This document specifies a method for determining the plastic strain ratio of flat products (sheet and strip) made of metallic materials.

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This document specifies a micrographic method of determining apparent ferritic or austenitic grain size in steels. It describes the methods of revealing grain boundaries and of estimating the mean grain size of specimens with unimodal size distribution. Although grains are three-dimensional in shape, the metallographic sectioning plane can cut through a grain at any point from a grain corner, to the maximum diameter of the grain, thus producing a range of apparent grain sizes on the two-dimensional plane, even in a sample with a perfectly consistent grain size.

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This document specifies the method for tensile testing of metallic materials and defines the mechanical properties which can be determined at room temperature.
NOTE Annex A contains further recommendations for computer controlled testing machines.

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ISO 6506-2:2017 specifies methods of direct and indirect verification of testing machines used for determining Brinell hardness in accordance with ISO 6506‑1 and also specifies when these two types of verification have to be performed.
The direct verification involves checking that individual machine performance parameters fall within specified limits whereas the indirect verification utilizes hardness measurements of reference blocks, calibrated in accordance with ISO 6506‑3, to check the machine's overall performance.
If a testing machine is also to be used for other methods of hardness testing, it has to be verified independently for each method.
ISO 6506-2:2017 is applicable to both fixed location and portable hardness testing machines. For machines that are incapable of satisfying the specified force-time profile, the direct verification of force and testing cycle can be modified by the use of Annex B.

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This document specifies the methods for
a) uninterrupted creep tests with continuous monitoring of extension,
b) interrupted creep tests with periodic measurement of elongation,
c) stress rupture tests where normally only the time to fracture is measured,
d) a test to verify that a predetermined time can be exceeded under a given force, with the elongation or extension not necessarily being reported.
NOTE A creep test can be continued until fracture has occurred or it can be stopped before fracture.

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ISO 6892-2:2018 specifies a method of tensile testing of metallic materials at temperatures higher than room temperature.

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ISO 6507-4:2018 gives tables of Vickers hardness for use in tests carried out in accordance with ISO 6507‑1.

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ISO 7500-1:2018 specifies the calibration and verification of tension/compression testing machines.
The verification consists of:
- a general inspection of the testing machine, including its accessories for the force application;
- a calibration of the force-measuring system of the testing machine;
- a confirmation that the performance properties of the testing machine achieve the limits given for a specified class.
NOTE This document addresses the static calibration and verification of the force-measuring systems. The calibration values are not necessarily valid for high-speed or dynamic testing applications. Further information regarding dynamic effects is given in the Bibliography.
CAUTION Some of the tests specified in this document involve the use of processes which can lead to a hazardous situation.

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ISO 6507-3:2018 specifies a method for the calibration of reference blocks to be used for the indirect verification of Vickers hardness testing machines, as specified in ISO 6507‑2.
The method is applicable only for indentations with diagonals ≥0,020 mm.

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ISO 4545-3:2017 specifies the method for the calibration of reference blocks to be used for the indirect verification of Knoop hardness testing machines as specified in ISO 4545‑2.
The method is applicable only for indentations with long diagonals ≥0,020 mm.

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ISO 4545-1:2017 specifies the Knoop hardness test method for metallic materials for test forces from 0,009 807 N to 19,613 N.
The Knoop hardness test is specified in this document for lengths of indentation diagonals ≥0,020 mm. Using this method to determine Knoop hardness from smaller indentations is outside the scope of this document as results would suffer from large uncertainties due to the limitations of optical measurement and imperfections in tip geometry. ISO 14577-1 allows the determination of hardness from smaller indentations.
A periodic verification method is specified for routine checking of the testing machine in service by the user.
Special considerations for Knoop testing of metallic coatings can be found in ISO 4516.

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ISO 26203-1:2018 specifies methods for testing metallic sheet materials to determine the stress-strain characteristics at high strain rates. This document covers the use of elastic-bar-type systems.
The strain-rate range between 10−3 and 103 s−1 is considered to be the most relevant to vehicle crash events based on experimental and numerical calculations such as the finite element analysis (FEA) work for crashworthiness.
In order to evaluate the crashworthiness of a vehicle with accuracy, reliable stress-strain characterization of metallic materials at strain rates higher than 10−3 s−1 is essential.
This test method covers the strain-rate range above 102 s−1.
NOTE 1 At strain rates lower than 10−1 s−1, a quasi-static tensile testing machine that is specified in ISO 7500‑1 and ISO 6892‑1 can be applied.
NOTE 2 This testing method is also applicable to tensile test-piece geometries other than the flat test pieces considered here.

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ISO 6507-1:2018 specifies the Vickers hardness test method for the three different ranges of test force for metallic materials including hardmetals and other cemented carbides.

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ISO 6507-2:2018 specifies a method of verification and calibration of testing machines and diagonal measuring system for determining Vickers hardness in accordance with ISO 6507‑1.
A direct method of verification and calibration is specified for the testing machine, indenter and the diagonal length measuring system. An indirect verification method using reference blocks is specified for the overall checking of the machine.
If a testing machine is also to be used for other methods of hardness testing, it shall be verified independently for each method.
ISO 6507-2:2018 is also applicable to portable hardness testing machines but not applicable to hardness testing machines based on different measurement principles, e.g. ultrasonic impedance method.

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ISO 4545-2:2017 specifies the method of verification and calibration of testing machines for determining Knoop hardness for metallic materials in accordance with ISO 4545‑1.
A direct method of verification and calibration is specified for the testing machine, indenter, and the diagonal length measuring system. An indirect verification method using reference blocks is specified for the overall checking of the machine.
If a testing machine is also to be used for other methods of hardness testing, it will be verified independently for each method.

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ISO 4545-4:2017 gives a table for the calculation of Knoop hardness values for use in tests carried out in accordance with ISO 4545‑1.

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ISO 3887:2017 defines the decarburization and specifies three methods of measuring the depth of decarburization of steel products.

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This draft European Standard defines a method of microscopic non-metallic endogenous inclusion assessment using picture charts.
The method does not apply to particles of a length or diameter less than 3,0 µm or a width smaller than 2,0 µm. If defined by a product standard or agreement between the involved parties for certain special products, inclusions with a width below 2,0 µm can be evaluated by length alone.Inclusions with dimensions exceeding the upper limits in Table 2 are evaluated as belonging to the maximum class and noted separately with their true dimensions (see 7.5.6).
It is assumed, if particles are elongated or if there are stringers of particles, that they are parallel to each other. Other arrangements are not covered by this draft standard. This draft European Standard applies to samples with a microscopic precipitation approaching random distribution.
From the data of measurements obtained by this method, evaluation according to other standards can be established.
This draft European Standard does not apply to free cutting steels.
NOTE   The basic principle of this draft European Standard allows the determination of non-metallic inclusion content by image analysis techniques.

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ISO 14577-4:2016 specifies a method for testing coatings which is particularly suitable for testing in the nano/micro range applicable to thin coatings. However, the application of this method of this part of ISO 14577 is not needed if the indentation depth is such a small fraction of the coating thickness that in any possible case a substrate influence can be neglected and the coating can be considered as a bulk material. Limits for such cases are given.
This test method is limited to the examination of single layers when the indentation is carried out normal to the test piece surface, but graded and multilayer coatings can also be measured in cross-section if the thickness of the individual layers or gradations is greater than the spatial resolution of the indentation process.
The test method is not limited to any particular type of material. Metallic and non-metallic coatings are included in the scope of this part of ISO 14577. In this part of ISO 14577, the term coating is used to refer to any solid layer with homogeneous properties different to that of a substrate it is connected to. The method assumes that coating properties are constant with indentation depth. Composite coatings are considered to be homogenous if the structure size is less than the indentation size.
The application of this part of ISO 14577 regarding measurement of indentation hardness is only possible if the indenter is a pyramid or a cone with a radius of tip curvature small enough for plastic deformation to occur within the coating. The hardness of visco-elastic materials or materials exhibiting significant creep will be strongly affected by the time taken to perform the test.

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ISO 148-1:2016 specifies the Charpy (V-notch and U-notch) pendulum impact test method for determining the energy absorbed in an impact test of metallic materials. This part of ISO 148 does not cover instrumented impact testing, which is specified in ISO 14556.
Annexes B and C are based on ASTM E23 and are used with the permission of ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, USA.

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ISO 148-3:2016 specifies the requirements, preparation and methods for qualifying test pieces used for the indirect verification of pendulum impact testing machines in accordance with ISO 148‑2.
It specifies notched test pieces with nominal dimensions identical to those specified in ISO 148‑1; however, the tolerances are more stringent.
NOTE 1 The chemical composition or heat treatment, or both, are varied according to the energy level desired.
NOTE 2 Reference test pieces are qualified on reference pendulum impact testing machines which are also described in this part of ISO 148.

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ISO 148-2:2016 covers the verification of pendulum-type impact testing machines, in terms of their constructional elements, their overall performance and the accuracy of the results they produce. It is applicable to machines with 2 mm or 8 mm strikers used for pendulum impact tests carried out, for instance, in accordance with ISO 148‑1.
It can be applied to pendulum impact testing machines of various capacities and of different design.
Impact machines used for industrial, general or research laboratory testing of metallic materials in accordance with this part of ISO 148 are referred to as industrial machines. Those with more stringent requirements are referred to as reference machines. Specifications for the verification of reference machines are found in ISO 148‑3.
ISO 148-2:2016 describes two methods of verification.
a) The direct method, which is static in nature, involves measurement of the critical parts of the machine to ensure that it meets the requirements of this part of ISO 148. Instruments used for the verification and calibration are traceable to national or international standards.
b) The indirect method, which is dynamic in nature, uses reference test pieces to verify points on the measuring scale for absorbed energy. The requirements for the reference test pieces are found in ISO 148‑3.
A pendulum impact testing machine is not in compliance with this part of ISO 148 until it has been verified by both the direct and indirect methods and meets the requirements of Clause 6 and Clause 7.
ISO 148-2:2016 describes how to assess the different components of the total energy absorbed in fracturing a test piece. This total absorbed energy consists of
- the energy needed to fracture the test piece itself, and
- the internal energy losses of the pendulum impact testing machine performing the first half-cycle swing from the initial position.
NOTE Internal energy losses are due to the following:
- air resistance, friction of the bearings of the rotation axis and of the indicating pointer of the pendulum which can be determined by the direct method (see 6.4.5);
- shock of the foundation, vibration of the frame and pendulum for which no suitable measuring methods and apparatus have been developed.

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ISO 6508-1:2016 specifies the method for Rockwell regular and Rockwell superficial hardness tests for scales A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, 15N, 30N, 45N, 15T, 30T, and 45T for metallic materials and is applicable to stationary and portable hardness testing machines.
For specific materials and/or products, other specific International Standards apply (for instance, ISO 3738‑1 and ISO 4498).

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ISO 16859-1:2015 covers the determination of a dynamic hardness of metallic materials using seven different Leeb scales (HLD, HLS, HLE, HLDL, HLD+15, HLC, HLG).

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ISO 16859-3:2015 specifies a method for the calibration of reference test blocks that are used for the indirect verification of Leeb hardness testers according to ISO 16859‑2 and for the periodic checking according to ISO 16859‑1.
The procedures necessary to ensure metrological traceability of the calibration machine are also specified.

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ISO 14556:2015 specifies a method of instrumented Charpy V-notch pendulum impact testing on metallic materials and the requirements concerning the measurement and recording equipment.
With respect to the Charpy pendulum impact test described in ISO 148‑1, this test provides further information on the fracture behaviour of the product under impact testing conditions.
General information about instrumented impact testing can be found in Reference [1] to Reference [5].

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ISO 16859-2:2015 specifies methods for direct and indirect verification of test instruments used for determining Leeb hardness in accordance with ISO 16859‑1, and also describes when these two types of verification are to be performed.
The direct verification involves checking that individual instrument performance parameters fall within specified limits, whereas the indirect verification utilizes hardness measurements of reference test blocks, calibrated in accordance with ISO 16859‑3, to check the overall performance of the instrument for testing in the direction of gravity. The indirect method can be used on its own for the periodic performance checking in service.

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ISO 14577-1:2015 specifies the method of instrumented indentation test for determination of hardness and other materials parameters for the following three ranges: macro range: 2 N ≤ F ≤ 30 kN; micro range: 2 N > F; h > 0,2 µm; and nano range: h ≤ 0,2 µm.
For the nano range, the mechanical deformation strongly depends on the real shape of indenter tip and the calculated material parameters are significantly influenced by the contact area function of the indenter used in the testing machine. Therefore, careful calibration of both instrument and indenter shape is required in order to achieve an acceptable reproducibility of the materials parameters determined with different machines.
The macro and micro ranges are distinguished by the test forces in relation to the indentation depth.
Attention is drawn to the fact that the micro range has an upper limit given by the test force (2 N) and a lower limit given by the indentation depth of 0,2 µm.
The determination of hardness and other material parameters is given in Annex A.
At high contact pressures, damage to the indenter is possible. For this reason in the macro range, hardmetal indenters are often used. For test pieces with very high hardness and modulus of elasticity, permanent indenter deformation can occur and can be detected using suitable reference materials. It is necessary that its influence on the test result be taken into account.
This test method can also be applied to thin metallic and non-metallic coatings and non-metallic materials. In this case, it is recommended that the specifications in the relevant standards be taken into account (see also 6.3 and ISO 14577‑4).

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ISO 14577-2:2015 specifies the method of verification and calibration of testing machines for carrying out the instrumented indentation test in accordance with ISO 14577‑1:2015.
It describes a direct verification method for checking the main functions of the testing machine and an indirect verification method suitable for the determination of the repeatability of the testing machine. There is a requirement that the indirect method be used in addition to the direct method and for the periodic routine checking of the testing machine in service.
It is a requirement that the indirect method of verification of the testing machine be carried out independently for each test method.
ISO 14577-2:2015 is also applicable for transportable testing machines.

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ISO 14577-3:2015 specifies a method for the calibration of reference blocks to use for the indirect verification of testing machines for the instrumented indentation test as specified in ISO 14577‑2:2015.

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ISO 6892-3:2015 specifies a method of tensile testing of metallic materials at temperatures between +10 °C and -196 °C.

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ISO 6508-2:2015 specifies two separate methods of verification of testing machines (direct and indirect) for determining Rockwell hardness in accordance with ISO 6508‑1:2015, together with a method for verifying Rockwell hardness indenters.
The direct verification method is used to determine whether the main parameters associated with the machine function, such as applied force, depth measurement, and testing cycle timing, fall within specified tolerances. The indirect verification method uses a number of calibrated reference hardness blocks to determine how well the machine can measure a material of known hardness.
The indirect method may be used on its own for periodic routine checking of the machine in service.
If a testing machine is also to be used for other methods of hardness testing, it shall be verified independently for each method.
ISO 6508-2:2015 is applicable to stationary and portable hardness testing machines.
Attention is drawn to the fact that the use of tungsten carbide composite for ball indenters is considered to be the standard type of Rockwell indenter ball. Steel indenter balls may continue to be used only when complying with ISO 6508‑1:2015, Annex A.

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ISO 6508-3:2015 specifies a method for the calibration of reference blocks to be used for the indirect and daily verification of Rockwell hardness testing machines, as specified in ISO 6508‑2:2015.
Attention is drawn to the fact that the use of hard metal for ball indenters is considered to be the standard type of Rockwell indenter ball. Steel indenter balls can be used only when complying with ISO 6508‑1:2015, Annex A.

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ISO 6506-1:2014 specifies the method for the Brinell hardness test for metallic materials. It is applicable to both fixed location and portable hardness testing machines.
For some specific materials and/or products, particular International Standards exist (e.g. ISO 4498) and make reference to this International Standard.

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ISO 6506-3:2014 specifies a method for the calibration of reference blocks to be used in the indirect verification of Brinell hardness testing machines as described in ISO 6506‑2.
The procedures necessary to ensure metrological traceability of the calibration machine are also specified.

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ISO 6506-4:2014 gives a table of the Brinell hardness values for use in tests on flat surfaces.

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ISO 16808:2014 specifies a method for determination of the biaxial stress-strain curve of metallic sheets having a thickness below 3 mm in pure stretch forming without significant friction influence. In comparison with tensile test results, higher strain values can be achieved.

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ISO 20482:2013 specifies a standard test method for determining the ability of metallic sheets and strips having a thickness from 0,1 mm up to 2 mm and a width of 90 mm or greater to undergo plastic deformation in stretch forming.
For materials that are thicker and when only narrower strips are available, tools of specified dimensions are provided, in which case subscripts are used, as shown in Table 1.

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ISO 18265:2013 specifies the principles of the conversion of hardness values to equivalent values in other hardness scales and to estimates of tensile strength. It gives general information on the use of the conversion tables.
The conversion tables in Annexes A to G apply to unalloyed and low alloy steels and cast steel, steels for quenching and tempering, steels for cold working, high speed steels, tool steels, hardmetals, and non-ferrous metals and alloys.
Annex H gives information about the effects of changes of the test procedure in the standards specifying the hardness tests.
Converted values obtained using ISO 18265:2013 are only directly applicable to the exact material tested. For all other materials, they provide an indicator only. In all cases, the converted values are not intended as replacements for values obtained by the correct standard method. In particular, tensile strength estimates are the least reliable converted values in ISO 18265:2013.

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ISO 9513:2012 specifies a method for the static calibration of extensometer systems used in uniaxial testing, including axial and diametral extensometer systems, both contacting and non-contacting.

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ISO 26203-2:2011 gives requirements for the testing of metallic materials. Only examples for testing flat geometries are given; however, other geometries can be tested. The area of application spans a range of strain rates from 10-2 s-1 to 103 s-1. Tests are carried out between 10 °C and 35 °C and, unless otherwise specified, using a servo-hydraulic-type test system.

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ISO 376:2011 specifies a method for the calibration of force-proving instruments used for the static verification of uniaxial testing machines (e.g. tension/compression testing machines) and describes a procedure for the classification of these instruments.
It is applicable to force-proving instruments in which the force is determined by measuring the elastic deformation of a loaded member or a quantity which is proportional to it.

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This document specifies the small punch method of testing metallic materials and the estimation of tensile, creep and fracture mechanical material properties from cryogenic up to high temperatures.

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This document specifies testing conditions for use when constructing a forming-limit curve (FLC) at
ambient temperature and using linear strain paths. The material considered is flat, metallic and of
thickness between 0,3 mm and 4 mm.
NOTE The limitation in thickness of up to 4 mm is proposed, giving a maximum allowable thickness to the
punch diameter ratio.

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This document specifies a method for determining the ability of metallic materials to undergo plastic
deformation in bending.
This document applies to test pieces taken from metallic products, as specified in the relevant product
standard. It is not applicable to certain materials or products, for example tubes in full section or
welded joints, for which other standards exist.

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This document specifies a method for determining the tensile strain hardening exponent n of flat products (sheet and strip) made of metallic materials.
The method is valid only for that part of the stress-strain curve in the plastic range where the curve is continuous and monotonic (see 8.4).
In the case of materials with a serrated stress-strain curve in the work hardening range (materials which show the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect, e.g. AlMg-alloys), the automatic determination (linear regression of the logarithm true stress vs. the logarithm true plastic strain, see 8.7) is used to give reproducible results.

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This document specifies a procedure for developing forming-limit diagrams and forming-limit curves
for metal sheets and strips of thicknesses from 0,3 mm to 4 mm.

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ISO 7500-2:2006 specifies the verification of testing machines used for uniaxial creep testing in tension in accordance with ISO 204.
The verification consists of
a general inspection of the testing machine, and
a verification of the force applied by the testing machine.
ISO 7500-2:2006 applies to dead-weight machines, lever-type creep testing machines and direct-spring-loading machines.
Machines with a force-measuring system should be verified in accordance with ISO 7500-1.

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This part of EN 10319 specifies the test method for determining the stress relaxation of bolts tensioned in bolted joint models subjected throughout the test to overall constant strain and constant temperature conditions.

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