This document describes the method for assessing the resistance of paint coatings to separation from substrates when a double-X pattern is cut into the coating, penetrating through to the substrate and using a tape.
Where a measurement of adhesion is required, the method described in CEN/TS 927-9 may be used.
The double X-cut pattern has been especially designed for wood and wood like substrates to minimise the effects from the incisions and at the same time provide a coating segment enclosed by four cuts.

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ISO 19403-7:2017 specifies a method for the dynamic measurement of the roll-off angle of a liquid drop on a solid surface. From the dynamic measurement, the advancing and receding angles of the drop rolling off can also be determined. The roll-off angle plays a role when evaluating, for example, easy-to-clean or anti-adherent surfaces.

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ISO 19396-1:2017 specifies a method for laboratory measurement of the pH value of polymer dispersions and coating materials using pH electrodes with a glass membrane. ISO 19396‑2 specifies a method for measuring the pH value using pH electrodes with ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) technology.

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ISO 19403-3:2017 specifies a test method to measure the surface tension of liquids with an optical method using the pendant drop. The method can be applied for the characterization of liquid coating materials. The applicability can be restricted for liquids with non-Newtonian rheology[1].
NOTE For other methods to determine the surface tension, see e.g. EN 14370 and ISO 1409.
[1] This term is defined in DIN 1342-1.

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ISO 19403-6:2017 specifies a method to measure the dynamic contact angle with an optical method. The advancing and the receding angles are determined.
By means of this defined measurement, the wetting and dewetting properties can be characterized. It can also be concluded on the morphological and chemical homogeneity of interfaces.

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ISO 19403-5:2017 specifies a test method to determine the polar and dispersive fractions of the surface tension of liquids by optical methods. The method can be applied for the characterization of liquid coating materials.
The applicability can be restricted for liquids with non-Newtonian rheology[1].
ISO 19403-5:2017 assumes that the information of surface tension of the liquid to be tested and the surface free energy of the dispersive reference solids is known.
[1] This term is defined in DIN 1342-1.

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ISO 19396-2:2017 specifies a method for measuring the pH value of dispersions and coating materials using pH electrodes with ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) technology. ISO 19396‑1 specifies a method for measuring the pH value using pH electrodes with a glass membrane.

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ISO 19403-4:2017 specifies a test method to determine the polar and dispersive fraction of the surface tension of liquids with optical methods. The method can be applied for the characterization of liquid coating materials, especially when drying effects occur during measurement. The applicability can be restricted for liquids with non-Newtonian rheology[1].
ISO 19403-4:2017 assumes that the information of surface tension of the liquid to be tested, as well as at least one suitable reference liquid, is known.
[1] This term is defined in DIN 1342-1.

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ISO 19403-2:2017 specifies a test method to measure the contact angle for the determination of the surface free energy of a solid surface. The method can be applied for the characterization of substrates and coatings.
NOTE 1 For the determination of the surface free energy of polymers and coatings, either the method in accordance with Owens, Wendt, Rabel and Kaelble or the method in accordance with Wu is used preferably.
NOTE 2 The morphological and chemical homogeneity have an influence on the measuring results.
NOTE 3 The procedures indicated in ISO 19403-2:2017 are based on the state-of-the-art employing the drop projection method in penumbral shadow. Other methods are not excluded.
NOTE 4 Measuring the contact angle on powders is not part of ISO 19403-2:2017. For further information, see the bibliography.

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ISO 3668:2017 specifies a method for the visual comparison of the colour of films of paints or related products against a standard (either a reference standard or a freshly prepared standard) using artificial light sources in a standard booth.
It is not applicable to coatings containing special-effect pigments, e.g. metallic, without previous agreement on all details of illuminating and viewing conditions

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The ISO 19403 series specifies optical test methods
- for the measurement of the contact angle,
- for the determination of the free surface energy of a solid surface, including the polar and dispersive fractions,
- for the determination of the surface tension of liquids, including the polar and dispersive fractions, and
- for the checking of the measurement arrangement with reference materials.
It can be applied for the characterization of substrates, coatings and coating materials.
The applicability can be restricted for liquids with non-Newtonian rheology[1].
ISO 19403-1:2017 specifies terms and definitions and defines the general principles.
[1] This term is defined in DIN 1342-1.

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This document specifies a method for determining the electrical conductivity and the electrical resistance of coating materials. The conductivity is usually measured for water-borne paints and varnishes, including electrodeposition coating materials, and the resistance is usually measured for solvent-borne paints and varnishes. If required, the resistivity of the coating material is calculated from either of these measurements. The method is applicable to products having a conductivity less than 5 µS/cm, corresponding to a resistivity greater than 200 kΩ⋅cm.
The conductivity of coating materials influences their processibility in the presence of an electric field. This is particularly important for electrodeposition paints and coating materials which are processed electrostatically.

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This document specifies a method for determining the film hardness by pushing pencils of known hardness over the film.
The test can be performed on a single coating of a paint, varnish or related product, or on the upper layer of a multi-coat system.
This rapid test has not been found to be useful in comparing the pencil hardness of different coatings. It is more useful in providing relative ratings for a series of coated panels exhibiting significant differences in pencil hardness.
The method is applicable only to smooth surfaces.

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This document specifies methods for determining the hiding power given by paint coats of white or light colours of tristimulus values Y and Y10 greater than 25, applied to a black and white chart, or to a colourless transparent foil. In the latter case the tristimulus values Y and Y10 are measured over black and white panels. Subsequently, the hiding power is calculated from these tristimulus values.
This document also specifies a simple method for calculating the spreading rate for paints with a volatile matter content with low evaporation speed, e.g. coatings for interior walls and ceilings as specified in EN 13300.

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This document specifies a method for determining the non-volatile matter by volume (NVV) of coating materials and related products by measuring the density of a dried coating for any specified temperature range and period of drying or curing. This method determines the non-volatile matter immediately after application.
Using the non-volatile matter by volume results obtained in accordance with this document, it is possible to calculate the spreading rate of coating materials.
The method specified in this document is the preferred method for air-drying materials. Its use for other materials has not yet been tested.
Annex B gives an overview of the existing methods for determination of non-volatile-matter content and volume of non-volatile matter.
This document is not applicable to coating materials in which the critical pigment volume concentration is exceeded.

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This document describes the general principles for the selection of methods for the preparation of steel surfaces before application of paints and related products. It also contains information on features that are taken into account when selecting and specifying certain surface preparation methods and preparation grades.

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This document specifies abrasive blast-cleaning methods for the preparation of steel surfaces before coating with paints and related products. It provides information on the effectiveness of the individual methods and their fields of application. It describes the equipment to use and the procedure to follow.
NOTE These methods are essentially intended for hot-rolled steel to remove mill scale, rust, etc. but could also be used for cold-rolled steel of sufficient thickness to withstand the deformation caused by the impact of abrasive.

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This document specifies the lighting and the procedure for the visual assessment of degraded areas, spots or other defects on or in coatings.
This document is not applicable to the visual comparison of colour, which can be assessed using ISO 3668.
NOTE See Annex A for examples of the possible applications of this document.

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This document describes the types of paint and paint system commonly used for corrosion protection of steel structures.
It also gives guidelines for the selection of paint systems available for different environments (see ISO 12944‑2) except for corrosivity category CX and category Im4 as defined in ISO 12944‑2 and different surface preparation grades (see ISO 12944‑4), and the durability grade to be expected (see ISO 12944‑1).

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This document specifies a method for determining the non-volatile matter by volume (NVV) of coating materials by determining the practical dry-film density. This method determines the volume percentage of non-volatile matter in paints, varnishes and related products by measuring the density of a dry coating for any specified temperature range and period of drying or curing. The non-volatile matter content is determined in accordance with ISO 3251.
Using the non-volatile matter by volume results obtained in accordance with this document, it is possible to calculate the practical spreading rate of coating materials.
This method specifies an additional shape of plate to those described in ISO 3233‑1 and is suitable for all products which can be applied by dipping.
This document is not applicable to coating materials which exceed the Critical Pigment Volume Concentration (CPVC).
Annex A gives an overview of the existing methods for the determination of non-volatile matter content and of non-volatile matter volume.

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This document describes methods of scribing coated steel or test-pieces for corrosion tests, where the coating system is applied at dry film thicknesses of less than 500 μm. It is intended as a guideline only, being based on the results of a collaborative trial with no subsequent corrosion testing having been carried out to determine the suitability of the introduced scribe marks for such tests.
This document covers the scribing of metallic panels or test pieces (chemically treated or not) made from:
— steel;
— galvanized steel;
— aluminium alloys;
— magnesium alloys.
It does not cover the scribing of electroplated metal or clad aluminium panels.

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This part of EN 13523 specifies the panel design and describes the procedure for determining the resistance to outdoor exposure of an organic coating on a metallic substrate.

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This part of the EN 13523 series specifies the procedure for evaluating the degree of curing by assessing the resistance of a cured organic coating film, applied on a metallic substrate, to a specified organic solvent.

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This document specifies a natural weathering test for exterior wood coating systems mainly intended for decoration and protection of planed and sawn wood.
The test provides a means of evaluating the performance of a wood coating system during outdoor exposure. It forms the basis for the performance specification in accordance with EN 927-2. It also facilitates the comparison of coating systems performance on different substrates including the wood species, or other wood modifications.

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The method specifies the gravimetric procedure for determining the non-volatile-matter content as a percentage by mass of the majority of thermally cured coil coatings and subsequently for determining the theoretical spreading rate. The method is not suitable for pure epoxy coil coatings.

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This document describes methods for measuring the thickness of coatings applied to a substrate. Methods for determining wet-film thickness, dry-film thickness and the film thickness of uncured powder layers are described.
For each method described, this document provides an overview of the field of application, existing standards and the precision.
Information on measuring film thickness on rough surfaces is given in Annex B.
Information on measuring film thickness on wooden substrates is given in Annex C.

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This document specifies a test method for assessing the resistance of a coating to impact on a defined and carefully selected wooden substrate for coatings on wood components in exterior use.
The method is preferably used on coatings that have not been exposed to weathering. The method is suitable for use either as a means of comparing different coating systems or as a quality control test to ensure that a specified performance level is being achieved or maintained.

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This part of the EN 13523 series specifies two methods for determining the numerical evaluation of the adhesion of strippable films which have previously been applied to an organic coating on a metallic substrate.
Samples can be tested irrespective of whether the strippable film has been applied in the laboratory or on the production line.
NOTE   Method 1 is preferred for films with adhesive and method 2 for films without adhesive.

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This document specifies colour-matching functions for use in colorimetry. Two sets of colour-matching functions are specified.
— Colour-matching functions for the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer.
This set of colour-matching functions is representative of the colour-matching properties of observers with normal colour vision for visual field sizes of angular subtense from about 1° to about 4°, for vision at photopic levels of adaptation.
— Colour-matching functions for the CIE 1964 standard colorimetric observer.
This set of colour-matching functions is representative of the colour-matching properties of observers with normal colour vision for visual field sizes of angular subtense greater than about 4°, for vision at sufficiently high photopic levels and with spectral power distributions such that no participation of the rod receptors of the retina is to be expected.

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This document specifies methods of calculating the tristimulus values of colour stimuli for which the spectral distributions are provided. These colour stimuli can be produced by self-luminous light sources or by reflecting or transmitting objects.
This document requires that the colour stimulus function be tabulated at measurement intervals of 5 nm or less in a wavelength range of at least 380 nm to 780 nm. Extrapolation methods are suggested for cases where the measured wavelength range is less than 380 nm to 780 nm.
The standard method is defined as summation at 1 nm intervals over the wavelength range from 360 nm to 830 nm. Alternative abridged methods are defined for larger intervals (up to 5 nm) and shorter ranges (down to 380 nm to 780 nm). The alternative methods are to be used only when appropriate and when the user has reviewed the impact on the final results.
This document can be used in conjunction with the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer or the CIE 1964 standard colorimetric observer.

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This document specifies a method of calculating the coordinates of the CIE 1976 L*a*b* colour space, including correlates of lightness, chroma and hue. It includes two methods for calculating Euclidean distances in this space to represent the perceived magnitude of colour differences.
This document is applicable to tristimulus values calculated using colour-matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric system or the CIE 1964 standard colorimetric system. This document can be used for the specification of colour stimuli perceived as belonging to a reflecting or transmitting object, where a three-dimensional space more uniform than tristimulus space is required.
This document does not apply to colour stimuli perceived as belonging to an area that appears to be emitting light as a primary light source, or that appears to be specularly reflecting such light.
This document is applicable to self-luminous displays, such as cathode ray tubes, if they are being used to simulate reflecting or transmitting objects and if the stimuli are appropriately normalized.
Calculating the reverse transformation is shown in Annex A.

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This document specifies a method for determining the flow time of paints, varnishes and related products that can be used to control consistency.
Four flow cups of similar dimensions, but having orifice diameters of 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm and 6 mm, are specified. Two methods for checking the flow cups for wear and tear are given (see Annex A).
Flow cups with a replaceable jet are not covered by this document as the close tolerances on the supply of the material under test to the jet are not met.
Commonly used dipping flow cups are also not covered by this document.
NOTE Since the fabrication tolerances for such flow cups are greater than those of the flow cups specified in this document, flow time determinations with dipping flow cups give a precision which is lower than that obtained with the flow cups specified in this document (see Clause 9).
The method described in this document is limited to testing materials for which the breakpoint of the flow from the orifice of the flow cup can be determined with certainty. This point is difficult to determine and reproduce for materials with flow times near the upper limit of the measurement range (100 s) due to slowing-down effects.

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This document specifies a test method for determining under defined conditions the resistance of a single coating or a multi-coat system of paint, varnish or related product to penetration by scratching with a scratch stylus loaded with a specified load. Penetration of the stylus is to the substrate, except in the case of a multi-coat system, in which case the stylus can penetrate either to the substrate or to an intermediate coat.
The method specified can be carried out
a) either as a "pass/fail" test, by testing with a single specified load applied to the stylus to assess conformity with a particular specification, or
b) as an assessment test by applying increasing loads to the stylus to determine the minimum load at which the coating is penetrated.
NOTE Neither this document nor ISO 1518‑2 specifies a method using a curved stylus, which is specified in ISO 12137. The choice between the three methods will depend on the particular practical problem.

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This document specifies a method for determining, using a pointed stylus loaded with a continuously increasing load, the scratch resistance of a single coating of a paint, varnish or related product, or the upper layer of a multicoat system.
This test has been found to be useful in comparing the scratch resistance of different coatings. It is most useful in providing relative ratings for a series of coated panels exhibiting significant differences in scratch resistance.
NOTE Neither this document nor ISO 1518‑1 specifies a method using a curved stylus, which is specified in ISO 12137. The choice between the three methods will depend on the particular practical problem.

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This document specifies a method, carried out under standard conditions, for preparing and storing a sample of a multicomponent coating system and subsequently assessing its pot-life by measuring a particular property/ies.
Reactive systems curing within a short period of time, e.g. 3 h, will have the end of their pot life so near to the gel point that they will need to be tested for that particular property in accordance with ISO 2535.
The method can be carried out either as a pass/fail test by determining the particular property/ies after a specified period of time, or as determination of the pot life by repeating determinations at convenient intervals of time.
This document is not intended for in situ control of products during their application. It is intended to determine "pot life" in the laboratory.
The value obtained from this test method can be subject to modification by suppliers for practical reasons (e.g. starting temperature) when giving advice to users and should then be called the "practical pot life".

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This document specifies a method for determining the hiding power (spreading rate necessary to give a hiding power of 98 %) of white or light-coloured paints. It is applicable to paint films having the tri-stimulus value of Y ≥ 70 and hiding power > 80 %. It is not applicable to fluorescent or metallic paints.

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This document specifies a method for determining the non-volatile-matter content by mass of paints, varnishes, binders for paints and varnishes, polymer dispersions and condensation resins such as phenolic resins (resols, novolak solutions etc.).
The method is also applicable to formulated dispersions containing fillers, pigments and other auxiliaries (e.g. thickeners, film-forming agents).
NOTE 1 The non-volatile-matter content of a product is not an absolute quantity but depends upon the temperature and period of heating used for the determination. Consequently, when using this method, only relative and not true values for non-volatile-matter content are obtained owing to solvent retention, thermal decomposition and evaporation of low molecular mass constituents. The method is therefore primarily intended for testing different batches of the same type of product.
NOTE 2 This method is suitable for synthetic rubber lattices, provided heating for a specific period of time is considered appropriate (ISO 124 specifies heating until the loss in mass of a 2 g test portion following successive periods of heating is less than 0,5 mg).
NOTE 3 In-house methods for determining non-volatile matter often include drying with infrared or microwave radiation. Standardization of such methods is not possible, since they are not generally applicable. Several polymer compositions tend to decompose during such treatment and therefore give incorrect results.

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This document specifies a general method for determining the average molecular weight and the molecular weight distribution of polymers using SEC-LS, i.e. size-exclusion chromatography coupled with light-scattering detection. The average molecular weight and the molecular weight distribution are calculated from molecular weight data and weight concentrations determined continuously with elution time. The molecular weight at each elution time is determined absolutely by combining a light-scattering detector with a concentration-sensitive detector. Therefore, SEC-LS is classified as an absolute method.
This method is applicable to linear homopolymers and to nonlinear homopolymers such as branched, star-shaped, comb-like, stereo-regular and stereo-irregular polymers. It can also be applied to heterophasic copolymers whose molecular composition cannot vary. However, SEC-LS is not applicable to block, graft or heterophasic copolymers whose molecular composition can vary. And the methods are applicable to molecular weights ranging from that of the monomer to 3 000 000, but are not intended for samples that contain > 30 % of components having a molecular weight < 1 000.

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This document specifies a method, using an absorbent medium, for determining the resistance of an individual-layer or multi-layer system of coating materials to the effects of liquids or paste-like products.
This method enables the tester to determine the effects of the test substance on the coating and, if necessary, to assess the damage to the substrate.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of loss of mass on stoving of coating powders that are to be applied by electrostatic spraying or flock spraying or fluidized bed.
The method described in this document is a simple, practical test which provides sufficiently accurate results for coating powders that lose approximately 2 % (by mass) on stoving (heating). Above 2 %, accuracy decreases with an increasing loss in mass.
This method determines the amount of all volatile matter, including water.
Thermogravimetric testing as described in the ISO 11358 series can be used as a comparative method.

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This document specifies a visual method to determine the deterioration of surface quality of the final coating when mixing two different coating powders. The surface quality will depend on the following characteristics of the coating powders:
a) the chemical reactivity;
b) the chemical composition;
c) the melt properties.
The onset of the incompatibility in appearance, its nature and its extent will depend greatly on the ratio in which the powders are mixed. The nature of the incompatibility in surface appearance can manifest itself in various ways, described in Clause 8.
This test is useful in predicting the possibility of incompatibility arising from mixing different powders both during the manufacturing process and during the application of the coating powder.
This document concerns only changes in visual aspects of the coating. The mixture series can also be used for testing properties such as mechanical properties, chemical properties, corrosive properties and resistance against UV radiation. Further properties can be agreed between interested parties.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the particle size distribution of coating powders by sieve analysis. Particle size distributions with a maximum of less than 100 µm is determined by laser diffraction, ISO 8130‑13. This method is used especially for determining the oversize material or for the presence of contamination and can be used as a quality control procedure ("go"/"no go" test) by checking the amount retained on a single sieve.
The following particle sizes are typical for coating powders, however the particle size can deviate depending on the application:
— thin-film technology: 1 µm to 63 µm;
— electrostatic coating: 10 µm to 200 µm;
— fluidizing-bed method: 100 µm and above.
NOTE Sieves with a mesh size smaller than 32 µm are not practical and are likely to become blind during use.

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This document defines special terms used in the field of coating powders.
Other terms and definitions related to paints and varnishes are given in ISO 4618.

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This document specifies a comparative method for determining the flow characteristic of a fused thermosetting coating powder down a plane inclined at a set angle to the horizontal.
The aim of the test method described in this document gives an indication of the degree of melt flow that can occur during the curing of the coating powder. This characteristic contributes to the surface appearance and to the degree of coverage over sharp edges.
The test is a comparative method for checking for batch to batch variation in the behaviour of a given coating powder. Correlation between the results from coating powders of differing composition is not to be expected.
This method is not suitable for coating powders which have gel times of less than 1 min at the test temperature when characterised according to ISO 8130‑6. This method is also not suitable for textured powders.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the equivalent-sphere particle size distribution of coating powders by laser diffraction, for particles of the size range from 1 µm to 300 µm.
NOTE There is a possibility that particle sizes >300 µm need the use of a different optical model.
This document is specific for the measurement of coating powders and also draws attention to ISO 13320, which provides guidance on instrument qualification and particle size distribution.
Laser diffraction is not suitable for determining oversize material, which can be verified by sieve analysis as described in ISO 8130‑1 or by dynamic image analysis as described in ISO 13322‑2.

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This document specifies a test method for determining, under specified optional conditions, whether a single-coat film or a multi-coat system of paints and varnishes on wood after a specified drying period is sufficiently dry to avoid damage when two painted surfaces or one painted surface and another surface are placed in contact under pressure and subsequently separated. The method is intended to simulate the conditions when painted articles come into contact which each other. In comparison to EN ISO 9117-2, the conditioning and parameters which influence the behaviour of wood coatings are more specific.
NOTE   In some countries, the test is called a "block or blocking resistance" test.

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This document specifies a reference method for the determination of emissions from coatings into indoor air. This method is applicable to volatile organic compounds, semi-volatile organic compounds and volatile aldehydes.
NOTE 1   This document is aimed at describing the overall procedure and makes use of existing standards mainly by normative reference complemented when necessary with additional or modified normative requirements.
This document is mainly aimed at determining emission data in indoor air for the purpose of meeting national legislation requirements, and for the voluntary labelling of products.
NOTE 2   Harmonized product standards for coatings falling under the CPR can refer to this standard for the intended conditions of use.
This document applies to coatings for indoor use as listed in Clause 5.
It is not applicable for:
- coatings that are applied off site or coatings that are applied on site, prior to the structure being permanently weatherproof  except for the product type category 7 as listed in Clause 5;
- tinting pastes that are not ready for use as coating;
- non film-forming products like e.g. waxes and impregnations.

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This document describes methods for hand-tool and power-tool cleaning of steel substrates before application of paints and related products. It is applicable both to new steelwork and to steel surfaces that have been coated previously and that show areas of breakdown requiring maintenance painting. It describes the equipment to be used and the procedures to be followed.

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This document specifies the requirements and the corresponding methods of test for raw, refined and boiled linseed oils for paints and varnishes.

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This document specifies the requirements and the corresponding test methods for driers for paints, varnishes and related products. It applies to driers in the solid or liquid form. It does not apply to emulsifiable driers.

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