (e.g. laughing). In TimeML, the term “event” is used in a broader sense and is equivalent

to the term “eventuality”.
[SOURCE ISO 24617-1:2012]
3.3
event-path
dynamic path
trajectory
dynamic route

directed path (3.15) followed by a mover (3.12) and coincident with a motion-event (3.10)

Note 1 to entry: Unlike (static) paths such as roads or circular tracks, event-paths are each triggered by a specific

motion-event, characterized as being finite directed paths each with a start and an end.

3.4
extent
textual segment which is string of character segments in text to be annotated

EXAMPLE Tokens, words, and non-contiguous phrases (e.g. a complex verb like "look ... up") are extents.

3.5
figure

entity that is considered the focal object, which is related to some reference object

3.6
ground
landmark
entity that acts as reference for a figure (3.5)

Note 1 to entry: The term “ground” is often called “landmark” by cognitive semanticists.

3.7
location

point or finite area that is positioned within a space (3.19) or a series of such points or areas

Note 1 to entry: places (16), paths (15), and event-paths (3.3) are subtypes of locations.

3.8
measure

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magnitude of a spatial dimension or relation
EXAMPLE Distance is a spatial relation.
3.9
measure relation

link that relates a measure (3.8) to an object that is being measured

Note 1 to entry: The bounds of a measured object are sometimes specified for a measure relation. They can be

points or areas like a city, or lines like a river or mountain range.
3.10
motion
motion-event

action or process involving the translocation of a spatial object, transformation of some spatial property

of an object, or change in the conformation of an object
Note 1 to entry: A motion is a particular kind of eventuality (3.2).
3.11
movement relation

link that relates a mover (3.12) to an event-path (3.3) which the mover (3.12) traverses

Note 1 to entry: A movement link is triggered by a motion (3.10).
3.12
mover
moving object
entity that undergoes a change of its location

Note 1 to entry: A mover can either be the agent of a motion as one who walked to the station or one that is simply

caused to move like a stone thrown into a well, while the thrower is not considered to be the mover in the sense of

the term defined here in 3.12.
3.13
non-cosuming tag
tag (3.19) that has no associated extent (3.4)
Note 1 to entry: The extent (3.4) of a non-consuming tag is a null string.

EXAMPLE In an example, John ate an apple but Mary a pear, there are at least two ways of marking up the

tag, one with its extent or target filled in with a nonnull string of characters, or audio or visual elements

and the other with an empty string:
a) John ate an apple, but Mary ∅ a pear;
e1 e2
b) 1)
2) (non-consuming tag)
3.14
orientation(al) relation
directional relation

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link that relates one location as a figure (3.5) to another location as a ground (3.6) that expresses the

spatial disposition or direction of a spatial object within a frame of reference
3.15
path
static path
route

location (3.7) that consists of a series of locations (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: A spatial object path is a location where the focus is on the potential for traversal or which functions

as a boundary. This includes common nouns like road, coastline, and river and proper names like Route 66 and

Kangamangus Highway. Some nouns, such as valley, can be ambiguous. It can be understood as a path (3.15) in we

walked down the valley or as a place (3.16) in we live in the valley.

Note 2 to entry: A path might be represented as an undirected graph whose vertices are locations (3.7) and whose

edges signify continuity; i.e., unlike an event-path (3.3), a path has no inherent directionality.

3.16
place

geographic or administrative entity that is situated at a location (3.7)
3.17
qualitative spatial relation
topological link

abstract static relation between regions (3.18) or spaces (3.19), expressing their connectedness or

continuity
3.18
region
connected, non-empty point-set defined by a domain and its boundary points

Note 1 to entry: The term "region" as defined here does not refer to a political or administrative region such as "the

Canary Islands" or "Hong Kong, SAR", where SAR is the acronym of “Special Administrative Region”.

3.19
space

dimensional extent in which objects and events (3.2) have a relative position and direction

3.20
spatial entity, non-locational

object that is situated at a unique location (3.7) for some period of time, and typically has the potential to

undergo translocation

Note 1 to entry: A non-locational spatial entity, tagged , as defined here, is to be differentiated from genuine

spatial entities that consists of three types of locational entities, places, paths, and event-paths. It is an object that

participates in a spatial or motional relation. In John is sitting in a car, both John and car could be understood as

spatial entities or as being the figure (3.5) and the ground (3.6), respectively, of the sitting-in situation.

Note 2 to entry: In the first edition of this document, non-locational spatial entities were tagged . It

is now tagged to allow its use in both spatial and non-spatial contexts, as in: I left a purse in the car (spatial

context) that I had rented Ф (non-spatial context) last week.
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3.21
spatial relation

segment or series of segments of a text that rebounds to qualitative spatial (3.17) or orientational (3.14)

relations, or to movement relations (3.11) indirectly through the specification of the bounds of paths

(3.15) or event-paths (3.3)
3.22
tag
element name

name associated with textual segments for annotation or for a relation between these segments

Note 1 to entry: The following are three kinds of tag for annotation:

a) extent tag, which is associated with textual segments referring to basic entities or signals;

b) link tag, for representing spatial relations; and
c) root tag, for the closure of annotations.
4 List of tags
Table 1 — Tags with ID prefixes
Entities Tags ID Examples Comments
prefixes
Basic Entities: Spatial Entities, Relations, and Eventualities
place pl Osaka, city
path p Highway 1,
street, river
non-locational x (in a) car non-locational entities that are
spatial entity spatially involved
spatial relation sr in, on, nort
...

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