This document summarizes methods for the determination of the parameters pH, ammonium, AOX, As, Ba, Cd, Cl-, easily liberatable cyanide, Co, Cr, Cr(VI), Cu, DOC/TOC, electrical conductivity, F-, Hg, Mo, Ni, NO2-, Pb, phenol index, total S, Sb, Se, SO42-, TDS, V and Zn in aqueous eluates for the characterization of waste.

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This document specifies a test to obtain information on the short- and long-term leaching behaviour and characteristic properties of materials.
The document has been developed to measure the pH-dependent release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799 and ISO 17616. The equilibrium condition, as defined in this document, is established by the addition of predetermined amounts of acid or base to reach desired final pH values.
NOTE 1 Volatile organic substances include the low molecular weight substances in mixtures such as mineral oil.
NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimize test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic substances and optimum test conditions can also vary between different groups of organic substances. Test requirements for organic substances are generally more stringent than those for inorganic substances. The test conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic substances will generally also be applicable to inorganic substances.
NOTE 3 Within the category of organic substances, a significant difference in behaviour exists between the more polar, relatively water-soluble compounds and apolar, hydrophobic organic substances (HOCs). In the latter case, mechanisms of release (e.g. particle-bound or dissolved organic carbon-bound) can be more crucial as well as sorption losses of soluble HOCs on different materials with which they come in contact (e.g. bottles, filters). The test and the results should be used for leaching of organic substances only with thorough consideration of the specific properties of the substances in question and the associated potential problems.
NOTE 4 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic substances are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is meant to include genotoxicological testing.
The test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions.
For the purposes of ecotoxicological tests, the relevant pH range (see 8.2) will usually be pH 5 to pH 9.
This test is mainly aimed at being used for routine and control purposes, and it cannot be used alone to describe all leaching properties of a soil. Additional leaching tests are needed for that extended goal. This document does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties outlined in Clause 5.

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This International Standard describes how to digitally exchange soil-related data. It aims to facilitate the exchange of valid, clearly described and specified soil-related data between individuals and organizations via digital systems, and enables any soil data producer, holder or user to find and transfer data in an unambiguous way. This International Standard contains definitions of features, several parameter specifications and encoding rules that allow consistent and retrievable data exchange. It also allows the explicit georeferencing of soil data by building on other International Standards, thus facilitating the use of soil data within geographical information systems (GIS). Because soil data are of various origins and are obtained according to a huge variety of description and classification systems, this International Standard provides no attribute catalogue, but a flexible approach to the unified encoding of soil data by implementing the provisions of ISO 19156 observations and measurements (OM) for use in soil science.

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This document provides guidance on the description of soil in the field and its environmental context. It is applicable to natural, near-natural, urban and industrial sites. The soil observations and measurements can be made on a project site level, on a plot level, on layer or horizon level and on specific soil constituents.
It also provides guidance on how to describe layers of anthropogenic (artificial) material or layers that were not modified by pedogenic processes in the strict sense and how to describe coarse material of natural or artificial origin.
This document can be used in combination with other publications that provide guidance or requirements regarding specific aspects of soil observations and measurements.
NOTE 1 It might not be possible or necessary to record data under all the headings listed in Clauses 4 to 11.
NOTE 2 Overall guidance for presentation of information from soil surveys is given in ISO 15903.
NOTE 3 The guidance provided assumes that sampling will be done in accordance with ISO 18400.

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This document specifies laboratory methods for determination of the soil water-retention characteristic.
This document applies only to measurements of the drying or desorption curve.
Four methods are described to cover the complete range of soil water pressures as follows:
a) method using sand, kaolin or ceramic suction tables for determination of matric pressures from 0 kPa to −50 kPa;
b) method using a porous plate and burette apparatus for determination of matric pressures from 0 kPa to −20 kPa;
c) method using a pressurized gas and a pressure plate extractor for determination of matric pressures from −5 kPa to −1 500 kPa;
d) method using a pressurized gas and pressure membrane cells for determination of matric pressures from −33 kPa to −1 500 kPa.
Guidelines are given to select the most suitable method in a particular case.

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This document specifies a test providing information on leaching of soil and soil-like materials under the experimental conditions specified hereafter, and particularly at a liquid to solid ratio of 2 l/kg dry matter.
The document has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799[6] and ISO 17616[7].
NOTE 1 Volatile organic substances include the low-molecular-weight substances in mixtures such as mineral oil.
NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimise test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic substances and optimum test conditions can also vary between different groups of organic substances. Test requirements for organic substances are generally more stringent than those for inorganic substances. The test conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic substances will generally also be applicable to inorganic substances.
NOTE 3 Within the category of organic substances, a significant difference in behaviour exists between the more polar, relatively water-soluble compounds and apolar, hydrophobic organic substances (HOCs). In the latter case, mechanisms of release (e.g. particle-bound or dissolved organic carbon-bound) can be more crucial as well as sorption losses of soluble HOCs on different materials with which they come in contact (e.g. bottles, filters). The test and the results should be used for leaching of organic substances only with thorough consideration of the specific properties of the substances in question and the associated potential problems.
NOTE 4 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic substances are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is also meant to include genotoxicological testing.
This test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions.
This procedure is not applicable to materials with a dry-matter-content ratio lower than 33 %.
This test is mainly aimed at being used for routine and control purposes, and it cannot be used alone to describe all leaching properties of a soil. Additional leaching tests are needed for that extended goal. This document does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties as outlined in Clause 4.

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This document specifies a test, which is aimed at determining the leaching behaviour of inorganic and organic substances from a soil and soil-like materials. The method is a once-through up-flow percolation test under standardized conditions of flow rate. The material is leached under dynamic hydraulic conditions. The document has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799[6] and ISO 17616[7]. The test results enable the distinction between different release patterns, for instance wash-out and release under the influence of interaction with the matrix, when approaching local equilibrium between material and leachant.
This test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The results of eluate analysis are presented as a function of the liquid/solid (L/S) ratio. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions.
NOTE 1 Volatile organic substances include the low-molecular-weight substances in mixtures such as mineral oil.
NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimize test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic substances and optimum test conditions can also vary between different groups of organic substances. Test requirements for organic substances are generally more stringent than those for inorganic substances. The test conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic substances will generally also be applicable to inorganic substances.
NOTE 3 Within the category of organic substances, a significant difference in behaviour exists between the more polar, relatively water-soluble compounds and apolar, hydrophobic organic substances (HOCs). In the latter case, mechanisms of release (e.g. particle-bound or dissolved organic carbon-bound) can be more crucial as well as sorption losses of soluble HOCs on different materials with which they come in contact (e.g. bottles, filters). The test and the results should be used for leaching of organic substances only with thorough consideration of the specific properties of the substances in question and the associated potential problems.
NOTE 4 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic substances are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is also meant to include genotoxicological testing.
NOTE 5 The test is generally not suitable for soils with hydraulic conductivities below 10−8 m/s (see also Annex B). It can be difficult to maintain the designated flow rate already in the range of saturated hydraulic conductivity between 10−7 m/s and 10−8 m/s.
The application of this test method alone is not sufficient for the determination of the leaching behaviour of a material under specified conditions different to those from the test procedure, since this generally requires the application of several test methods, behavioural modelling and model validation. This document does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties as outlined in Clause 4.

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This document specifies a test providing information on leaching of soil and soil materials under the experimental conditions specified hereafter, and particularly at a liquid to solid ratio of 10 l/kg dry matter.
The document has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799[6] and ISO 17616[7].
NOTE 1 Volatile organic substances include the low-molecular-weight substances in mixtures such as mineral oil.
NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimize test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic substances and optimum test conditions can also vary between different groups of organic substances. Test requirements for organic substances are generally more stringent than those for inorganic substances. The test conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic substances will generally also be applicable to inorganic substances.
NOTE 3 Within the category of organic substances, a significant difference in behaviour exists between the more polar, relatively water-soluble compounds and apolar, hydrophobic organic substances (HOCs). In the latter case, mechanisms of release (e.g. particle-bound or dissolved organic carbon-bound) can be more crucial as well as sorption losses of soluble HOCs on different materials with which they come in contact (e.g. bottles, filters). The test and the results should be used for leaching of organic substances only with thorough consideration of the specific properties of the substances in question and the associated potential problems.
NOTE 4 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic substances are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is also meant to include genotoxicological testing.
This test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions.
This procedure is not applicable to materials with a dry-matter-content ratio lower than 33 %.
This test is mainly aimed at being used for routine and control purposes, and it cannot be used alone to describe all leaching properties of a soil. Additional leaching tests are needed for that extended goal. This document does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties as outlined in Clause 4.

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This document specifies a method for sampling, handling and extracting enchytraeids from terrestrial field soils as a prerequisite for using these animals as bioindicators (e.g. to assess the quality of a soil as a habitat for organisms).
Basic information on the ecology of enchytraeids and their use as bioindicators in the terrestrial environment is included in the Bibliography.
This document applies to all terrestrial biotopes in which enchytraeids occur. The sampling design of field studies in general is given in ISO 18400-101. These details can vary according to the climatic/regional conditions of the site to be sampled and an overview on the determination of effects of pollutants on enchytraeids in field situations is given in Reference [6].
Methods for some other soil organism groups such as earthworms or arthropods are given in ISO 23611-1, ISO 23611-2, ISO 23611-4 and ISO 23611-5.
This document is not applicable for very wet or flooded soils and might be difficult to use under extreme climatic or geographical conditions (e.g. in high mountains).
When sampling soil invertebrates, it is highly recommendable to characterize the site (e.g. concerning soil properties, climate and land use). However, such a characterization is not covered by this document. ISO 10390, ISO 10694, ISO 11272, ISO 11274, ISO 11277, ISO 11461 and ISO 11465 are more suitable for measuring pH, particle size distribution, C/N ratio, organic carbon content and water-holding capacity.

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The flash point test can be summarised as a procedure where a test portion is introduced into a temperature controlled test cup and an ignition source is applied to the vapours produced by the test portion to determine if the vapour / air mixture is flammable or at what temperature the vapour / air mixture is flammable.
This document is not intended to be a comprehensive manual on flash point tests and the interpretation of test results, however it covers the key aspects on these subjects.

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This document specifies a method for determining the activity of dehydrogenases enzymes in soil using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC).

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This document specifies a method for determining activity of dehydrogenases in soil, using 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT)[1]-[5]. As the INT reduction is less sensitive to O2, the method is more robust than the TTC-method described in ISO 23753-1.

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In the framework of EU Directive 99/31/EC [1] and EU Directive 2000/76/EC [2] halogens and sulfur need to be determined on waste samples. The implementation of the combustion-IC technique would allow in one single run the combustion of the sample followed by the determination of the halogens and sulfur with ion chromatography. Moreover, this instrument may be provided with a sample carrousel for both solids and liquids, allowing an automation of these type of analyses.
Recent developments of the C-IC technology have made this technique interesting for the determination of halogens and sulfur in waste samples. Therefore, a document on the current progress of the C-IC technology was prepared, including the evaluation of the performance of different commercially available systems and the presentation of analytical results obtained on certified reference materials and waste samples.

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This draft European Standard specifies a method for quantitative determination of 17 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sludge, treated biowaste and soil using liquid column chromatographic clean-up methods and GC/HRMS.
The analytes to be determined with this European Standard are listed in Table 1.
(...)
The limit of detection depends on the kind of sample, the congener, the equipment used and the quality of chemicals used for extraction and clean-up. Under the conditions specified in this European Standard, limits of detection better than 1 ng/kg (expressed as dry matter) can be achieved.
This method is "performance based". It is allowed to modify the method if all performance criteria given in this method are met.
NOTE   In principle this method can also be applied for sediments, mineral wastes and for vegetation. It is the responsibility of the user of this European Standard to validate the application for these matrices. For measurement in complex matrices like fly ashes adsorbed on vegetation it can be necessary to further improve the clean-up. This can also apply to sediments and mineral wastes.

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This document gives general guidance on the selection of procedures for the establishment and maintenance of programmes for long-term monitoring of soil quality. It takes into account the large number of objectives for soil-monitoring programmes.
This document is intended to help provide a basis for dialogue between parties which might be involved in a monitoring scheme.

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This document provides guidance on the principles behind, and main methods for, the evaluation of sites, soils and soil materials in relation to their role as a source of contamination of groundwater and their function in retaining, releasing and transforming contaminants. It is focused on contaminated land management identifying and listing relevant monitoring strategies, methods for sampling, soil processes and analytical methods.

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This document specifies a gas-chromatographic method for the identification and quantification of organotin compounds (OTCs) in soils as specified in Table 1.
This document is also applicable to samples from sediments, sludges and wastes (soil-like materials).
The working range depends on the detection technique used and the amount of sample taken for analysis.
The limit of quantification for each compound is about 10 µg/kg.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the content of exchangeable cations (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg Mn, Na) in soils using a hexamminecobalt(III)chloride solution as extractant. For soils containing calcium carbonate a calcite saturated hexamminecobalt(III)chloride solution is specified particularly for determination of exchangeable Ca. This document is applicable to all types of air-dry soil samples which have been prepared according to ISO 11464.

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This document gives guidelines for the principles and main methods for the determination of background values for inorganic and organic substances in soils at a local/regional scale. The site scale is excluded.
It gives guidelines for sampling and data processing strategies. It identifies methods for sampling and analysis.
This document does not apply to the determination of background values for groundwater and sediments.

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This Technical Specification provides methods, which can be used to assess the monolithic character of a stabilised/solidified waste, with respect to landfilling. Information on the monolithic character is required to enable the choice of appropriate leaching tests for determination of the release of different substances from stabilised/solidified waste under specified (landfilling) conditions.
This document includes several physical and/or chemical test methods each addressing different aspects of monolithic character. The selection of methods required for an assessment of the monolithic character of a stabilised/solidified waste may vary, depending on the scenario to be addressed or it can be specified in regulation.
Rather than describing the procedures and methods in detail this document refers to existing standards and provides some guidance on their use on stabilised/solidified waste materials.
This Technical Specification does not address issues related to health and safety.
The following procedures and methods are included in this document:
-   test to determine unconfined compressive strength;
-   test to determine permeability;
-   test to determine the loss of mass by dissolution;
-   test to determine expansion;
-   test to determine the content of organic matter;
-   test to determine freeze/thaw effects.

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This document specifies a semi-static method for determining the effects of contaminants on growth and survival of young snails, usually Helix aspersa aspersa Müller. The animals are exposed via the cutaneous and digestive route using a test substrate (artificial or natural soil according to the objective of the study) to which defined amounts of the following are added:
- substances, mixtures or preparations;
- soils (contaminated or of unknown quality) or waste materials.
This test takes into account the possible changes in the test substance, preparation, soil or waste material because the test mixtures are prepared and renewed every week during the 28-day test period.
A static method may be implemented in addition to the semi-static method (optional). This method is described in Annex A.
This method does not apply to substances for which the air/soil partition coefficient is greater than one, or to substances with vapour pressure exceeding 300 Pa, at 25 °C.

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This document specifies a method for sampling and handling earthworms from field soils as a prerequisite for using these animals as bioindicators (e.g. to assess the quality of a soil as a habitat for organisms).
This document applies to all terrestrial biotopes in which earthworms occur. The sampling design of field studies in general is given in ISO 18400‑101 and guidance on the determination of effects of pollutants on earthworms in field situations is given in ISO 11268‑3. These aspects can vary according to the national requirements or the climatic/regional conditions of the site to be sampled (see also Annex C).
This document is not applicable for semi-terrestrial soils and it can be difficult to use under extreme climatic or geographical conditions (e.g. in high mountains). Methods for some other soil organism groups, such as collembolans, are covered in other parts of ISO 23611.

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This European Standard specifies the quantitative determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (see Table 2) in sludge, soil and treated biowaste using GC-MS and HPLC-UV-DAD/FLD covering a wide range of PAH contamination levels (see also Annex B).
When using fluorescence detection, acenaphthylene cannot be measured.
The limit of detection depends on the determinants, the equipment used, the quality of chemicals used for the extraction of the sample and the clean-up of the extract.
Typically, a lower limit of application of 0,01 mg/kg (expressed as dry matter) can be ensured for each individual PAH. This depends on instrument and sample.
Sludge, soil and treated biowaste can differ in properties and also in the expected contamination levels of PAHs and presence of interfering substances. These differences make it impossible to describe one general procedure. This European Standard contains decision tables based on the properties of the sample and the extraction and clean-up procedure to be used. Two general lines are followed, an agitation procedure (shaking) or use of soxhlet/pressurized liquid extraction.
NOTE   Other PAH compounds can also be analysed with this method, provided suitability has been proven.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) at the pH of the soil and for the determination of the content of exchangeable sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in soil.
This document is applicable to all types of air-dried soil samples. ISO 11464 can be used for pre-treatment.

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ISO 14254:2018 specifies a method for the determination of exchangeable acidity in barium chloride extracts of soil samples obtained according to ISO 11260.
The procedure described herein mainly concerns the determination of total exchangeable acidity by means of a fixed pH end point titration.
Two additional and optional procedures are given, describing respectively, determinations of free H+ acidity and aluminium in the extracts.
ISO 14254:2018 is applicable to all types of air dry soil samples.

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ISO 17601:2016 specifies the crucial steps of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method to measure the abundance of selected microbial gene sequences from soil DNA extract which provides an estimation of selected microbial groups.
It is noteworthy that the number of genes is not necessarily directly linked to the number of organisms that are measured. For example, the number of ribosomal operon is ranging from one copy to 20 copies in different bacterial phyla. Therefore, the number of 16S rRNA sequences quantified from soil DNA extracts does not give an exact estimate of the number of soil bacteria. Furthermore, the number of sequences is not necessarily linked to living microorganisms and can comprise sequences amplified from dead microorganisms.

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ISO 18187:2016 specifies a rapid method for assessing solid samples in an aerobic suspension, by determining the inhibition of dehydrogenase activity of Arthrobacter globiformis using the redox dye resazurin.
It is applicable for assessing the effect of water-soluble and solid matter bounded non-volatile contaminants of natural samples, such as soils and waste materials. The test yields a result within 6 h and can therefore be used for screening potentially contaminated material.

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ISO 18311:2016 specifies a technique for determining the effects of anthropogenic impacts (e.g. substances) in the context of the prevailing environmental conditions on the feeding activity of soil organisms in the field. In addition, the use of this method for monitoring the biological quality of soil is described (see Annex A). The breakdown of organic matter by soil invertebrates and microorganisms is a crucial process that determines important soil functions such as nutrient availability for plants and the maintenance of soil fertility. In addition, decomposing plant litter provides habitats and food for a wide range of organisms, thus supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services [33][34].
ISO 18311:2016 is applicable to all soils in which soil organisms are active. The use of the bait-lamina test is independent from whether there is a litter layer or not. The sampling design of field studies in general is specified in ISO 23611‑6 (see also Reference [20]). The design can vary according to the aim of the study as well as conditions (e.g. soil properties, contamination, etc.) of the site to be investigated.
ISO 18311:2016 is not applicable for semi-terrestrial or very shallow soils. It can be difficult to use it under extreme climatic or geographical conditions (e.g. in high mountains).

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ISO 11508:2017 specifies two methods for the determination of particle density of soils calculated from the mass and the volume of soil particles.
The first method (4.1) is applicable to fine soil (<2 mm diameter) and the second method (4.2) is applicable to both porous and nonporous gravel and stones (>2 mm diameter).
The particle density can be used for the calculation of the proportion of solids and of the porosity of soil layers in combination with the procedure given in ISO 11272.

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ISO 11504:2017 gives guidelines with regard to the choice of fractions and individual compounds when carrying out analysis for petroleum hydrocarbons in soils, soil materials and related materials, including sediments, for the purpose of assessing risks to human health, the environment and other possible receptors. Since many products based on petroleum hydrocarbons often contain substances that are not hydrocarbons, the recommendations also encompass such compounds where relevant.
ISO 11504:2017 also includes relevant background information on which the recommendations are based together with guidance on the use of the fractions recommended in the assessment of risk.
ISO 11504:2017 does not set criteria or guidelines for use as assessment criteria, since this is typically a national or regional regulatory issue. This document also does not include recommendations as to the specific model for the exposure assessment or the specific parameter values to be used; with respect to guidance on this matter, reference is made to ISO 15800.

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ISO 11272:2017 specifies three methods for the determination of dry bulk density of soils calculated from the mass and the volume of a soil sample. The methods involve drying and weighing a soil sample, the volume of which is either known [core method (see 4.1)] or determined [excavation method (see 4.2) and clod method (see 4.4)].

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This Standard is applicable to determine the leaching behaviour of inorganic constituents from granular waste (without or with size reduction. The waste body is subjected to percolation with water as a function of liquid to solid ratio under specified percolation conditions. The waste is leached under hydraulically dynamic conditions. The method is a once-through column leaching test and the test results establish the distinction between different release patterns, for instance wash-out and release under the influence of interaction with the matrix, when approaching local equilibrium between waste and leachant.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of mercury in aqua regia or nitric acid digests of sludge, treated biowaste and soil, obtained according to EN 16173 or EN 16174 using cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). The lower working range limit is 0,03 mg/kg (dry matter basis).

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of mercury in aqua regia or nitric acid digests of sludge, treated biowaste and soil, obtained according to EN 16173 or EN 16174 using cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). The lower working range limit is 0,003 mg/kg (dry matter basis).

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the following elements in aqua regia or nitric acid digests of sludge, treated biowaste and soil:
Aluminium (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), bismuth (Bi), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), cerium (Ce), cesium (Cs), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), dysprosium (Dy), erbium (Er), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), gold (Au), hafnium (Hf), holmium (Ho), indium (In), iridium (Ir), iron (Fe), lanthanum (La), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), lutetium (Lu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), neodymium (Nd), nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), phosphorus (P), platinum (Pt), potassium (K), praseodymium (Pr), rhenium (Re), rhodium (Rh), rubidium (Rb), ruthenium (Ru), samarium (Sm), scandium (Sc), selenium (Se), silicon (Si), silver (Ag), sodium (Na), strontium (Sr), sulfur (S), tellurium (Te), terbium (Tb), thallium (Tl), thorium (Th), thulium (Tm), tin (Sn), titanium (Ti), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), ytterbium(Yb), yttrium (Y), zinc (Zn), and zirconium (Zr).
The working range depends on the matrix and the interferences encountered.
The method detection limit of the method is between 0,1 mg/kg dry matter and 2,0 mg/kg dry matter for most elements. The limit of detection will be higher in cases where the determination is likely to be interfered (see Clause 4) or in case of memory effects (see e.g. 8.3 of EN ISO 17294-1:2006).
The method has been validated for the elements given in Table A.1 (sludge), Table A.2 (compost) and Table A.3 (soil). The method is applicable for the other elements listed above, provided the user has verified the applicability.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the following elements in aqua regia, nitric acid digest solutions of sludge, treated biowaste and soil: Aluminium (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), bismuth (Bi), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), gallium (Ga), indium (In), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), silicon (Si), silver (Ag), sodium (Na), strontium (Sr), sulfur (S), thallium (Tl), tin (Sn), titanium (Ti), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), zinc (Zn) and zirconium (Zr).
The method has been validated for the elements given in Table A.1. The method is applicable for the other elements listed above, provided the user has verified the applicability.

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This standard specifies a combustion method for the determination of halogen and sulfur contents in materials by combustion in a closed system containing oxygen (calorimetric bomb), and the subsequent analysis of the combustion product using different analytical techniques.
This method is applicable to solid, pasty and liquid samples containing more than 0,025 g/kg of halogen and/or 0,025 g/kg of sulfur content. The limit of detection depends on the element, the matrix and the determination technique used.
Insoluble halides and sulphate present in the sample or produced during the combustion step are not completely determined by these methods.

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ISO 22155:2016 specifies a static headspace method for quantitative gas chromatographic determination of volatile aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons and selected aliphatic ethers in soil.
ISO 22155:2016 is applicable to all types of soil.
The limit of quantification is dependent on the detection system used and the quality of the methanol grade used for the extraction of the soil sample.
Under the conditions specified in this International Standard, the following limits of quantifications apply (expressed on basis of dry matter).
Typical limit of quantification when using GC-FID:
- volatile aromatic hydrocarbons: 0,2 mg/kg;
- aliphatic ethers as methyl tert.-butyl ether(MTBE) and tert.-amyl methyl ether (TAME): 0,5 mg/kg.
Typical limit of quantification when using GC-ECD:
- volatile halogenated hydrocarbons: 0,01 mg/kg to 0,2 mg/kg.
Lower limits of quantification for some compounds can be achieved by using mass spectrometry (MS) with selected ion detection (see Annex D).

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ISO 15009:2016 specifies a method for quantitative gas-chromatographic determination of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in soil.
This International Standard is applicable to all types of soil.
NOTE In the case of unsaturated peaty soils, absorption of the extraction solution may occur.
The lower limit of quantification is dependent on the equipment used and the quality of the methanol grade used for the extraction of the soil sample.
Under the conditions specified in this International Standard the following limits of quantification apply (expressed on basis of dry matter):
Typical limit of quantification when using GC-FID:
- Volatile aromatic hydrocarbons: 0,1 mg/kg
Typical limit of quantification when using GC-ECD:
- Volatile halogenated hydrocarbons: 0,01 mg/kg
Lower limits of quantification for some compounds can be achieved by using mass spectrometry (MS) with selected ion detection.

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ISO/TS 16558-2:2015 specifies a method for the quantitative determination of the total extractable semi-volatile, aliphatic, and aromatic fractions of petroleum hydrocarbon content in field moist soil samples by gas chromatography.
The results of the test carried out can be used for risk assessment studies related to contaminations with petroleum hydrocarbons.
ISO/TS 16558-2:2015 provides a method applicable to petroleum hydrocarbon contents from about 100 mg/kg soil expressed as dry matter for the whole aliphatic fraction C10 to C40, as well as the aromatic fraction C10 to C40. For sub-fractions, lower limits of determination can be reached.
If lower detection limits are required, large volume injection can be used or concentration of the final extract can be carried out.
NOTE 1 Low concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic compounds can be found in natural uncontaminated organic rich soils like peat soils.

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ISO 16558-1:2015 specifies a method for the quantitative determination of the total extractable volatile, the volatile aliphatic, and aromatic fractions of petroleum hydrocarbon content in field moist soil samples by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The aromatic fractions are determined by the sum of individual aromatic compounds.
The sum of the volatile aliphatic (C5 to C10) and aromatic (C6 to C10) fractions can be referred to as "volatile oil".
The results of the test carried out can be used for risk assessment studies related to contaminations with petroleum hydrocarbons.
ISO 16558-1:2015 provides a method applicable to petroleum hydrocarbon contents from about 5 mg/kg soil expressed as dry matter for the whole aliphatic fraction C5 to C10 and about 5 mg/kg soil expressed as dry matter for the aromatic fraction in the boiling range of C6 to C10.
With this method, all hydrocarbons with a boiling range of 36 °C to 184 °C, n-alkanes between C5H12 to C10H22, isoalkanes, cycloalkanes, BTEX, and di- and tri-alkyl benzenes compounds are determined as total volatile petroleum hydrocarbons C5 to C10. In addition, volatile aliphatic and aromatic fractions are specified.
For the determination of semi-volatile aliphatic and aromatic fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples, see ISO/TS 16558-2.
NOTE The sub-fractions proposed in this part of ISO 16558 have shown to be suitable for risk assessment studies. However, other sub-fractions between C5H12 to C10H22 can be determined in conformity with this part of ISO 16558.
On the basis of the peak pattern of the gas chromatogram and of the boiling points of the individual n-alkanes listed in Annex A, the approximate boiling range of the mineral oil and some qualitative information on the composition of the contamination can be achieved.

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ISO 11268-2:2012 specifies one of the methods for evaluating the habitat function of soils and determining the effects of soil contaminants and chemicals on the reproduction of Eisenia fetida/Eisenia andrei by dermal and alimentary uptake. This chronic test is applicable to soils and soil materials of unknown quality, e.g. from contaminated sites, amended soils, soils after remediation, agricultural or other sites concerned, and waste materials.
Effects of substances are assessed using a standard soil, preferably a defined artificial soil substrate. For contaminated soils, the effects are determined in the test soil and in a control soil. According to the objective of the study, the control and dilution substrate (dilution series of contaminated soil) should be either an uncontaminated soil comparable to the soil sample to be tested (reference soil) or a standard soil (e.g. artificial soil).
Information is provided on how to use this method for testing chemicals under temperate as well as under tropical conditions.
The method is not applicable to volatile substances, i.e. substances for which H (Henry's constant) or the air/water partition coefficient is greater than 1, or for which the vapour pressure exceeds 0,013 3 Pa at 25 °C.
This method does not take into account the persistence of the substance during the test.

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ISO 11268-3: 2014 specifies techniques for determining the effects of substances on earthworms in the field and provides a basis for determining the effects of chemicals applied to or incorporated into soil, including soil injections or drilled pelleted formulations.

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1 Scope
This part of ISO 11268 specifies one of the methods for evaluating the habitat function of soils and determining the acute toxicity of soil contaminants and chemicals to Eisenia fetida/Eisenia andrei by dermal and alimentary uptake. It is applicable to soils and soil materials of unknown quality, e.g. from contaminated sites, amended soils, soils after remediation, agricultural or other sites concerned, and waste materials.
Effects of substances are assessed using a standard soil, preferably a defined artificial soil substrate. For contaminated soils, the effects on survival are determined in the test soil and in a control soil. According to the objective of the study, the control and dilution substrate (dilution series of contaminated soil) should be either an uncontaminated soil comparable to the soil sample to be tested (reference soil) or a standard soil (e.g. artificial soil).
Information is provided on how to use this method for testing chemicals under temperate as well as under tropical conditions.
The method is not applicable to volatile substances, i.e. substances for which H (Henry's constant) or the air/water partition coefficient is greater than 1, or for which the vapour pressure exceeds 0,013 3 Pa at 25 °C.
This method does not take into account the possible degradation of the substances or contaminants during the test.

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ISO 13196:2013 specifies the procedure for screening soils and soil-like materials for selected elements when handheld or portable energy-dispersive XRF spectrometers are used. This quick method is assumed to be applied on-site to obtain qualitative or semiquantitative data that assists decisions on further sampling strategy for assessing soil quality. The higher the efforts for pretreatment used on soil samples, the better the analytical results can be expected.
ISO 13196:2013 does not explicitly specify elements for which it is applicable, since the applicability depends on the performance of the apparatus and the objective of the screening. The elements which can be determined are limited by the performance of the instruments used, the concentration of the element present in the soil, and the requirements of the investigation (e.g. guideline value).
For Hg, Cd, Co, Mo, V and Sb, a majority of instruments are not sensitive enough to reach sufficiently low limits of quantification (LOQ) to meet the requirements (limit or threshold values) set in the ordinances of different countries. In this case, other methods need to be employed to measure these low concentrations. Usually, wet chemical methods are used, based on aqua regia extracts, in combination with optical or mass spectrometric (MS) methods like atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES) or ICP/MS.

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ISO 11074:2015 defines a list of terms used in the preparation of the standards in the field of soil quality. The terms are classified under the following main headings:
- general terms (terms relating to soil, soil materials, land, and sites);
- description of soil (soil characteristics, soil water, properties of soils and substances, processes in soil, contamination, pollution, background content);
- sampling (general terms, sample types/sampling type, sampling stages, execution of sampling, quality control samples, sample pretreatment);
- terms relating to the assessment of soils (quality, assessment of soil and sites with respect to risk, hazard and exposure, soil protection);
- remediation (general terms, principal remediation types, engineering-based methods, process-based treatment methods);
- soil ecotoxicology.

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This Technical Specification specifies three laboratory tests to determine the reducing character and the reducing capacity of construction products, waste materials and the eluate resulting from exposure of these solids to a leachant. Reducing species released from the product are titrated to quantify the reducing capacity.
For a specification of the materials with which experience has been acquired with the execution of the tests according to this Technical Specification see Annex A and [16].
NOTE   Materials with reducing properties can in practice under both oxidising and anoxic (isolated) conditions show completely different leaching behaviour than obtained with the leaching tests specified in EN 16457. This may seriously hamper the interpretation of the leaching tests, if this condition is not taken into consideration.

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This European Standard is applicable for the preparation of representative test portions from the laboratory sample that has been taken according to the sampling plan (EN 14899), prior to physical and/or chemical analysis (e.g. preparation of eluates, extractions, digestion and/or analytical determinations) of solid (including monolithic material) and liquid samples and sludge. It is also applicable for the preparation of test portions from digests and eluates for the subsequent analyses.
This European Standard is intended to find the correct sequence of operations and treatments to be applied to the laboratory sample in order to obtain suitable test portions in compliance with the specific requirements defined in the corresponding analytical procedures.

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This European Standard is applicable for determining the leaching behaviour of monolithic wastes under dynamic conditions. The test is performed under fixed experimental conditions in this document. This test is aimed at determining the release as a function of time of inorganic constituents from a monolithic waste, when it is put into contact with an aqueous solution (leachant).
This dynamic monolithic leaching test (DMLT) is a parameter specific test as specified in EN 12920 and is therefore not aimed at simulating real situations. The application of this test method alone is not sufficient for the determination of the detailed leaching behaviour of a monolithic waste under specified conditions.
In the framework of EN 12920 and in combination with additional chemical information, the test results are used to identify the leaching mechanisms and their relative importance. The intrinsic properties can be used to predict the release of constituents at a given time frame, in order to assess the leaching behaviour of monolithic waste materials, placed in different situations or scenarios (including disposal and recycling scenarios).
The test method applies to regularly shaped test portions of monolithic wastes with minimum dimensions of 40 mm in all directions that are assumed to maintain their integrity over a time frame relevant for the considered scenario. The test method applies to test portions for which the geometric surface area can be determined with the help of simple geometric equations. The test method applies to low permeable monolithic materials.
Within the reproducibility ranges, the leaching results obtained with EN 15863 are expected to be equivalent to those obtained with CEN/TS 16637-2 (DMLT for construction products), because the main testing conditions are equalized in both standards. As shown in the results obtained with EN 15863 (see Annex E), they are also demonstrated to be comparable with EPA method 1315 (SW846). These observations imply that a monolithic waste tested with this European Standard, does not need to be tested a second time, when the material proves suitable for beneficial use in construction and provided it has not undergone a treatment or other changes modifying its leaching behaviour.
NOTE 1   If, in order to comply with the requirements of regular shape, the test portion is prepared by cutting or coring, then new surfaces are exposed which can lead to change(s) in leaching properties. On the other hand if the test portion is prepared by moulding, the surface will be dependent to the type of mould and the conditions of storage. If the intention is to evaluate the behaviour of the material core, the specimen needs to be stored without any contact with air to avoid carbonation.
NOTE 2   For monolithic waste materials with a saturated hydraulic conductivity higher than 10−8 m/s water is likely to percolate through the monolith rather than flow around. In such cases relating the release to the geometric surface can lead to misinterpretation. A percolation test is more appropriate then (e.g. CEN/TS 14405).
This procedure may not be applicable to materials reacting with the leachant, leading for example to excessive gas emission or an excessive heat release.
This document has been developed to determine the release of mainly inorganic constituents from wastes. It does not take into account the particular characteristics of organic constituents, nor the consequences of microbiological processes in organic degradable wastes.

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