This document specifies laboratory methods for determination of the soil water-retention characteristic.
This document applies only to measurements of the drying or desorption curve.
Four methods are described to cover the complete range of soil water pressures as follows:
a)    method using sand, kaolin or ceramic suction tables for determination of matric pressures from 0 kPa to −50 kPa;
b)    method using a porous plate and burette apparatus for determination of matric pressures from 0 kPa to −20 kPa;
c)    method using a pressurized gas and a pressure plate extractor for determination of matric pressures from −5 kPa to −1 500 kPa;
d)    method using a pressurized gas and pressure membrane cells for determination of matric pressures from −33 kPa to −1 500 kPa.
Guidelines are given to select the most suitable method in a particular case.

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The flash point test can be summarised as a procedure where a test portion is introduced into a temperature controlled test cup and an ignition source is applied to the vapours produced by the test portion to determine if the vapour / air mixture is flammable or at what temperature the vapour / air mixture is flammable.
This document is not intended to be a comprehensive manual on flash point tests and the interpretation of test results, however it covers the key aspects on these subjects.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) at the pH of the soil and for the determination of the content of exchangeable sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in soil.
This document is applicable to all types of air-dried soil samples. ISO 11464 can be used for pre-treatment.

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ISO 11272:2017 specifies three methods for the determination of dry bulk density of soils calculated from the mass and the volume of a soil sample. The methods involve drying and weighing a soil sample, the volume of which is either known [core method (see 4.1)] or determined [excavation method (see 4.2) and clod method (see 4.4)].

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Describes methods for the determination of pore water pressure (point measurements) in unsaturated and saturated soil using tensiometers. Applicable for in situ measurements in the field and, e. g. soil cores, used in experimental examinations.

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ISO 11275:2004 specifies a laboratory method for the simultaneous determination in soils of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and of the soil water-retention characteristic. It is applicable only to measurement of the drying or desorption curve. Application of the method is restricted to soil samples which are, as far as possible, homogeneous. The method is not applicable to soils which shrink in the range of matric head 0 cm to -800 cm.
The range of the determination of the conductivity depends on the soil type. It lies between matric heads of approximately -50 cm and -700 cm.
The range of the determination of the water-retention characteristic lies between matric heads of approximately 0 cm and -800 cm.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the gravimetric determination of soil water content as a volume fraction. The method is applicable to all types of non-swelling or non-shrinking soils where coring sleeves can be used for sampling. It is not applicable to soils where stones, tough roots or other factors prevent collection of soil cores. It is used as a reference method (e.g. the calibration of indirect methods for determination of water content).  NOTE The determination of water content as a mass fraction is described in ISO 11465.

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This Technical Specification specifies a simplified method for the determination of the gross calorific value of waste at constant volume and at the reference temperature of 25 °C in a bomb calorimeter calibrated by combustion of certified benzoic acid. This Technical Specification does not include thermo-chemical corrections.
This Technical Specification also specifies a simplified calculation of the net calorific value from the gross calorific value.
This Technical Specification is applicable for the evaluation of suitability of waste to be treated by thermal processes and for the energy to be recovered.
This Technical Specification is applicable to all kinds of waste.

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This Technical Specification specifies a method to determine the physical impurities > 2 mm and stones > 5 mm in sludge, treated biowaste and soil.
Fragments of wood or bark can be acceptable constituents of the sample.

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The determination of the specific electrical conductivity is carried out to obtain an indication of the content of water-soluble electrolytes in soil, treated biowaste and sludge.
WARNING — Persons using this Technical Specification should be familiar with usual laboratory practice. This Technical Specification does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to ensure compliance with any national regulatory conditions.
IMPORTANT — It is absolutely essential that tests conducted according to this Technical Specification be carried out by suitably trained staff.

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This International Standard specifies the treatments for the measurement of the stability of soil aggregates. It
can be applied to a wide range of materials originating mainly from the tilled horizons of cultivated soils. It can,
however, also apply to any soil profile horizon, whether it is cultivated or not. Aggregates ranging from 3 mm
to 5 mm are measured.
However, the presence of gravel in the 2 mm to 5 mm fraction can distort the results. If the percentage of gravel
is between 10 % and 40 %, the > 2 mm fraction of the gravel obtained from the tests should be washed and
a mean weighted diameter (MWD, see 6.1) calculated with and without gravel. If the percentage of gravel is
> 40 %, the structural stability tests are not significant. The method does not apply to unstructured materials,
as they are not sufficiently cohesive to form millimetric aggregates.

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This European Standard specifies methods for the calculation of the dry matter of sludge, treated biowaste, soil and waste for which the results of performed analysis are to be calculated to the dry matter basis. Depending on the nature and origin of the sample, the calculation is based on a determination of the dry residue (Method A) or a determination of the water content (Method B). It applies to samples containing more than 1 % (mass fraction) of dry residue or more than 1 % (mass fraction) of water.
Method A applies to sludge, treated biowaste, soil and solid waste, Method B applies to liquid waste and to samples which are suspected or known to contain volatiles except for water.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the loss on ignition (LOI) at 550 °C. The dry matter is determined according to EN 15934.
This method applies to the determination of loss on ignition of sediment, sludge, treated biowaste, soil and waste.
NOTE   The loss on ignition is often used as an estimate for the content of organic matter in the sample. Inorganic substances or decomposition products (e.g. H2O, CO2, SO2, O2) are released or absorbed and some inorganic substances are volatile under the reaction conditions.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of total dissolved solids (TDS) in water and eluates (see Annex A), provided they are not volatile under the conditions specified or that they do not release water molecules from hydration. It applies to water and eluates containing more than 100 mg/l of total dissolved solids. Samples with lower amounts of dissolved solids can be analysed by repetition of the drying step.

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This document specifies an instrumental method for the routine determination of pH within the range pH 2 to pH 12 using a glass electrode in a 1:5 (volume fraction) suspension of soil, sludge and treated biowaste in either water (pH in H2O), in 1 mol/l potassium chloride solution (pH in KCl) or in 0,01 mol/l calcium chloride solution (pH in CaCl2).
This document is applicable to all types of air-dried soil and treated biowaste samples.
NOTE       For example, pretreated in accordance with ISO 11464 or EN 16179 or EN 15002.

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This International Standard specifies laboratory methods for determination of the soil water-retention characteristic. This International Standard applies only to measurements of the drying or desorption curve. Four methods are described to cover the complete range of soil water pressures as follows: a) method using sand, kaolin or ceramic suction tables for determination of matric pressures from 0 kPa to - 50 kPa; b) method using a porous plate and burette apparatus for determination of matric pressures from 0 kPa to - 20 kPa; c) method using a pressurized gas and a pressure plate extractor for determination of matric pressures from - 5 kPa to - 1500 kPa; d) method using a pressurized gas and pressure membrane cells for determination of matric pressures from - 33 kPa to - 1500 kPa. Guidelines are given to select the most suitable method in a particular case.

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This European Standard specifies methods for the calculation of the dry matter of samples for which the results of performed analysis are to be calculated to the dry matter basis. Depending on the nature of the sample, the calculation is based on a determination of the dry residue (Method A) or a determination of the water content (Method B). It applies to samples containing more than 1 % (m/m) of dry residue or more than 1 % (m/m) of water.

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This International Standard describes two methods for the determination of particle density of soils calculated from the mass and the volume of soil particles. The first method (4.1) is applicable to fine soil (< 2 mm diameter) and the second method (4.2) is applicable to both porous and nonporous gravel and stones (> 2 mm diameter). The particle density may be used for the calculation of the proportion of solids and of the porosity of soil layers in combination with the procedure given in ISO 11272.

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This International Standard describes three methods for the determination of dry bulk density of soils calculated from the mass and the volume of a soil sample. The methods involve drying and weighing a soil sample, the volume of which is either known (core method, see 4.1) or has to be determined (excavation method, see 4.2, and clod method, see 4.3).

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the loss on ignition (LOI) of dry matter at 550 °C. The dry matter is determined according to EN 15934.
This method applies to the determination of loss on ignition of sludge, treated biowaste, soil and waste. The LOI of sediments can also be determined with this method.
NOTE   The loss on ignition is often used as an estimate for the content of organic matter in the sample. It should be noted that inorganic substances or decomposition products (e.g. H2O, CO2, SO2, O2) are released or absorbed and some inorganic substances are volatile under the reaction conditions.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of pH within the range pH 2 to pH 12 in a suspension of sludge, treated biowaste or soil in either water (pH H2O), or a 0,01 mol/l calcium chloride solution (pH CaCl2).
This European Standard is applicable to sludge, treated biowaste and fresh or air-dry soil samples.

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This European standard specifies a method for the determination of total dissolved solids (TDS) in water and eluates, provided they are not volatile under the conditions specified or that they do not release water molecules from hydration. It applies to water and eluates containing more than 200 mg/l of total dissolved solids. Samples with lower amounts of dissolved solids can be analyzed by repetition of the drying step.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the loss on ignition.
This procedure is applicable to all kinds of waste, sludge and sediments.
The loss on ignition is often used as an estimate for the content of non-volatile organic matter in waste, sludge and sediments. It should be noted that any content of elementary carbon and volatilisation of organic materials or chemical reactions by inorganic compounds, is included in the loss on ignition.

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