Language resource management -- Syntactic annotation framework (SynAF) -- Part 1: Syntactic model

This part of ISO 24615 describes the syntactic annotation framework (SynAF), a high level model for
representing the syntactic annotation of linguistic data, with the objective of supporting interoperability
across language resources or language processing components. This part of ISO 24615 is complementary
and closely related to ISO 24611 (MAF, morpho-syntactic annotation framework) and provides a
metamodel for syntactic representations as well as reference data categories for representing both
constituency and dependency information in sentences or other comparable utterances and segments.

Gestion de ressources langagières -- Cadre d'annotation syntaxique (SynAF) -- Partie 1: Modèle syntaxique

Cette partie de l'ISO 24615 d�crit le cadre d'annotation syntaxique (SynAF), mod�le de haut niveau pour repr�senter l'annotation syntaxique des donn�es linguistiques, dans le but d'offrir l'interop�rabilit� entre les ressources linguistiques ou les composants du traitement de la langue. La pr�sente partie de l'ISO 24615 est compl�mentaire par rapport � l'ISO 24611 (MAF, cadre d'annotation morpho-syntaxique) et y est �troitement li�e. Elle fournit un m�tamod�le pour les repr�sentations syntaxiques, avec les cat�gories de donn�es de r�f�rence destin�es � repr�senter tout aussi bien des informations de constituance que des informations de d�pendance, dans des phrases ou autres �nonciations et segments du m�me ordre.

Upravljanje z jezikovnimi viri - Ogrodje za skladenjsko označevanje (SynAF) - 1. del: Model skladnje

Ta del standarda ISO 24615 opisuje ogrodje za skladenjsko označevanje (SynAF), ki je večravninski model za predstavitev skladenjskega označevanja jezikovnih podatkov, da se zagotovi podpora interoperabilnosti med jezikovnimi viri ali komponentami za obdelavo jezikov. Ta del standarda ISO 24615 dopolnjuje standard ISO 24611 (MAF, ogrodje za oblikoskladenjsko označevanje) in je tesno povezan z njim, pri čemer določa metamodel za skladenjske predstavitve in referenčne podatkovne kategorije za predstavitev podatkov o sestavi ter odvisnosti v stavkih ali drugih primerljivih izjavah in segmentih.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Aug-2018
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
30-Jul-2018
Due Date
04-Oct-2018
Completion Date
24-Aug-2018

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Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 24615-1:2018
01-september-2018
Nadomešča:
SIST ISO 24615:2013
Upravljanje z jezikovnimi viri - Ogrodje za skladenjsko označevanje (SynAF) - 1.
del: Model skladnje

Language resource management -- Syntactic annotation framework (SynAF) -- Part 1:

Syntactic model

Gestion de ressources langagières -- Cadre d'annotation syntaxique (SynAF) -- Partie 1:

Modèle syntaxique
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 24615-1:2014
ICS:
01.020 Terminologija (načela in Terminology (principles and
koordinacija) coordination)
01.140.20 Informacijske vede Information sciences
35.240.30 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in information,
informatiki, dokumentiranju in documentation and
založništvu publishing
SIST ISO 24615-1:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST ISO 24615-1:2018
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SIST ISO 24615-1:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 24615-1
First edition
2014-02-01
Language resource management —
Syntactic annotation framework
(SynAF) —
Part 1:
Syntactic model
Gestion de ressources langagières — Cadre d’annotation syntaxique
(SynAF) —
Partie 1: Modèle syntaxique
Reference number
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
ISO 2014
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SIST ISO 24615-1:2018
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 24615-1:2018
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Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 SynAF metamodel ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.2 SynAF metamodel ......... ........................................................................................................................................................................ 4

Annex A (normative) Data categories for SynAF ...................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex B (informative) Relation to the Linguistic Annotation Framework ................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 37, Terminology and other language and content

resources, Subcommittee SC 4, Language resource management.

This first edition of ISO 24615-1 cancels and replaces ISO 24615:2010, of which it constitutes a minor

revision.

ISO 24615 (all parts) is designed to coordinate closely with ISO 24612, Language resource management —

Linguistic annotation framework (LAF), ISO 24613:2008, Language resource management — Lexical

markup framework (LMF), and ISO 24611, Language resource management — Morpho-syntactic

annotation framework.

ISO 24615 consists of the following parts, under the general title Language resource management —

Syntactic annotation framework (SynAF):
— Part 1: Syntactic model
The following part is under preparation:
— Part 2: XML serialization ()
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Introduction

ISO 24615 is based on numerous projects and pre-standardisation activities that have taken place in

[9]

the last few years (see Abeillé, 2001 ), to provide reference models and formats for the representation

of syntactic information, whether as the output of a syntactic parser, or as annotations of language

resources (treebanks). For several years, the Penn Treebank initiative has served as a de facto standard for

treebanking, but more recent works e.g. the Negra/Tiger initiative (see: http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.

de/projekte/TIGER/TIGERCorpus/) in Germany or the ISST initiative in Italy [see Montemagni (2003)

[18]

] demonstrate the viability of a more coherent framework that can account for both (hierarchical)

constituency and dependency phenomena in syntactic annotation.

The eContent project “LIRICS”, has been seminal in gathering a group of experts, who initiated the

ISO 24615 (SynAF) project. While preparing SynAF, this group confirmed that existing initiatives indeed

share a common data model that offers a good basis for the SynAF metamodel (see the study made in

Deliverable D.3.1 “Evaluation of initiatives for morpho-syntactic and syntactic annotation” of the EU

project LIRICS, available at http://lirics.loria.fr/doc_pub/Del3_1_V2.pdf).

This part of ISO 24615 proposes a metamodel for syntactic annotation together with a list of relevant

data categories for syntactic annotation. The data categories are available on the ISOCat server (http://

www.isocat.org/) in the syntax profile (as defined in ISO 12620:2009).
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SIST ISO 24615-1:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
Language resource management — Syntactic annotation
framework (SynAF) —
Part 1:
Syntactic model
1 Scope

This part of ISO 24615 describes the syntactic annotation framework (SynAF), a high level model for

representing the syntactic annotation of linguistic data, with the objective of supporting interoperability

across language resources or language processing components. This part of ISO 24615 is complementary

and closely related to ISO 24611 (MAF, morpho-syntactic annotation framework) and provides a

metamodel for syntactic representations as well as reference data categories for representing both

constituency and dependency information in sentences or other comparable utterances and segments.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 1087-1:2000, Terminology work — Vocabulary — Part 1: Theory and application

ISO 12620:2009, Terminology and other language and content resources — Specification of data categories

and management of a Data Category Registry for language resources

ISO 24611:2012, Language resource management — Morpho-syntactic annotation framework

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 1087-1:2000, ISO 12620:2009,

ISO 24611:2012 and the following apply.
3.1
adjunct

non-essential element associated with a verb as opposed to syntactic arguments (3.19)

Note 1 to entry: Adverbs are possible adjuncts for a sentence.
3.2
chunk
non-recursive constituent (3.4)
3.3
clause
group of phrases (3.14), usually containing a predicate

Note 1 to entry: A clause can be either a main clause (3.10) or a subordinate clause (3.17). In languages distinguishing

finiteness, clauses whose predicate is a verb can be either finite or non-finite, depending on the form of the verb.

A main clause alone can build a complete sentence (3.15). In the SynAF model, a clause is a special case of a

constituent (3.4).
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3.4
constituent

syntactic grouping of words [into phrases (3.14)], phrases [into clauses (3.3) or other phrases] or clauses

[into a sentence (3.15)] on the base of structural (or hierarchical) properties
3.5
dependency
dependency relation

syntactic relation between word forms (3.24) or constituents (3.4) on the basis of the grammaticalfunctions

(3.7) that constituents play in relation to each other
3.6
syntactic edge
edge
triplet with a source node (3.12), a target node, and optional annotations (3.9)

Note 1 to entry: Non-terminal nodes (3.13) have an outgoing constituency syntactic edge.

3.7
grammatical function

grammatical role of a wordform (3.24) or constituent (3.4) within its embedding syntactic environment

Note 1 to entry: For example, a noun phrase (NP) can act as a subject within a sentence (3.15), or a noun may act as

a subject dependent of a verb in a dependency graph. There is a grammatical relation between the subject – NP and

the main verb in a sentence. All grammatical relations (subject – predicate, head – modifier, etc.) are subsumed

under the concept of dependency relations (3.5), whether between terminal or non-terminal nodes.

3.8
syntactic head
head

part of a constituent (3.4) which determines its distribution (the syntactic environments in which the

constituent may appear) and its grammatical properties (e.g. if the grammatical gender of the head is

feminine, then the gender of the entire constituent will be feminine)
Note 1 to entry: The head of a constituent usually cannot be left out.
3.9
linguistic annotation
annotation
feature-value pair denoting a linguistic property of a linguistic segment
3.10
main clause
clause (3.3), which can act on its own as a complete sentence (3.15)

Note 1 to entry: In languages distinguishing finiteness, the main clause is usually finite. Example: The train is late.

3.11
modifier

part of a constituent (3.4) which ascribes a property to the head (3.8) of the constituent

Note 1 to entry: A modifier can be placed before or after the head of the phrase (3.14) (pre-modifier or post-

modifier). Modifiers are optional in a constituent.
3.12
node
syntactic node

word form (3.24) or constituent (3.4) seen as an elementary syntactic component of a syntactic analysis

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3.13
non-terminal node
syntactic node (3.12) which is not a word form (3.24)
Note 1 to entry: A non-terminal node has an outgoing constituency edge (3.6).
3.14
phrase

group of word forms (3.24) (usually containing one or more words) which can fulfill a grammatical

function (3.7), e.g. in a clause (3.3)

Note 1 to entry: Empty phrases are permitted (being non-realised pronouns, sometimes marked as “pro”, and

having the role of subjects in clauses). A phrase is typically named after its head (3.8), for example noun phrases,

verb phrases, adjective phrases, adverbial phrases and prepositional phrases. Phrases have been informally

described as “bloated words”, in that the parts of the phrase added to the head elaborate and specify the reference

of the head. In our model, a phrase is a special case of a constituent (3.4).
3.15
sentence

related group of word forms (3.24) containing a predication, usually expressing a complete thought and

forming the basic unit of discourse structure

Note 1 to entry: A sentence consists of one or more clauses (3.3). When describing speech, it is common to talk

about “utterances” rather than sentences.
3.16
span

pair of points (p1, p2), where p1 ⩽ p2, identifying the segment of the document to which an annotation

(3.9) is applied

Note 1 to entry: A multiple span is a sequence of spans where the ending point of each span is less than or equal to

the starting point of the subsequent span.
3.17
subordinate clause

clause which fulfils a grammatical function (3.7) in a phrase (3.14) [for example a relative clause (3.3)

modifying the head (3.8) noun of a nominal phrase] or in another clause

Note 1 to entry: A subordinate clause usually does not act on its own as a sentence, but is part of a larger sentence.

3.18
subcategorization frame

set of restrictions indicating the properties of the syntactic arguments (3.19) that can or must occur with

a verb

EXAMPLE Alfred (/syntacticArgument/) reads a book (/syntacticArgument/) today (/adjunct/).

Note 1 to entry: The subject, indirect object and direct object are subcategorized grammatical functions (3.7)

within a sentence; they are dependents of the verb (i.e. they can appear in subcategorization frames).

3.19
syntactic argument

functionally essential element that is required and given its interpretation by the head of its phrase

(3.14) or the node (3.12) of which it is a dependent (e.g. the nominal argument of a prepositional phrase

or verb)

Note 1 to entry: For verbs and verbal phrases, arguments identify the participants in the process referred to by

the verb. In some frameworks, syntactic arguments are called complements.
3.20
syntactic graph
graph
connected set of syntactic nodes (3.12) and edges (3.6)
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3.21
syntactic tree
syntactic graph (3.20) in which each node has a single parent
3.22
syntax

way in which word forms (3.24) are interrelated and/or grouped together into phrases, thus capturing

the relations that exist between those units
3.23
terminal node

syntactic node (3.12) which is a single word form (3.24) or an empty element involved in a syntactic

relation
3.24
word form

contiguous or non-contiguous entity from a speech or text sequence identified as an autonomous lexical

item
4 SynAF metamodel
4.1 Introduction
Syntactic annotations have at least two functions in language processing:

a) to represent linguistic constituency, as in noun phrases (NP), describing a structured sequence of

morpho-syntactically annotated items (including empty elements or traces generated by movements

at the constituency level), as well as constituents built from non-contiguous elements, and

b) to represent dependency relations, such as head-modifier relations, and also including relations

between categories of the same kind (such as the head-head relations between nouns in appositions,

or nominal coordinations in some formalisms). The dependency information can exist between

morpho-syntactically annotated items within a phrase (an adjective is the modifier of the head

noun within an NP) or describe a specific relation between syntactic constituents at the clausal

and sentential level (i.e. an NP being the “subject” of the main verb of a clause or sentence). The

dependency relation can also be stated for empty elements (e.g. the pro element in romance

languages, which serves a grammatical function).

As a consequence, syntactic annotations shall comply with a multi-layered annotation strategy

interrelating syntactic annotation for both constituency and dependency as stated in the SynAF

metamodel.
4.2 SynAF metamodel
4.2.1 Overview

The SynAF metamodel is represented as a set of UML classes complemented by UML attribute-value

pairs, which represent the associated syntactic data categories. The SynAF textual descriptions specify

more complete information about the SynAF classes, relations and extensions than can be included in

the UML diagram. Developers shall define a data category selection (DCS) as specified for SynAF data

category selection procedures (see Figure 1). The data categories given in Annex A shall be used for the

representation of syntactic annotations.
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Figure 1 — SynAF metamodel (articulated with MAF)
4.2.2 SyntacticNode class

The SyntacticNode class is a generic class subsuming both the class of terminal nodes and the class of

non-terminal nodes. Syntactic nodes can be involved in as many syntactic relations as necessary (see

3.6, syntactic edges).
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4.2.3 T_Node class

The T_Node class represents the terminal nodes of a syntactic tree, consisting of morpho-syntactically

annotated word forms, as well as empty elements when appropriate. The T_Nodes are defined over one

or more spans (multiple spans can account for discontinuous constituents). T_Nodes are annotated with

syntactic categories valid for the word level.
4.2.4 NT_Node class

The NT_Node class represents the non-terminal nodes of a syntax tree. Syntax trees mainly consist of

T_Nodes and NT_Nodes, including empty elements when appropriate. T_Nodes make reference to a span.

Thus by virtue of the syntactic tree representation, spans can also be inferred for NT_Nodes. The NT_

Nodes are annotated with syntactic categories valid at the phrasal level and higher (clausal, sentential).

4.2.5 SyntacticEdge class

The SynacticEdge class represents a relation between syntactic nodes (both terminal and non-terminal

nodes). For example, the dependency relation is binary, consisting of a pair of source and target nodes,

with one or more annotations. In particular, a syntactic edge can be annotated by a /syntacticEdgeType/

(see Annex A), whose conceptual domain can be one of, but is not limited to, /primarySyntacticEdge/, /

secondarySyntacticEdge/.
4.2.6 Annotation class

The Annotation class represents the application of syntactic information to SynAF annotated data, as

well as (see Figure 1) the application of morphosyntactic information to MAF annotated data.

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Annex A
(normative)
Data categories for SynAF
A.1 General

The following data categories shall be used for the representation of syntactic annotations in

combination with the SynAF metamodel. When necessary, specific applications may define additional

data categories, which shall be described in compliance with ISO 12620 and provided in the ISOCat data

category registry.
A.2 Basic syntactic data categories
/annotation/

Definition [en] information added to a word, phrase, clause, sentence, a text or to a relation

among them
/annotationDepth/
Conceptual Domain /deepParsing/, /shallowParsing/, /tagging/
Definition [en] level of information richness the annotation describes
/annotationStyle/
Conceptual Domain /embeddedNotation/, /mixedNotation/, /standoffNotation/
Definition [en] style of annotation
/annotationType/
Conceptual Domain /constituency/ /constituencyAndDependency/ /dependency/
Definition [en] type of annotation
/clitic/

Definition [en] unstressed word which cannot stand on its own as a normal utterance and is pho-

nologically dependent upon a neighboring word for pronunciation

— Note [en] There is a great variation concerning clitics. Sometimes, in English, the cliticized

forms are restricted to the contracted forms of auxiliaries, as in I’m, she’ll, etc.

However in some instances, articles are also referred to as clitics.
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/constituency/

Definition [en] mechanism allowing the construction of words into phrases, phrases into higher

phrases or clauses, and clauses into sentences

— Note [en] The construction of sentences into text is not usually called constituency.

/constituencyAndDependency/
Definition [en] union of constituency and dependency
/contiguous/
Definition [en] property of a grammatical unit sharing a boundary with another
/deepParsing/

Definition [en] process of fully decoding the clauses and relations present in a sentence

/dependency/

Definition [en] mechanism allowing the linking of words, or in some formalisms also phrases and

clauses, based on the binary head-dependent division and a possible annotation of

grammatical function
/doubleNegation/
Definition [en] construction consisting of two negative forms in the same clause
— Note [en] Example: In English, “I’m not unhappy”.
/embeddedNotation/
Definition [en] annotation that is added in the text
— Note [en] The original organization of the text is modified.
/enclitic/ - BC: /clitic/
Definition [en] clitic that depends upon a preceding word
/first/
Definition [en] before anything according to a certain order
/mixedNotation/
Definition [en] hybrid style annotation where standoff and embedded are mixed
/morphosyntacticAnnotation/ - BC: /annotation/

Definition [en] annotation related to the morphology of the words and their part of speech

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/negation/

Definition [en] construction that expresses the contradiction of some or all of a sentence’s, word’s

or phrase’s meaning

— Note [en] Negation may be based on negative particles (like “not”) or on prefixes (like “un”,

or “non”). Example: In English, “I’m not happy”.
/next/
Definition [en] immediately afterwards
/primarySyntacticEdge/

Definition [en] the default edge expressing the constituency relationship, originating in a con-

stituent and terminating in a component of that constituent
/predicate/

Definition [en] a phrase or word in a clause which provides a statement regarding the subject of

that clause. Most clauses can thus be divided into a subject and predicate, where

the predicate is a function expanding on the subject.

— Note [en] Example: “Kevin kicks the ball” is seen as a subject (“Kevin”) associated with a

predicate phrase (“kicks the ball”).
/previous/
Definition [en] immediately before
Definition [fr] immédiatement avant
Name [en] previous
Name [fr] précédent
/proclitic/ - BC: /clitic/
Definition [en] clitic that depends upon a following word
— Note [en] Example: “the” in “the boy”.
/propagation/

Definition [en] act of spreading a linguistic property from a grammatical unit to another

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/secondarySyntacticEdge/

Definition [en] an indirect edge expressing syntactic constituency. These edges may be used to

express the relationship between a head and a coreferent of its omitted depend-
ent.

— Note [en] Example: In “I saw Bill, but went straight back home afterwards”, “I” may serve as

an explicit subject to the first clause, dominated by a primary syntactic edge, but

in the second clause, a further secondary syntactic edge leading to “I” can make

it clear that it is also the subject of the second clause, without being one of the

explicit parts of that clause, which are dominated by primary edges. This device is

used in some formalisms to avoid the introduction of empty elements standing in
for such ‘missing’ bearers of grammatical function.
/shallowParsing/
Definition [en] process of identifying the chunks in a sentence
/standoffNotation/

Definition [en] annotation that is recorded externally from the grammatical units and that refers

to these units
— Note [en] The original organization of the text is kept unchanged.
/syntacticAnnotation/ - BC: /annotation/
Definition [en] annotation describing constituency and/or dependency

— Note [en] syntactic annotation does not directly deal with the meaning of an utterance

/syntacticFeature/
Definition [en] feature used in the description of the syntax of a language
/syntacticEdgeType/
Conceptual Domain /primarySyntacticEdge/, /secondarySyntacticEdge/

Definition [en] characterizes the syntactic edge according to its role in the syntactic representa-

tion
/syntacticRestriction/
Definition [en] rule that limits what the syntax allows in a particular language
/tagging/
Definition [en] process of annotating the part of speech for every word
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/whType/
Definition [en] property for a clause beginning by a question word
— Note [en] In English, “who is he ?” is a whType question.
/yesNoType/

Definition [en] property for a clause where only a positive or a negative answer or position is pos-

sible
— Note [en] In English, “Are you coming?” is a yesNoType question.
A.3 Constituency related data categories
/adjectiveChunk/ - BC: /chunk/
Definition [en] chunk headed by an adjective
/adjectivePhrase/ - BC: /phrase/
Definition [en] phrase headed by an adjective
/adpositionChunk/ - BC: /chunk/

Definition [en] chunk introduced by one or several adpositions that are not necessarily contigu-

ous and on the same end of the chunk
/adpositionPhrase/ - BC: /phrase/

Definition [en] phrase introduced by one or several adpositions and containing a complement

such as a noun phrase

— Note [en] The adpositions are not necessarily contiguous and on the same end of the phrase.

/adverbChunk/ - BC: /chunk/
Definition [en] chunk headed by an adverb
/adverbPhrase/ - BC: /phrase/
Definition [en] phrase headed by an adverb
/chunk/ - BC: /grammaticalUnit/
Definition [en] flat sequence of words typically containing more than one word

— Note [en] A chunk cannot contain any sub-structures. A chunk is frequently similar to a

phrase and mostly continuous.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 11
---------------------- Page: 19 ----------------------
SIST ISO 24615-1:2018
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
/clause/ - BC: /grammaticalUnit/

Definition [en] unit of grammatical organization smaller than or equal to the sentence but larger

than phrases and words, and generally containing its own predicate

— Note [en] The traditional classification is of clausal units into main (independent or superor-

dinate) and subordinate (or dependent) clauses, e.g. the boy arrived (main clause)

after the rain started (subordinate clause). A clause may form a whole sentence, as

in “they came”. A clause may contain sub-clauses.
/comparativePhrase/ - BC: /phrase/
Definition [en] phrase expressing a comparative meaning

— Note [en] In English, there is both an inflection (e.g. larger) and a comparative phrase con-

struction (e.g. more beautiful) to express the comparative.
/coordinatedPhrase/ - BC: /phrase/
Definition [en]
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 24615-1
First edition
2014-02-01
Language resource management —
Syntactic annotation framework
(SynAF) —
Part 1:
Syntactic model
Gestion de ressources langagières — Cadre d’annotation syntaxique
(SynAF) —
Partie 1: Modèle syntaxique
Reference number
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 SynAF metamodel ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.2 SynAF metamodel ......... ........................................................................................................................................................................ 4

Annex A (normative) Data categories for SynAF ...................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex B (informative) Relation to the Linguistic Annotation Framework ................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 37, Terminology and other language and content

resources, Subcommittee SC 4, Language resource management.

This first edition of ISO 24615-1 cancels and replaces ISO 24615:2010, of which it constitutes a minor

revision.

ISO 24615 (all parts) is designed to coordinate closely with ISO 24612, Language resource management —

Linguistic annotation framework (LAF), ISO 24613:2008, Language resource management — Lexical

markup framework (LMF), and ISO 24611, Language resource management — Morpho-syntactic

annotation framework.

ISO 24615 consists of the following parts, under the general title Language resource management —

Syntactic annotation framework (SynAF):
— Part 1: Syntactic model
The following part is under preparation:
— Part 2: XML serialization ()
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
Introduction

ISO 24615 is based on numerous projects and pre-standardisation activities that have taken place in

[9]

the last few years (see Abeillé, 2001 ), to provide reference models and formats for the representation

of syntactic information, whether as the output of a syntactic parser, or as annotations of language

resources (treebanks). For several years, the Penn Treebank initiative has served as a de facto standard for

treebanking, but more recent works e.g. the Negra/Tiger initiative (see: http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.

de/projekte/TIGER/TIGERCorpus/) in Germany or the ISST initiative in Italy [see Montemagni (2003)

[18]

] demonstrate the viability of a more coherent framework that can account for both (hierarchical)

constituency and dependency phenomena in syntactic annotation.

The eContent project “LIRICS”, has been seminal in gathering a group of experts, who initiated the

ISO 24615 (SynAF) project. While preparing SynAF, this group confirmed that existing initiatives indeed

share a common data model that offers a good basis for the SynAF metamodel (see the study made in

Deliverable D.3.1 “Evaluation of initiatives for morpho-syntactic and syntactic annotation” of the EU

project LIRICS, available at http://lirics.loria.fr/doc_pub/Del3_1_V2.pdf).

This part of ISO 24615 proposes a metamodel for syntactic annotation together with a list of relevant

data categories for syntactic annotation. The data categories are available on the ISOCat server (http://

www.isocat.org/) in the syntax profile (as defined in ISO 12620:2009).
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
Language resource management — Syntactic annotation
framework (SynAF) —
Part 1:
Syntactic model
1 Scope

This part of ISO 24615 describes the syntactic annotation framework (SynAF), a high level model for

representing the syntactic annotation of linguistic data, with the objective of supporting interoperability

across language resources or language processing components. This part of ISO 24615 is complementary

and closely related to ISO 24611 (MAF, morpho-syntactic annotation framework) and provides a

metamodel for syntactic representations as well as reference data categories for representing both

constituency and dependency information in sentences or other comparable utterances and segments.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 1087-1:2000, Terminology work — Vocabulary — Part 1: Theory and application

ISO 12620:2009, Terminology and other language and content resources — Specification of data categories

and management of a Data Category Registry for language resources

ISO 24611:2012, Language resource management — Morpho-syntactic annotation framework

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 1087-1:2000, ISO 12620:2009,

ISO 24611:2012 and the following apply.
3.1
adjunct

non-essential element associated with a verb as opposed to syntactic arguments (3.19)

Note 1 to entry: Adverbs are possible adjuncts for a sentence.
3.2
chunk
non-recursive constituent (3.4)
3.3
clause
group of phrases (3.14), usually containing a predicate

Note 1 to entry: A clause can be either a main clause (3.10) or a subordinate clause (3.17). In languages distinguishing

finiteness, clauses whose predicate is a verb can be either finite or non-finite, depending on the form of the verb.

A main clause alone can build a complete sentence (3.15). In the SynAF model, a clause is a special case of a

constituent (3.4).
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
3.4
constituent

syntactic grouping of words [into phrases (3.14)], phrases [into clauses (3.3) or other phrases] or clauses

[into a sentence (3.15)] on the base of structural (or hierarchical) properties
3.5
dependency
dependency relation

syntactic relation between word forms (3.24) or constituents (3.4) on the basis of the grammaticalfunctions

(3.7) that constituents play in relation to each other
3.6
syntactic edge
edge
triplet with a source node (3.12), a target node, and optional annotations (3.9)

Note 1 to entry: Non-terminal nodes (3.13) have an outgoing constituency syntactic edge.

3.7
grammatical function

grammatical role of a wordform (3.24) or constituent (3.4) within its embedding syntactic environment

Note 1 to entry: For example, a noun phrase (NP) can act as a subject within a sentence (3.15), or a noun may act as

a subject dependent of a verb in a dependency graph. There is a grammatical relation between the subject – NP and

the main verb in a sentence. All grammatical relations (subject – predicate, head – modifier, etc.) are subsumed

under the concept of dependency relations (3.5), whether between terminal or non-terminal nodes.

3.8
syntactic head
head

part of a constituent (3.4) which determines its distribution (the syntactic environments in which the

constituent may appear) and its grammatical properties (e.g. if the grammatical gender of the head is

feminine, then the gender of the entire constituent will be feminine)
Note 1 to entry: The head of a constituent usually cannot be left out.
3.9
linguistic annotation
annotation
feature-value pair denoting a linguistic property of a linguistic segment
3.10
main clause
clause (3.3), which can act on its own as a complete sentence (3.15)

Note 1 to entry: In languages distinguishing finiteness, the main clause is usually finite. Example: The train is late.

3.11
modifier

part of a constituent (3.4) which ascribes a property to the head (3.8) of the constituent

Note 1 to entry: A modifier can be placed before or after the head of the phrase (3.14) (pre-modifier or post-

modifier). Modifiers are optional in a constituent.
3.12
node
syntactic node

word form (3.24) or constituent (3.4) seen as an elementary syntactic component of a syntactic analysis

2 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
3.13
non-terminal node
syntactic node (3.12) which is not a word form (3.24)
Note 1 to entry: A non-terminal node has an outgoing constituency edge (3.6).
3.14
phrase

group of word forms (3.24) (usually containing one or more words) which can fulfill a grammatical

function (3.7), e.g. in a clause (3.3)

Note 1 to entry: Empty phrases are permitted (being non-realised pronouns, sometimes marked as “pro”, and

having the role of subjects in clauses). A phrase is typically named after its head (3.8), for example noun phrases,

verb phrases, adjective phrases, adverbial phrases and prepositional phrases. Phrases have been informally

described as “bloated words”, in that the parts of the phrase added to the head elaborate and specify the reference

of the head. In our model, a phrase is a special case of a constituent (3.4).
3.15
sentence

related group of word forms (3.24) containing a predication, usually expressing a complete thought and

forming the basic unit of discourse structure

Note 1 to entry: A sentence consists of one or more clauses (3.3). When describing speech, it is common to talk

about “utterances” rather than sentences.
3.16
span

pair of points (p1, p2), where p1 ⩽ p2, identifying the segment of the document to which an annotation

(3.9) is applied

Note 1 to entry: A multiple span is a sequence of spans where the ending point of each span is less than or equal to

the starting point of the subsequent span.
3.17
subordinate clause

clause which fulfils a grammatical function (3.7) in a phrase (3.14) [for example a relative clause (3.3)

modifying the head (3.8) noun of a nominal phrase] or in another clause

Note 1 to entry: A subordinate clause usually does not act on its own as a sentence, but is part of a larger sentence.

3.18
subcategorization frame

set of restrictions indicating the properties of the syntactic arguments (3.19) that can or must occur with

a verb

EXAMPLE Alfred (/syntacticArgument/) reads a book (/syntacticArgument/) today (/adjunct/).

Note 1 to entry: The subject, indirect object and direct object are subcategorized grammatical functions (3.7)

within a sentence; they are dependents of the verb (i.e. they can appear in subcategorization frames).

3.19
syntactic argument

functionally essential element that is required and given its interpretation by the head of its phrase

(3.14) or the node (3.12) of which it is a dependent (e.g. the nominal argument of a prepositional phrase

or verb)

Note 1 to entry: For verbs and verbal phrases, arguments identify the participants in the process referred to by

the verb. In some frameworks, syntactic arguments are called complements.
3.20
syntactic graph
graph
connected set of syntactic nodes (3.12) and edges (3.6)
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
3.21
syntactic tree
syntactic graph (3.20) in which each node has a single parent
3.22
syntax

way in which word forms (3.24) are interrelated and/or grouped together into phrases, thus capturing

the relations that exist between those units
3.23
terminal node

syntactic node (3.12) which is a single word form (3.24) or an empty element involved in a syntactic

relation
3.24
word form

contiguous or non-contiguous entity from a speech or text sequence identified as an autonomous lexical

item
4 SynAF metamodel
4.1 Introduction
Syntactic annotations have at least two functions in language processing:

a) to represent linguistic constituency, as in noun phrases (NP), describing a structured sequence of

morpho-syntactically annotated items (including empty elements or traces generated by movements

at the constituency level), as well as constituents built from non-contiguous elements, and

b) to represent dependency relations, such as head-modifier relations, and also including relations

between categories of the same kind (such as the head-head relations between nouns in appositions,

or nominal coordinations in some formalisms). The dependency information can exist between

morpho-syntactically annotated items within a phrase (an adjective is the modifier of the head

noun within an NP) or describe a specific relation between syntactic constituents at the clausal

and sentential level (i.e. an NP being the “subject” of the main verb of a clause or sentence). The

dependency relation can also be stated for empty elements (e.g. the pro element in romance

languages, which serves a grammatical function).

As a consequence, syntactic annotations shall comply with a multi-layered annotation strategy

interrelating syntactic annotation for both constituency and dependency as stated in the SynAF

metamodel.
4.2 SynAF metamodel
4.2.1 Overview

The SynAF metamodel is represented as a set of UML classes complemented by UML attribute-value

pairs, which represent the associated syntactic data categories. The SynAF textual descriptions specify

more complete information about the SynAF classes, relations and extensions than can be included in

the UML diagram. Developers shall define a data category selection (DCS) as specified for SynAF data

category selection procedures (see Figure 1). The data categories given in Annex A shall be used for the

representation of syntactic annotations.
4 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
Figure 1 — SynAF metamodel (articulated with MAF)
4.2.2 SyntacticNode class

The SyntacticNode class is a generic class subsuming both the class of terminal nodes and the class of

non-terminal nodes. Syntactic nodes can be involved in as many syntactic relations as necessary (see

3.6, syntactic edges).
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
4.2.3 T_Node class

The T_Node class represents the terminal nodes of a syntactic tree, consisting of morpho-syntactically

annotated word forms, as well as empty elements when appropriate. The T_Nodes are defined over one

or more spans (multiple spans can account for discontinuous constituents). T_Nodes are annotated with

syntactic categories valid for the word level.
4.2.4 NT_Node class

The NT_Node class represents the non-terminal nodes of a syntax tree. Syntax trees mainly consist of

T_Nodes and NT_Nodes, including empty elements when appropriate. T_Nodes make reference to a span.

Thus by virtue of the syntactic tree representation, spans can also be inferred for NT_Nodes. The NT_

Nodes are annotated with syntactic categories valid at the phrasal level and higher (clausal, sentential).

4.2.5 SyntacticEdge class

The SynacticEdge class represents a relation between syntactic nodes (both terminal and non-terminal

nodes). For example, the dependency relation is binary, consisting of a pair of source and target nodes,

with one or more annotations. In particular, a syntactic edge can be annotated by a /syntacticEdgeType/

(see Annex A), whose conceptual domain can be one of, but is not limited to, /primarySyntacticEdge/, /

secondarySyntacticEdge/.
4.2.6 Annotation class

The Annotation class represents the application of syntactic information to SynAF annotated data, as

well as (see Figure 1) the application of morphosyntactic information to MAF annotated data.

6 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
Annex A
(normative)
Data categories for SynAF
A.1 General

The following data categories shall be used for the representation of syntactic annotations in

combination with the SynAF metamodel. When necessary, specific applications may define additional

data categories, which shall be described in compliance with ISO 12620 and provided in the ISOCat data

category registry.
A.2 Basic syntactic data categories
/annotation/

Definition [en] information added to a word, phrase, clause, sentence, a text or to a relation

among them
/annotationDepth/
Conceptual Domain /deepParsing/, /shallowParsing/, /tagging/
Definition [en] level of information richness the annotation describes
/annotationStyle/
Conceptual Domain /embeddedNotation/, /mixedNotation/, /standoffNotation/
Definition [en] style of annotation
/annotationType/
Conceptual Domain /constituency/ /constituencyAndDependency/ /dependency/
Definition [en] type of annotation
/clitic/

Definition [en] unstressed word which cannot stand on its own as a normal utterance and is pho-

nologically dependent upon a neighboring word for pronunciation

— Note [en] There is a great variation concerning clitics. Sometimes, in English, the cliticized

forms are restricted to the contracted forms of auxiliaries, as in I’m, she’ll, etc.

However in some instances, articles are also referred to as clitics.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
/constituency/

Definition [en] mechanism allowing the construction of words into phrases, phrases into higher

phrases or clauses, and clauses into sentences

— Note [en] The construction of sentences into text is not usually called constituency.

/constituencyAndDependency/
Definition [en] union of constituency and dependency
/contiguous/
Definition [en] property of a grammatical unit sharing a boundary with another
/deepParsing/

Definition [en] process of fully decoding the clauses and relations present in a s

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 24615-1:2018
01-september-2018
1DGRPHãþD
SIST ISO 24615:2013
8SUDYOMDQMH]MH]LNRYQLPLYLUL2JURGMH]DVNODGHQMVNRR]QDþHYDQMH 6\Q$) 
GHO0RGHOVNODGQMH

Language resource management -- Syntactic annotation framework (SynAF) -- Part 1:

Syntactic model

Gestion de ressources langagières -- Cadre d'annotation syntaxique (SynAF) -- Partie 1:

Modèle syntaxique
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 24615-1:2014
ICS:
01.020 7HUPLQRORJLMD QDþHODLQ Terminology (principles and
NRRUGLQDFLMD coordination)
35.060 Jeziki, ki se uporabljajo v Languages used in
informacijski tehniki in information technology
tehnologiji
SIST ISO 24615-1:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 24615-1:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 24615-1:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 24615-1
First edition
2014-02-01
Language resource management —
Syntactic annotation framework
(SynAF) —
Part 1:
Syntactic model
Gestion de ressources langagières — Cadre d’annotation syntaxique
(SynAF) —
Partie 1: Modèle syntaxique
Reference number
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 24615-1:2018
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 24615-1:2018
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 SynAF metamodel ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.2 SynAF metamodel ......... ........................................................................................................................................................................ 4

Annex A (normative) Data categories for SynAF ...................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex B (informative) Relation to the Linguistic Annotation Framework ................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 24615-1:2018
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 37, Terminology and other language and content

resources, Subcommittee SC 4, Language resource management.

This first edition of ISO 24615-1 cancels and replaces ISO 24615:2010, of which it constitutes a minor

revision.

ISO 24615 (all parts) is designed to coordinate closely with ISO 24612, Language resource management —

Linguistic annotation framework (LAF), ISO 24613:2008, Language resource management — Lexical

markup framework (LMF), and ISO 24611, Language resource management — Morpho-syntactic

annotation framework.

ISO 24615 consists of the following parts, under the general title Language resource management —

Syntactic annotation framework (SynAF):
— Part 1: Syntactic model
The following part is under preparation:
— Part 2: XML serialization ()
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 24615-1:2018
ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
Introduction

ISO 24615 is based on numerous projects and pre-standardisation activities that have taken place in

[9]

the last few years (see Abeillé, 2001 ), to provide reference models and formats for the representation

of syntactic information, whether as the output of a syntactic parser, or as annotations of language

resources (treebanks). For several years, the Penn Treebank initiative has served as a de facto standard for

treebanking, but more recent works e.g. the Negra/Tiger initiative (see: http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.

de/projekte/TIGER/TIGERCorpus/) in Germany or the ISST initiative in Italy [see Montemagni (2003)

[18]

] demonstrate the viability of a more coherent framework that can account for both (hierarchical)

constituency and dependency phenomena in syntactic annotation.

The eContent project “LIRICS”, has been seminal in gathering a group of experts, who initiated the

ISO 24615 (SynAF) project. While preparing SynAF, this group confirmed that existing initiatives indeed

share a common data model that offers a good basis for the SynAF metamodel (see the study made in

Deliverable D.3.1 “Evaluation of initiatives for morpho-syntactic and syntactic annotation” of the EU

project LIRICS, available at http://lirics.loria.fr/doc_pub/Del3_1_V2.pdf).

This part of ISO 24615 proposes a metamodel for syntactic annotation together with a list of relevant

data categories for syntactic annotation. The data categories are available on the ISOCat server (http://

www.isocat.org/) in the syntax profile (as defined in ISO 12620:2009).
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 24615-1:2018
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ISO 24615-1:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 24615-1:2014(E)
Language resource management — Syntactic annotation
framework (SynAF) —
Part 1:
Syntactic model
1 Scope

This part of ISO 24615 describes the syntactic annotation framework (SynAF), a high level model for

representing the syntactic annotation of linguistic data, with the objective of supporting interoperability

across language resources or language processing components. This part of ISO 24615 is complementary

and closely related to ISO 24611 (MAF, morpho-syntactic annotation framework) and provides a

metamodel for syntactic representations as well as reference data categories for representing both

constituency and dependency information in sentences or other comparable utterances and segments.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 1087-1:2000, Terminology work — Vocabulary — Part 1: Theory and application

ISO 12620:2009, Terminology and other language and content resources — Specification of data categories

and management of a Data Category Registry for language resources

ISO 24611:2012, Language resource management — Morpho-syntactic annotation framework

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 1087-1:2000, ISO 12620:2009,

ISO 24611:2012 and the following apply.
3.1
adjunct

non-essential element associated with a verb as opposed to syntactic arguments (3.19)

Note 1 to entry: Adverbs are possible adjuncts for a sentence.
3.2
chunk
non-recursive constituent (3.4)
3.3
clause
group of phrases (3.14), usually containing a predicate

Note 1 to entry: A clause can be either a main clause (3.10) or a subordinate clause (3.17). In languages distinguishing

finiteness, clauses whose predicate is a verb can be either finite or non-finite, depending on the form of the verb.

A main clause alone can build a complete sentence (3.15). In the SynAF model, a clause is a special case of a

constituent (3.4).
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3.4
constituent

syntactic grouping of words [into phrases (3.14)], phrases [into clauses (3.3) or other phrases] or clauses

[into a sentence (3.15)] on the base of structural (or hierarchical) properties
3.5
dependency
dependency relation

syntactic relation between word forms (3.24) or constituents (3.4) on the basis of the grammaticalfunctions

(3.7) that constituents play in relation to each other
3.6
syntactic edge
edge
triplet with a source node (3.12), a target node, and optional annotations (3.9)

Note 1 to entry: Non-terminal nodes (3.13) have an outgoing constituency syntactic edge.

3.7
grammatical function

grammatical role of a wordform (3.24) or constituent (3.4) within its embedding syntactic environment

Note 1 to entry: For example, a noun phrase (NP) can act as a subject within a sentence (3.15), or a noun may act as

a subject dependent of a verb in a dependency graph. There is a grammatical relation between the subject – NP and

the main verb in a sentence. All grammatical relations (subject – predicate, head – modifier, etc.) are subsumed

under the concept of dependency relations (3.5), whether between terminal or non-terminal nodes.

3.8
syntactic head
head

part of a constituent (3.4) which determines its distribution (the syntactic environments in which the

constituent may appear) and its grammatical properties (e.g. if the grammatical gender of the head is

feminine, then the gender of the entire constituent will be feminine)
Note 1 to entry: The head of a constituent usually cannot be left out.
3.9
linguistic annotation
annotation
feature-value pair denoting a linguistic property of a linguistic segment
3.10
main clause
clause (3.3), which can act on its own as a complete sentence (3.15)

Note 1 to entry: In languages distinguishing finiteness, the main clause is usually finite. Example: The train is late.

3.11
modifier

part of a constituent (3.4) which ascribes a property to the head (3.8) of the constituent

Note 1 to entry: A modifier can be placed before or after the head of the phrase (3.14) (pre-modifier or post-

modifier). Modifiers are optional in a constituent.
3.12
node
syntactic node

word form (3.24) or constituent (3.4) seen as an elementary syntactic component of a syntactic analysis

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3.13
non-terminal node
syntactic node (3.12) which is not a word form (3.24)
Note 1 to entry: A non-terminal node has an outgoing constituency edge (3.6).
3.14
phrase

group of word forms (3.24) (usually containing one or more words) which can fulfill a grammatical

function (3.7), e.g. in a clause (3.3)

Note 1 to entry: Empty phrases are permitted (being non-realised pronouns, sometimes marked as “pro”, and

having the role of subjects in clauses). A phrase is typically named after its head (3.8), for example noun phrases,

verb phrases, adjective phrases, adverbial phrases and prepositional phrases. Phrases have been informally

described as “bloated words”, in that the parts of the phrase added to the head elaborate and specify the reference

of the head. In our model, a phrase is a special case of a constituent (3.4).
3.15
sentence

related group of word forms (3.24) containing a predication, usually expressing a complete thought and

forming the basic unit of discourse structure

Note 1 to entry: A sentence consists of one or more clauses (3.3). When describing speech, it is common to talk

about “utterances” rather than sentences.
3.16
span

pair of points (p1, p2), where p1 ⩽ p2, identifying the segment of the document to which an annotation

(3.9) is applied

Note 1 to entry: A multiple span is a sequence of spans where the ending point of each span is less than or equal to

the starting point of the subsequent span.
3.17
subordinate clause

clause which fulfils a grammatical function (3.7) in a phrase (3.14) [for example a relative clause (3.3)

modifying the head (3.8) noun of a nominal phrase] or in another clause

Note 1 to entry: A subordinate clause usually does not act on its own as a sentence, but is part of a larger sentence.

3.18
subcategorization frame

set of restrictions indicating the properties of the syntactic arguments (3.19) that can or must occur with

a verb

EXAMPLE Alfred (/syntacticArgument/) reads a book (/syntacticArgument/) today (/adjunct/).

Note 1 to entry: The subject, indirect object and direct object are subcategorized grammatical functions (3.7)

within a sentence; they are dependents of the verb (i.e. they can appear in subcategorization frames).

3.19
syntactic argument

functionally essential element that is required and given its interpretation by the head of its phrase

(3.14) or the node (3.12) of which it is a dependent (e.g. the nominal argument of a prepositional phrase

or verb)

Note 1 to entry: For verbs and verbal phrases, arguments identify the participants in the process referred to by

the verb. In some frameworks, syntactic arguments are called complements.
3.20
syntactic graph
graph
connected set of syntactic nodes (3.12) and edges (3.6)
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3.21
syntactic tree
syntactic graph (3.20) in which each node has a single parent
3.22
syntax

way in which word forms (3.24) are interrelated and/or grouped together into phrases, thus capturing

the relations that exist between those units
3.23
terminal node

syntactic node (3.12) which is a single word form (3.24) or an empty element involved in a syntactic

relation
3.24
word form

contiguous or non-contiguous entity from a speech or text sequence identified as an autonomous lexical

item
4 SynAF metamodel
4.1 Introduction
Syntactic annotations have at least two functions in language processing:

a) to represent linguistic constituency, as in noun phrases (NP), describing a structured sequence of

morpho-syntactically annotated items (including empty elements or traces generated by movements

at the constituency level), as well as constituents built from non-contiguous elements, and

b) to represent dependency relations, such as head-modifier relations, and also including relations

between categories of the same kind (such as the head-head relations between nouns in appositions,

or nominal coordinations in some formalisms). The dependency information can exist between

morpho-syntactically annotated items within a phrase (an adjective is the modifier of the head

noun within an NP) or describe a specific relation between syntactic constituents at the clausal

and sentential level (i.e. an NP being the “subject” of the main verb of a clause or sentence). The

dependency relation can also be stated for empty elements (e.g. the pro element in romance

languages, which serves a grammatical function).

As a consequence, syntactic annotations shall comply with a multi-layered annotation strategy

interrelating syntactic annotation for both constituency and dependency as stated in the SynAF

metamodel.
4.2 SynAF metamodel
4.2.1 Overview

The SynAF metamodel is represented as a set of UML classes complemented by UML attribute-value

pairs, which represent the associated syntactic data categories. The SynAF textual descriptions specify

more complete information about the SynAF classes, relations and extensions than can be included in

the UML diagram. Developers shall define a data category selection (DCS) as specified for SynAF data

category selection procedures (see Figure 1). The data categories given in Annex A shall be used for the

representation of syntactic annotations.
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Figure 1 — SynAF metamodel (articulated with MAF)
4.2.2 SyntacticNode class

The SyntacticNode class is a generic class subsuming both the class of terminal nodes and the class of

non-terminal nodes. Syntactic nodes can be involved in as many syntactic relations as necessary (see

3.6, syntactic edges).
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4.2.3 T_Node class

The T_Node class represents the terminal nodes of a syntactic tree, consisting of morpho-syntactically

annotated word forms, as well as empty elements when appropriate. The T_Nodes are defined over one

or more spans (multiple spans can account for discontinuous constituents). T_Nodes are annotated with

syntactic categories valid for the word level.
4.2.4 NT_Node class

The NT_Node class represents the non-terminal nodes of a syntax tree. Syntax trees mainly consist of

T_Nodes and NT_Nodes, including empty elements when appropriate. T_Nodes make reference to a span.

Thus by virtue of the syntactic tree representation, spans can also be inferred for NT_Nodes. The NT_

Nodes are annotated with syntactic categories valid at the phrasal level and higher (clausal, sentential).

4.2.5 SyntacticEdge class

The SynacticEdge class represents a relation between syntactic nodes (both terminal and non-terminal

nodes). For example, the dependency relation is binary, consisting of a pair of source and target nodes,

with one or more annotations. In particular, a syntactic edge can be annotated by a /syntacticEdgeType/

(see Annex A), whose conceptual domain can be one of, but is not limited to, /primarySyntacticEdge/, /

secondarySyntacticEdge/.
4.2.6 Annotation class

The Annotation class represents the application of syntactic information to SynAF annotated data, as

well as (see Figure 1) the application of morphosyntactic information to MAF annotated data.

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Annex A
(normative)
Data categories for SynAF
A.1 General

The following data categories shall be used for the representation of syntactic annotations in

combination with the SynAF metamodel. When necessary, specific applications may define additional

data categories, which shall be described in compliance with ISO 12620 and provided in the ISOCat data

category registry.
A.2 Basic syntactic data categories
/annotation/

Definition [en] information added to a word, phrase, clause, sentence, a text or to a relation

among them
/annotationDepth/
Conceptual Domain /deepParsing/, /shallowParsing/, /tagging/
Definition [en] level of information richness the annotation describes
/annotationStyle/
Conceptual Domain /embeddedNotation/, /mixedNotation/, /standoffNotation/
Definition [en] style of annotation
/annotationType/
Conceptual Domain /constituency/ /constituencyAndDependency/ /dependency/
Definition [en] type of annotation
/clitic/

Definition [en] unstressed word which cannot stand on its own as a normal utterance and is pho-

nologically dependent upon a neighboring word for pronunciation

— Note [en] There is a great variation concerning clitics. Sometimes, in English, the cliticized

forms are restricted to the contracted forms of auxiliaries, as in I’m, she’ll, etc.

However in some instances, articles are also referred to as clitics.
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/constituency/

Definition [en] mechanism allowing the construction of words into phrases, phrases into higher

phrases or clauses, and clauses into sentences

— Note [en] The construction of sentences into text is not usually called constituency.

/constituencyAndDependency/
Definition [en] union of constituency and dependency
/contiguous/
Definition [en] property of a grammatical unit sharing a boundary with another
/deepParsing/

Definition [en] process of fully decoding the clauses and relations present in a sentence

/dependency/

Definition [en] mechanism allowing the linking of words, or in some formalisms also phrases and

clauses, based on the binary head-dependent division and a possible annotation of

grammatical function
/doubleNegation/
Definition [en] construction consisting of two negative forms in the same clause
— Note [en] Example: In English, “I’m not unhappy”.
/embeddedNotation/
Definition [en] annotation that is added in the text
— Note [en] The original organization of the text is modified.
/enclitic/ - BC: /clitic/
Definition [en] clitic that depends upon a preceding word
/first/
Definition [en] before anything according to a certain order
/mixedNotation/
Definition [en] hybrid style annotation where standoff and embedded are mixed
/morphosyntacticAnnotation/ - BC: /annotation/

Definition [en] annotation related to the morphology of the words and their part of speech

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/negation/

Definition [en] construction that expresses the contradiction of some or all of a sentence’s, word’s

or phrase’s meaning

— Note [en] Negation may be based on negative particles (like “not”) or on prefixes (like “un”,

or “non”). Example: In English, “I’m not happy”.
/next/
Definition [en] immediately afterwards
/primarySyntacticEdge/

Definition [en] the default edge expressing the constituency relationship, originating in a con-

stituent and terminating in a component of that constituent
/predicate/

Definition [en] a phrase or word in a clause which provides a statement regarding the subject of

that clause. Most clauses can thus be divided into a subject and predicate, where

the predicate is a function expanding on the subject.

— Note [en] Example: “Kevin kicks the ball” is seen as a subject (“Kevin”) associated with a

predicate phrase (“kicks the ball”).
/previous/
Definition [en] immediately before
Definition [fr] immédiatement avant
Name [en] previous
Name [fr] précédent
/proclitic/ - BC: /clitic/
Definition [en] clitic that depends upon a following word
— Note [en] Example: “the” in “the boy”.
/propagation/

Definition [en] act of spreading a linguistic property from a grammatical unit to another

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/secondarySyntacticEdge/

Definition [en] an indirect edge expressing syntactic constituency. These edges may be used to

express the relationship between a head and a coreferent of its omitted depend-
ent.

— Note [en] Example: In “I saw Bill, but went straight back home afterwards”, “I” may serve as

an explicit subject to the first clause, dominated by a primary syntactic edge, but

in the second clause, a further secondary syntactic edge leading to “I” can make

it clear that it is also the subject of the second clause, without being one of the

explicit parts of that clause, which are dominated by primary edges. This device is

used in some formalisms to avoid the introduction of empty elements standing in
for such ‘missing’ bearers of grammatical function.
/shallowParsing/
Definition [en] process of identifying the chunks in a sentence
/standoffNotation/

Definition [en] annotation that is recorded externally from the grammatical units and that refers

to these units
— Note [en] The original organization of the text is kept unchanged.
/syntacticAnnotation/ - BC: /annotation/
Definition [en] annotation describing constituency and/or dependency

— Note [en] syntactic annotation does not directly deal with the meaning of an utterance

/syntacticFeature/
Definition [en] feature used in the description of the syntax of a language
/syntacticEdgeType/
Conceptual Domain /primarySyntacticEdge/, /secondarySyntacticEdge/

Definition [en] characterizes the syntactic edge according to its role in the syntactic representa-

tion
/syntacticRestriction/
Definition [en] rule that limits what the syntax allows in a particular language
/tagging/
Definition [en] process of annotating the part of speech for every word
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/whType/
Definition [en] property for a clause beginning by a question word
— Note [en] In English, “who is he ?” is a whType question.
/yesNoType/

Definition [en] property for a clause where only a positive or a negative answer or position is pos-

sible
— Note [en] In English, “Are you coming?” is a yesNoType question.
A.3 Constituency related data categories
/adjectiveChunk/ - BC: /chunk/
Definition [en] chunk headed by an adjective
/adjectivePhrase/ - BC: /phrase/
Definition [en] phrase headed by an adjective
/adpositionChunk/ - BC: /chunk/

Definition [en] chunk introduced by one or several adpositions that are not necessarily contigu-

ous and on the same end of the chunk
/adpositionPhrase/ - BC: /phrase/

Definition [en] phrase introduced by one or several adpositions and containing a complement

such as a noun phrase

— Note [en] The adpositions are not necessarily contiguous and on the same end of the phrase.

/adverbChunk/ - BC: /chunk/
Definition [en] chunk headed by an adverb
/adverbPhrase/ - BC: /phrase/
Definition [en] phrase headed by an adverb
/chunk/ - BC: /grammaticalUnit/
Definition [en] flat sequence of words typically containing more than one word

— Note [en] A chunk cannot contain any sub-structures. A chunk is frequently similar to a

phrase and mostly continuous.
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/clause/ - BC: /grammaticalUnit/

Definition [en] unit of grammatical organization smaller than or equal to the sentence but larger

than phrases and words, and generally containing its own predicate

— Note [en] The traditional classification is of clausal units into main (independent or superor-

dinate) and subordinate (or dependent) clauses, e.g. the boy arrived (main clause)

after the rain started (subordinate clause). A clause may form a whole sentence, as

in “they came”. A clause may contain sub-clauses.
/comparativePhrase/ - BC: /phrase/
Definition [en] phrase expressing a comparative meaning

— Note [en] In English, there is both an inflection (e.g. larger) and a comparative phrase con-

struction (e.g. more beautiful) to express the comparative.
/coordinatedPhrase/ - BC: /phrase/
Definition [en] phrase expressing a coordination
/declar
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 24615-1
Première édition
2014-02
Gestion de ressources linguistiques —
Cadre d'annotation syntaxique
(SynAF) —
Partie 1:
Modèle syntaxique
Language resource management — Syntactic annotation framework
(SynAF) —
Part 1: Syntactic model
Numéro de référence
ISO 24615-1:2014(F)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 24615-1:2014(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2014

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

ISO copyright office
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CH-1214 Vernier, Genève
Tél.: +41 22 749 01 11
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E-mail: copyright@iso.org
Web: www.iso.org
Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2014 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 24615-1:2014(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d'application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Métamodèle SynAF ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.2 Métamodèle SynAF .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.2.1 Vue d’ensemble ................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.2.2 Classe SyntacticNode.................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2.3 Classe T_Node ..................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2.4 Classe NT_Node ................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.2.5 Classe SyntacticEdge .................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2.6 Classe Annotation ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

Annexe A (normative) Catégories de données pour SynAF........................................................................................................... 7

Annexe B (informative) Relation avec le cadre d’annotation linguistique ................................................................17

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO 2014 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 24615-1:2014(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/directives).

L'attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www .iso .org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la signification des termes et expressions spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation

de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation

mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien

suivant: www .iso .org/iso/fr/avant-propos .html.

Le comité chargé de l'élaboration du présent document est l’ISO/TC 37, Langage et terminologie, sous-

comité SC 4, Gestion des ressources linguistiques.

Cette première édition de l’ISO 24615-1 annule et remplace l’ISO 24615:2010 dont elle constitue une

révision mineure.

L’ISO 24615, dans toutes ses parties, est conçue de manière coordonnée avec l’ISO 24612, Gestion des

ressources linguistiques – Cadre d’annotation linguistique (LAF), l’ISO 24613:2008, Gestion des ressources

linguistiques – Cadre d’annotation lexicale (LMF), et l’ISO 24611, Gestion des ressources langagières –

Cadre d’annotation morpho-syntaxique.

L’ISO 24615 comporte les parties suivantes, sous le titre général Gestion des ressources linguistiques –

Cadre d’annotation syntaxique (SynAF):
— Partie 1: Modèle syntaxique
La partie suivante est en cours d’élaboration:
— Part 2: Sérialisation XML ()
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ISO 24615-1:2014(F)
Introduction

L’ISO 24615 se fonde sur de nombreux projets et activités de pré-normalisation qui ont été menés au

[9]

cours des dernières années (voir Abeillé, 2001 ) en vue de constituer des modèles de référence et

des formats pour la représentation de l’information syntaxique, soit sous forme de sortie d’analyseur

syntaxique, soit sous forme d’annotations de ressources linguistiques (treebanks). Depuis plusieurs

années l’initiative Penn Treebank constitue le standard de facto pour l’annotation syntaxique, mais

des travaux plus récents, par exemple l’initiative Negra/Tiger (voir http: //www .ims .uni -stuttgart

.de/projekte/TIGER/TIGERCorpus/) en Allemagne ou l’initiative ISST en Italie (voir Montemagni

[18]

(2003) ) démontre la viabilité d’un cadre plus cohérent qui tient compte à la fois des constituants

hiérarchiques et des phénomènes de dépendance syntaxique dans l’annotation syntaxique.

Le projet eContent “LIRICS” est un projet majeur car il a rassemblé un groupe d’experts, initiateur du projet

ISO 24615 (SynAF). Lors de la préparation de SynAF, ce groupe a confirmé que les initiatives actuelles

partagent effectivement un modèle de données commun qui offre une bonne base de départ pour le

métamodèle SynAF (voir l’étude “Evaluation of initiatives for morpho-syntactic and syntactic annotation”

du projet européen LIRICS, disponible à l’adresse http: //lirics .loria .fr/doc _pub/Del3 _1 _V2 .pdf).

Cette partie de l’ISO 24615 propose un métamodèle pour l’annotation syntaxique ainsi qu’une liste

de catégories de données pertinente pour l’annotation syntaxique. Les catégories de données sont

disponibles sur le serveur ISOCat (http: //www .isocat .org/) au sein du profil syntaxe (tel que défini

dans l’ISO 12620:2009).
© ISO 2014 – Tous droits réservés v
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 24615-1:2014(F)
Gestion de ressources linguistiques — Cadre d'annotation
syntaxique (SynAF) —
Partie 1:
Modèle syntaxique
1 Domaine d'application

Cette partie de l’ISO 24615 décrit le cadre d’annotation syntaxique (SynAF), modèle de haut niveau pour

représenter l’annotation syntaxique des données linguistiques, dans le but d’offrir l’interopérabilité

entre les ressources linguistiques ou les composants du traitement de la langue. La présente partie

de l’ISO 24615 est complémentaire par rapport à l’ISO 24611 (MAF, cadre d’annotation morpho-

syntaxique) et y est étroitement liée. Elle fournit un métamodèle pour les représentations syntaxiques,

avec les catégories de données de référence destinées à représenter tout aussi bien des informations de

constituance que des informations de dépendance, dans des phrases ou autres énonciations et segments

du même ordre.
2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants sont indispensables à l'application de ce document. Pour les références datées,

seule l’édition citée s’applique. Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document référencé

s’applique (incluant ses éventuels amendements).

ISO 1087-1:2000, Travaux terminologiques — Vocabulaire — Partie 1: Théorie et application

ISO 12620:2009, Terminologie et autres ressources langagières et ressources de contenu — Spécification

de catégories de données et gestion d’un registre de catégories de données pour les ressources langagières

ISO 24611:2012, Gestion des ressources langagières — Cadre d'annotation morphosyntaxique (MAF)

3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions figurant dans l’ISO 1087-1:2000,

l’ISO 12620:2009, l’ISO 24611:2012 ainsi que ce les suivants s’appliquent.
3.1
circonstant

élément non essentiel associé à un verbe en opposition avec les arguments syntaxiques (3.19)

Note 1 à l'article: Les adverbes sont des circonstants possibles pour une phrase.

3.2
bloc
bloc syntaxique
constituant non récursif (3.4)

Note 1 à l'article: Le terme «bloc» est la traduction en français du terme anglais «chunk»

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ISO 24615-1:2014(F)
3.3
proposition
groupe de syntagmes (3.14), qui comprend habituellement un prédicat

Note 1 à l'article: Une proposition peut être soit une proposition principale (3.10) soit une proposition subordonnée

(3.17). Dans les langues qui distinguent la finitude, les propositions dont le prédicat est un verbe peuvent être

soit finies soit non-finies, en fonction de la forme du verbe. Une proposition principale peut constituer à elle seule

une phrase complète (3.15). Dans le modèle SynAF, une proposition est un cas particulier de constituant (3.4).

3.4
constituant

groupement syntaxique de mots [en syntagmes (3.14)], de syntagmes [en propositions (3.3) ou d’autres

syntagmes] ou de propositions [en une phrase (3.15)], sur la base de propriétés structurelles (ou

hiérarchiques)
3.5
dépendance
relation de dépendance

relation syntaxique entre mots-formes (3.24) ou constituants (3.4) sur la base des fonctions grammaticales

(3.7) que les constituants assument les uns par rapport aux autres
3.6
arc syntaxique
arc

triplet avec un nœud source (3.12), un nœud cible, et des annotations optionnelles (3.9)

Note 1 à l'article: Les nœuds non-terminaux (3.13) ont un arc syntaxique sortant de constituance.

3.7
fonction grammaticale

rôle grammatical d’un mot-forme (3.24) ou d’un constituant (3.4) dans son environnement syntaxique

enchâssant

Note 1 à l'article: par exemple, un syntagme nominal (SN) peut jouer le rôle du sujet dans une phrase (3.15), ou

un nom celui du sujet dépendant d’un verbe dans un graphe de dépendance. Il y a un lien grammatical entre

le sujet – SN et le verbe principal d’une phrase. Toutes les relations grammaticales (sujet – prédicat, tête –

modificateur, etc.) sont subsumées sous le concept de relation de dépendance (3.5), que cela soit entre nœuds

terminaux ou nœuds non-terminaux.
3.8
tête syntaxique
tête

partie d’un constituant (3.4) qui détermine sa distribution (l’environnement syntaxique dans lequel le

constituant peut apparaître) et ses propriétés grammaticales (ex: si le genre grammatical de la tête est

féminin, alors le genre de la totalité du constituant sera féminin)

Note 1 à l'article: La tête d’un constituant ne peut habituellement pas être négligée.

3.9
annotation linguistique
annotation

paire attribut-valeur dénotant une propriété linguistique d’un segment linguistique

3.10
proposition principale

proposition (3.3) qui peut fonctionner toute seule comme une phrase complète (3.15)

Note 1 à l'article: Dans les langues distinguant la finitude, la proposition principale est habituellement finie.

Exemple: Le train est en retard.
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ISO 24615-1:2014(F)
3.11
modificateur

partie d’un constituant (3.4) qui attribue une propriété à la tête (3.8) dudit constituant

Note 1 à l'article: Un modificateur peut être situé avant ou après la tête du syntagme (3.14) (pré-modificateur ou

post-modificateur). Dans un constituant, les modificateurs sont optionnels.
3.12
nœud
nœud syntaxique

mot-forme (3.24) ou constituant (3.4) considéré comme un composant syntaxique élémentaire d’une

analyse syntaxique
3.13
nœud non terminal
nœud syntaxique (3.12) qui n’est pas un mot-forme (3.24)

Note 1 à l'article: Un nœud non terminal possède un arc sortant de constituance (3.6).

3.14
syntagme

groupe de mots-formes (3.24) (comportant habituellement un ou plusieurs mots) qui peut remplir une

fonction grammaticale (3.7), dans une proposition (3.3), par exemple

Note 1 à l'article: Les syntagmes vides sont autorisés (pronoms non-réalisés, quelquefois marqués comme «pro»

et ayant le rôle de sujets dans des propositions). Un syntagme est typiquement nommé d’après sa tête (3.8), par

exemple les syntagmes nominaux, les syntagmes verbaux, les syntagmes adjectivaux, les syntagmes adverbiaux

et les syntagmes prépositionnels. De manière informelle, les syntagmes sont décrits comme des «mots gonflés».,

du fait que les éléments qui le constituent et qui sont ajoutés à la tête syntaxique forment et spécifient la référence

de celle-ci. Dans notre modèle, le syntagme est un cas particulier de constituant (3.4).

3.15
phrase

groupe lié de mots-formes (3.24) contenant une prédication, exprimant habituellement une pensée

complète et formant l’unité de base de la structure de discours

Note 1 à l'article: Une phrase consiste en une ou plusieurs propositions (3.3). Quand l’objectif est de décrire le

discours, il est commun de parler d’énonciations plutôt que de phrases.
3.16
empan

paire de points (p1, p2), pour lesquels p1 ⩽ p2, identifiant les segments du document faisant l’objet de

l’annotation (3.9)

Note 1 à l'article: Un empan multiple est une séquence d’empans dans laquelle le point final de chaque empan est

inférieur ou égal au point de départ de l’empan suivant.
3.17
proposition subordonnée

proposition qui remplit une fonction grammaticale (3.7) dans un syntagme (3.14) [par exemple, une

proposition relative (3.3) modifiant la tête (3.8) nominale d’un syntagme nominal] ou dans une autre

proposition

Note 1 à l'article: Généralement, une proposition subordonnée ne fonctionne pas seule comme une phrase, elle

constitue une partie d’une phrase plus grande.
3.18
cadre de sous-catégorisation

ensemble de restrictions indiquant les propriétés des arguments syntaxiques (3.19) qui peuvent ou

doivent apparaître avec un verbe

EXEMPLE Alfred (/argument syntaxique/) lit un livre (/argument syntaxique/) aujourd’hui (/circonstant/).

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ISO 24615-1:2014(F)

Note 1 à l'article: Le sujet, l’objet indirect et l’objet direct sont des fonctions grammaticales (3.7) sous-catégorisées

au sein d’une phrase; elles sont dépendantes du verbe (c’est-à-dire qu'elles peuvent apparaître dans des cadres de

sous-catégorisation).
3.19
argument syntaxique

élément fonctionnellement essentiel qui est requis et dont l’interprétation est donnée par la tête

de son syntagme (3.14) ou le nœud (3.12) dont il dépend (par ex, l’argument nominal d’un syntagme

prépositionnel ou d’un verbe)

Note 1 à l'article: Pour les verbes et les syntagmes verbaux, les arguments identifient les participants au processus

référencé par le verbe. Dans certains cadres, les arguments syntaxiques sont appelés compléments.

3.20
graphe syntaxique
graphe
ensemble connecté de nœuds syntaxiques (3.12) et d’arcs (3.6)
3.21
arbre syntaxique
graphe syntaxique (3.20) dans lequel chaque nœud n’a qu’un seul parent
3.22
syntaxe

façon dont les mots-formes (3.24) sont interconnectés et/ou groupés ensemble pour former des

syntagmes, et ainsi fixer les relations qui existent entre lesdits éléments
3.23
nœud terminal

nœud syntaxique (3.12) qui est un mot-forme (3.24) simple ou un élément vide impliqué dans une

relation syntaxique
3.24
mot-forme

entité contiguë ou non-contiguë dans une séquence de discours ou de texte, identifiée comme un item

lexical autonome
4 Métamodèle SynAF
4.1 Introduction

Les annotations syntaxiques ont au moins deux fonctions dans le traitement du langage:

a) représenter la constituance linguistique, comme dans les syntagmes nominaux (SN), en décrivant

une séquence structurée d’items annotés en morpho-syntaxe (incluant des éléments vides ou des

traces engendrées par des mouvements au niveau de la constituance), ainsi que les constituants

construits à partir d’éléments non-contigus, et

b) représenter les relations de dépendance, comme les relations tête-modificateur, et incluant

les relations entre catégories de même nature (comme les relations tête-tête entre noms dans

les appositions, ou les coordinations nominales dans certains formalismes). L’information de

dépendance peut exister entre items annotés en morpho-syntaxe au sein d’un syntagme (un adjectif

est le modificateur d’une tête nominale au sein d’un SN) ou bien décrit une relation spécifique entre

constituants syntaxiques au niveau de la proposition ou de la phrase (c’est-à-dire, un SN «sujet»

du verbe principal de la proposition ou de la phrase). La relation de dépendance peut aussi être

associée à des éléments vides (par exemple, l’élément pro dans les langues romanes qui assume une

fonction grammaticale).
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ISO 24615-1:2014(F)

En conséquence, les annotations syntaxiques doivent être conformes à une stratégie d’annotation

multicouches mettant en corrélation les annotations syntaxiques relatives à la constituance et à la

dépendance, comme spécifié dans le métamodèle SynAF.
4.2 Métamodèle SynAF
4.2.1 Vue d’ensemble

Le métamodèle SynAF est représenté comme un ensemble de classes UML complété par des paires

attribut-valeur, qui représentent les catégories de données syntaxiques. La description textuelle SynAF

spécifie de manière plus complète les classes SynAF, les relations et extensions qui peuvent être incluses

dans le diagramme UML. Les développeurs doivent définir une sélection de catégories de données (DCS)

comme spécifié dans les procédures de sélection des catégories de données pour SynAF (voir Figure 1).

Les catégories de données fournies dans l’Annexe A doivent être utilisées pour la représentation des

annotations syntaxiques.
4.2.2 Classe SyntacticNode

La classe SyntacticNode est une classe générique subsumant à la fois la classe des nœuds terminaux

et la classe des nœuds non-terminaux. Les nœuds syntaxiques peuvent être impliqués dans autant de

relations syntaxiques que nécessaires (voir 3.6 arc syntaxiques).
4.2.3 Classe T_Node

La classe T_Node représente les nœuds terminaux d’un arbre syntaxique, constitué de mots-formes

annotés en morpho-syntaxe, ainsi que d’éléments vides, s'il y lieu. Les nœuds T_Nodes sont définis sur

un ou plusieurs empans (des empans multiples peuvent servir pour les constituants discontinus). Les

T_Nodes sont annotés avec des catégories syntaxiques valides au niveau du mot.
4.2.4 Classe NT_Node

La classe NT_Node représente les nœuds non-terminaux de l’arbre syntaxique. Les arbres syntaxiques

sont principalement constitués de T_Nodes et de NT_Nodes, avec des éléments vides, s'il y a lieu Les

T_Nodes font référence à un empan. De ce fait, en vertu des représentations de l’arbre syntaxique, des

empans peuvent aussi être déduits pour les NT_Nodes. Les NT_Nodes sont annotés avec des catégories

syntaxiques valides au niveau syntagmatique et supérieur (niveau propositionnel ou phrastique).

4.2.5 Classe SyntacticEdge

La classe SyntacticEdge représente une relation entre nœuds syntaxiques (à la fois nœuds terminaux

et non-terminaux). Par exemple, la relation de dépendance est binaire, composée d’une paire de

nœuds source et cible, avec une ou plusieurs annotations. En particulier, un arc syntaxique peut

être annoté par un /syntacticEdgeType/ (voir l’Annexe A), dont le domaine conceptuel peut être un /

primarySyntacticEdge/ ou /secondarySyntacticEdge/, sans que cela soit limitatif.
4.2.6 Classe Annotation

La classe Annotation représente l’application de l’information syntaxique aux données annotées SynAF,

ainsi que l’application de l’information morpho-syntaxique aux données annotées MAF (voir Figure 1).

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ISO 24615-1:2014(F)
Figure 1 — Métamodèle SynAF (articulé avec MAF)
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ISO 24615-1:2014(F)
Annexe A
(normative)
Catégories de données pour SynAF
A.1 Généralités

Les catégories de données suivantes doivent être utilisées pour la représentation des annotations

syntaxiques en combinaison avec le métamodèle SynAF. Si nécessaire, des applications spécifiques

peuvent définir des catégories de données additionnelles, qui doivent être décrites en conformité avec

l’ISO 12620 et mémorisées dans le registre de catégories de données ISOCat.
A.2 Catégories de données syntaxiques de base
/annotation/ annotation

Définition [fr] information ajoutée à un mot, un syntagme, une proposition, une phrase,

un texte, ou à une relation entre ces éléments
/annotationDepth/
Domaine conceptuel /deepParsing/, /shallowParsing/, /tagging/
Définition [fr] niveau de la richesse d’information que l’annotation décrit
/annotationStyle/ style d’annotation
Domaine conceptuel /embeddedNotation/, /mixedNotation/, /standoffNotation/
Définition [fr] style de l’annotation
/annotationType/ type d’annotation
Domaine conceptuel /constituency/ /constituencyAndDependency/ /dependency/
Définition [fr] type de l’annotation
/clitic/ clitique

Définition [fr] mot non marqué qui ne peut fonctionner tout seul comme une énoncia-

tion normale et qui est phonologiquement dépendant d’un mot voisin
pour sa prononciation

— Note [fr] Il y a une grande variation concernant les clitiques. Quelquefois, en anglais,

les formes clitiques se limitent aux formes contractées des auxiliaires,
comme I’m, she’ll, etc. Néanmoins dans d’autres contextes, les articles
sont aussi qualifiés de clitiques.
/constituency/ constituance

Définition [fr] mécanisme permettant la construction des mots en syntagmes, des syn-

tagmes en syntagmes de plus haut niveau, et des propositions en phrases
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— Note [fr] L'élaboration de phrases en texte n’est habituellement pas dénommée
constituance.
/constituencyAndDependency/ constituance et dépendance
Définition [fr] union de la constituance et de la dépendance
/contiguous/ contigu

Définition [fr] propriété d’une unité grammaticale qui partage une frontière avec une autre

/deepParsing/ analyse profonde

Définition [fr] processus de décodage complet des propositions et des relations pré-

sentes dans une phrase
/dependency/ dépendance

Définition [fr] mécanisme permettant la liaison de mots ou, dans certains formalismes,

de syntagmes et de propositions, basé sur la division binaire dépendant
de la tête et sur une éventuelle annotation de la fonction grammaticale
/doubleNegation/ double négation

Définition [fr] construction consistant en deux formes négatives dans la même pro-

position
— Note [fr] Exemple: En français, “je ne suis pas mécontent”.
/embeddedNotation/ notation enchâssée
Définition [fr] annotation qui est ajoutée dans un texte
— Note [fr] L’organisation originale du texte est modifiée.
/enclitic/ - BC: /clitic/ clitique
Définition [fr] qui dépend d’un mot précédent
/first/
Définition [fr] avant toute autre chose selon un certain ordre
/mixedNotation/ notation mixte

Définition [fr] style d’annotation hybride dans lequel les styles déporté et enchâssé

sont mélangés
/morphosyntacticAnnotation/ annotation morphosyntaxique - BC: /annotation/

Définition [fr] annotation relative à la morphologie des mots et de leur partie du discours

/negation/ négation

Définition [fr] construction qui exprime la signification contraire de tout ou partie

d’une phrase, d’un mot ou d’un syntagme
— Note [fr] La négation peut être fondée sur les particules négatives (comme «ne
… pas») ou des préfixes (comme «in» ou «non»). Exemple: en français,
«je ne suis pas content».
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ISO 24615-1:2014(F)
/next/ prochain
Définition [fr] immédiatement après
/primarySyntacticEdge/ arc syntaxique primaire

Définition [fr] arc par défaut exprimant la relation de constituance, prenant son origine

dans un constituant et se terminant dans un composant de ce constituant
/predicate/ prédicat

Définition [fr] syntagme ou mot dans une proposition qui fournit une assertion sur le

sujet de la proposition. La plupart des propositions peuvent ainsi être
décomposées en sujet et prédicat, où le prédicat est une fonction qui
s’étend au sujet
— Note [fr] Exemple: «Kevin tape dans le ballon» est vu comme un sujet («Kevin»)
associé avec un prédicat phrastique («tape dans le ballon»).
/previous/ précédent
Définition [fr] immédiatement avant
/proclitic/proclitique/ /clitic/clitique/
Définition [fr] clitique qui dépend du mot suivant
— Note [fr] Exemple: «le» dans «le garçon».
/propagation/ propagation

Définition [fr] acte d’étendre une propriété linguistique d’une unité grammaticale à

une autre
/secondarySyntacticEdge/ arc syntaxique secondaire

Définition [fr] arc indirect exprimant la constituance syntaxique. Ces arcs peuvent

être utilisés pour exprimer la relation entre une tête et un coréférent
de son dépendant omis

— Note [fr] Exemple: Dans «J’ai vu Bill, mais suis retourné ensuite à la maison», «Je»

peut fonctionner comme un sujet explicite dans la première proposition,
régi par un arc syntaxique primaire, mais dans la seconde proposition,
un arc syntaxique secondaire menant à «Je» peut clarifier la situation
dans la mesure où il est le sujet de la seconde proposition, tout ceci sans
être une des parties explicites de cette proposition, lequel est régi par
des arcs primaires. Ce mécanisme est utilisé dans certains formalismes
pour éviter l’introduction d’éléments vides valant pour de tels porteurs
‘absents’ de la fonction grammaticale.
/shallowParsing/ analyse de surface
Définition [fr] processus d’identification des blocs dans une phrase
/standoffNotation/

Définition [fr] annotation qui est enregistrée de manière externe aux unités gramma-

ticales et qui référence ces unités
— Note [fr] L’organisation originale du texte reste inchangée.
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ISO 24615-1:2014(F)
/syntacticAnnotation/ annotation syntaxique - BC: /annotation/
Définition [fr] annotation qui décrit la constituance et/ou la dépendance

— Note [fr] L’annotation syntaxique n’a pas directement de rapport avec le signifié

de l’énonciation.
/syntacticFeature/ trait utilisé dans la description
...

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