IEC 62947:2019 is applicable to organizations manufacturing photovoltaic (PV) modules certified to IEC 61215 series and IEC 62108 for design qualification and type approval and IEC 61730 for safety qualification and type approval. The design qualification and type approval of PV modules depend on appropriate methods for product and process design, as well as appropriate control of materials and processes used to manufacture the product. This document lays out best practices for product design, manufacturing processes, and selection and control of materials used in the manufacture of PV modules that have met the requirements of IEC 61215 series, IEC 61730, or IEC 62108. These standards also form the basis for factory audit criteria of such sites by various certifying and auditory bodies. The object of this document is to provide a framework for the improved confidence in the ongoing consistency of performance and reliability of certified PV modules. The requirements of this document are defined with the assumption that the quality management system of the organization has already fulfilled the requirements of ISO 9001 or equivalent quality management system. This document is not intended to replace or remove any requirements of ISO9001 or equivalent quality management system. By maintaining a manufacturing system in accordance with this document, PV modules are expected to maintain their performance as determined from the test sequences in IEC 61215 series, IEC 62108, or IEC 61730.

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IEC 60904-4:2019 is available as IEC 60904-4:2019 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.IEC 60904-4:2019 sets the requirements for calibration procedures intended to establish the traceability of photovoltaic (PV) reference devices to SI units as required by IEC 60904-2. This document applies to PV reference devices that are used to measure the irradiance of natural or simulated sunlight for the purpose of quantifying the performance of PV devices. The use of a PV reference device is required in many standards concerning PV (e.g. IEC 60904-1 and IEC 60904-3). This document has been written with single-junction PV reference devices in mind, in particular crystalline silicon, but it is sufficiently general to include other single-junction technologies. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2009. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: modification of standard title; - inclusion of working reference in traceability chain; - update of WRR with respect to SI; - revision of all methods and their uncertainties in annex - harmonization of symbols and formulae with other IEC standards.

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IEC 60904-7:2019 is available as IEC 60904-7:2019 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.IEC 60904-7:2019 describes the procedure for correcting the spectral mismatch error introduced in the testing of a photovoltaic device, caused by the mismatch between the test spectrum and the reference spectrum (e.g. AM1.5 spectrum) and by the mismatch between the spectral responsivities (SR) of the reference device and of the device under test and therewith reduce the systematic uncertainty. This procedure is valid for single-junction devices but the principle may be extended to cover multi-junction devices. The purpose of this document is to give guidelines for the correction of the spectral mismatch error, should there be a spectral mismatch between the test spectrum and the reference spectrum as well as between the reference device SR and the device under test SR. The calculated spectral mismatch correction is only valid for the specific combination of test and reference devices measured with a particular test spectrum. This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition published in 2008. The main technical changes with respect to the previous edition are as follows: - For better compatibility and less redundancy, the clause “Determination of test spectrum” refers to IEC 60904-9. - The spectral mismatch factor is called SMM instead of MM to enable differentiation to the angular mismatch factor AMM and spectral angular mismatch factor SAMM. - Formulae for the derivation and application of the spectral mismatch factor SMM are added. - Links to new standards are given, e.g. concerning multi-junction devices. - Corrected wording (responsivity instead of response and irradiance instead of intensity).

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IEC 63202-1:2019 describes procedures for measuring the light-induced degradation (LID) of crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells in simulated sunlight. The magnitude of LID in a crystalline silicon PV cell is determined by comparing maximum output power at Standard Test Conditions (STC) before, and after, exposure to simulated sunlight at a specified temperature and irradiance. The purpose of this document is to provide standardized PV cell LID information to help PV module manufacturers in minimizing the mismatch between cells within the same module, thereby maximizing power yield.

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IEC 60904-3:2019 is available as IEC 60904-3:2019 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition. IEC 60904-3:2019 describes basic measurement principles for determining the electrical output of PV devices. The principles given in this document are designed to relate the performance rating of PV devices to a common reference terrestrial solar spectral irradiance distribution. The reference terrestrial solar spectral irradiance distribution is given in this document in order to classify solar simulators according to the spectral performance requirements contained in IEC 60904-9. The principles contained in this standard cover testing in both natural and simulated sunlight. This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) all spectral data were recalculated due to some minor calculation and rounding errors in the third edition; the global spectral irradiance returned to exactly the data of the second edition; b) the angular distribution of the irradiance was clarified.

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This document defines a test sequence that extends the thermal cycling test of IEC 61215-2. It is intended to differentiate PV modules with improved durability to thermal cycling and evaluate modules for deployment in locations most susceptible to thermal cycling type stress1. This document is based on the ability for 95 % of the modules represented by the samples submitted for this test to pass an equivalency of 500 thermal cycles, as defined in IEC 61215-2:2016, 4.11.3, with a maximum power degradation of less than 5 %. Provisions are also provided to reduce overall test time by increasing the maximum cycle temperature and/or the number of modules submitted for test. The test procedure in this document was developed based on analysis of the stress on tin-lead solder bonds on crystalline silicon solar cells in a glass superstrate type package. Changes to lead-free solder have an effect on the acceleration factors but not enough to change the overall results of this test. Monolithic type modules with integral cell interconnection do not suffer from this specific type of stress but there are still electrical connections within the module, for example between the integrated cell circuit and the module bus bars, that may be subject to wear out from thermal cycling. Flexible modules (without glass) are not stressed in the same way as those with glass superstrates or substrates, therefore use of the equivalency factor employed in this document may not be applicable to these modules.

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TC - Corrigendum to add superseding information

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IEC 61853-4:2018 describes the standard reference climatic profiles used for calculating energy ratings. This standard contains an attachment in the form of zip files (climatic data sets), which are intended to be used as a complement.

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IEC 61853-3:2018 describes the calculation of PV module energy rating values. The purpose of this document is to define a methodology to determine the PV module energy output (watt-hours), and the climatic specific energy rating (dimensionless) for a complete year at maximum power operation for the reference climatic profile(s) given in IEC 61853-4. It is applied to determine a specific module output in a standard reference climatic profile for the purposes of comparison of rated modules.

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CCMC - wrong reference to EU Directive in the foreword

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CCMC - wrong reference to EU Directive in the foreword

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IEC 61730-2:2016 is available as IEC 61730-2:2016 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition. IEC 61730-2:2016 provides the testing sequence intended to verify the safety of PV modules whose construction has been assessed by IEC 61730-1. The test sequence and pass criteria are designed to detect the potential breakdown of internal and external components of PV modules that would result in fire, electric shock, and/or personal injury. The standard defines the basic safety test requirements and additional tests that are a function of the PV module end-use applications. Test categories include general inspection, electrical shock hazard, fire hazard, mechanical stress, and environmental stress. This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: - the test sequences have been rearranged; - various tests have been detailed or added.

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IEC 61730-1:2016 specifies and describes the fundamental construction requirements for photovoltaic (PV) modules in order to provide safe electrical and mechanical operation. Specific topics are provided to assess the prevention of electrical shock, fire hazards, and personal injury due to mechanical and environmental stresses. This part of IEC 61730 pertains to the particular requirements of construction. IEC 61730-2 defines the requirements of testing. This International Standard series lays down IEC requirements of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. This standard is intended to apply to all terrestrial flat plate module materials such as crystalline silicon module types as well as thin-film modules. This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: - adaption of horizontal standards and inclusion of IEC 60664 and IEC 61140; - implementation of insulation coordination, overvoltage category, classes, pollution degree and material groups definition of creepage, clearance and distance through insulation.

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2018-04 AJC: IEC published corrigendum.

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IEC 62688:2017(E) describes the fundamental construction and testing requirements for Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) modules and assemblies in order to provide safe electrical and mechanical operation during their expected lifetime. Specific topics are provided to assess the prevention of electrical shock, fire hazards, and personal injury due to mechanical and environmental stresses. This document attempts to define the basic requirements for various application classes of concentrator photovoltaic modules and assemblies, but does not encompass all national and regional codes. This document is designed so that its test sequence can coordinate with those of IEC 62108, so that a single set of samples may be used to perform both the safety and performance evaluation of a CPV module and assembly.

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IEC 62817:2014 is a design qualification standard applicable to solar trackers for photovoltaic systems, but may be used for trackers in other solar applications. The standard defines test procedures for both key components and for the complete tracker system. In some cases, test procedures describe methods to measure and/or calculate parameters to be reported in the defined tracker specification sheet. In other cases, the test procedure results in a pass/fail criterion. This standard ensures the user of the said tracker that parameters reported in the specification sheet were measured by consistent and accepted industry procedures. The tests with pass/fail criteria are engineered with the purpose of separating tracker designs that are likely to have early failures from those designs that are sound and suitable for use as specified by the manufacturer.

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IEC 62805-1:2017 specifies a method for measurement and calculation of the total haze and the spectral distribution of haze of glass used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. This document is applicable to glass used in PV modules, including transparent conductive oxide coated (TCO) glass and other kinds of glass used in PV modules.

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IEC 62805-2:2017 specifies methods for measuring the transmittance and reflectance of glass used in photovoltaic (PV) modules and provides instructions on how to calculate the effective hemispherical transmittance and reflectance of this glass. This document is applicable to PV glasses used in PV modules, including ultra-clear patterned glass, anti-reflective coated (AR) glass, transparent conductive oxide coated (TCO) glass and other kinds of PV glass used in PV modules. These test methods are designed to provide reproducible data appropriate for comparison of results among laboratories or at different times by the same laboratory and for comparison of data obtained on different PV glasses.

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IEC 62979:2017(E) provides a method for evaluating whether a bypass diode as mounted in the module is susceptible to thermal runaway or if there is sufficient cooling for it to survive the transition from forward bias operation to reverse bias operation without overheating. This test methodology is particularly suited for testing of Schottky barrier diodes, which have the characteristic of increasing leakage current as a function of reverse bias voltage at high temperature, making them more susceptible to thermal runaway.

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IEC 62920:2017 specifies electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements for DC to AC power conversion equipment (PCE) for use in photovoltaic (PV) power systems. The PCE covered by this document can be grid-interactive or stand-alone. It can be supplied by single or multiple photovoltaic modules grouped in various array configurations, and can be intended for use in conjunction with batteries or other forms of energy storage. This document covers not only PCE connected to a public low voltage AC mains network or other low voltage AC mains installation, but also PCE connected to a medium or high voltage AC network with or without step-down power transformers.

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IEC 60904-8-1:2017 gives guidance for the measurement of the spectral responsivity of multi-junction photovoltaic devices. It is principally intended for non-concentrating devices, but parts may be applicable also to concentrating multi-junction PV devices. The SR is required for analysis of measured current-voltage characteristics of multi-junction PV devices as described in IEC 60904-1-1.

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IEC 60904-1-1:2017 describes procedures for the measurement of the current-voltage characteristics of multi-junction photovoltaic devices in natural or simulated sunlight. It is applicable to single PV cells, sub-assemblies of such cells or entire PV modules. It is principally intended for non-concentrating devices, but parts may be applicable also to concentrating multi-junction PV devices. An essential prerequisite is the spectral responsivity of the multi-junction devices, whose measurement is covered by IEC 60904-8-1.

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This European Standard describes marking, including nameplate and documentation requirements for non-concentrating photovoltaic modules. This European Standard provides mandatory information that needs to be included in the product documentation or affixed to the product to ensure safe and proper use. Best practices are included in this document giving guidance on additional information, for example module’s performance at different irradiance levels. Markings, including nameplates, are permanently affixed information on the PV modules, which indelibly states the rating and other information as required by the relevant standard for safe use and maintenance. While, documentation information is a technical description separate from the photovoltaic module. This European Standard is based on IEC and EN standards defining marking, nameplate and documentation requirements for PV modules.

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IEC 61724-1:2017(E) outlines equipment, methods, and terminology for performance monitoring and analysis of photovoltaic (PV) systems. It addresses sensors, installation, and accuracy for monitoring equipment in addition to measured parameter data acquisition and quality checks, calculated parameters, and performance metrics. In addition, it serves as a basis for other standards which rely upon the data collected.

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IEC 62670-3:2017 defines measurement procedures and instrumentation for determining concentrator photovoltaic performance at concentrator standard operating conditions (CSOC) and concentrator standard test conditions (CSTC), defined in IEC 62670-1, including power ratings.

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IEC 62108:2016 defines a test sequence that will quickly uncover CPV module failures that have been associated with field exposure to thermal cycling for many years. This document was specifically developed to relate to thermal fatigue failure of the HCPV die-attach, however, it also applies, to some extent, to all thermal fatigue related failure mechanisms for the assemblies submitted to test.

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IEC 61215-1-3:2016 lays down requirements for the design qualification and type approval of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in general open-air climates, as defined in IEC 60721-2-1. This document is intended to apply to all thin-film amorphous silicon (a-Si; a-Si/µc-Si) based terrestrial flat plate modules. As such, it addresses special requirements for testing of this technology supplementing IEC 61215-1:2016 and IEC 61215-2:2016 requirements for testing.

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IEC 62788-1-6:2017 defines the terminology, test equipment, test environment, specimen preparation, test procedures, and test report for measuring the degree of cure of Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate (EVA) encapsulation sheet used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. The differential scanning calorimetry (both residual enthalpy and melt/freeze protocols) and gel content methods are included herein. This procedure can be used by material- or module-manufacturers to verify that the cross-linking additive is present and is active. The procedure can also be used to verify the module manufacturing (lamination) process for the purposes of quality- and process-control. The procedure can also be used to assess the uniformity of the EVA formulation within a roll as well as to compare variation of the EVA formulation from roll to roll.

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IEC 61215-1-4:2016 lays down requirements for the design qualification and type approval of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in general open-air climates, as defined in IEC 60721-2-1. This document is intended to apply to all thin-film Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 based terrestrial flat plate modules. As such it addresses special requirements for testing of this technology supplementing IEC 61215-1:2016 and IEC 61215-2:2016 requirements for testing.

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IEC 61215-1-2:2016 lays down requirements for the design qualification and type approval of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in general open-air climates, as defined in IEC 60721-2-1. This document is intended to apply to all thin-film CdTe based terrestrial flat plate modules. As such, it addresses special requirements for testing of this technology supplementing IEC 61215-1:2016 and IEC 61215-2:2016 requirements for testing.

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IEC 61215-2:2016 is intended to apply to all terrestrial flat plate module materials such as crystalline silicon module types as well as thin-film modules. The objective of this test sequence is to determine the electrical and thermal characteristics of the module and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure in general open-air climates. The actual lifetime expectancy of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated.

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    49 pages
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IEC 62788-1-4:2016 provides a method for measurement of the optical transmittance of encapsulation materials used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. The standardized measurements in this procedure quantify the expected transmittance of the encapsulation to the PV cell. Subsequent calculation of solar-weighted transmittance allows for comparison between different materials. The results for unweathered material may be used in an encapsulation manufacturer's datasheets, in manufacturer's material or process development, in manufacturing quality control (material acceptance), or applied in the analysis of module performance. This measurement method can also be used to monitor the performance of encapsulation materials after weathering, to help assess their durability.

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IEC 61853-2:2016 defines measurement procedures for measuring the effects of angle of incidence of the irradiance on the output power of the device, determines the operating temperature of a module for a given set of ambient and mounting conditions and measure spectral responsivity of the module. A second purpose is to provide a characteristic set of parameters which will be useful for detailed energy predictions. The described measurements are required as inputs into the module energy rating procedure described in IEC 61853-3.

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This Technical Report provides test methods for the assessment of external fire exposure to roofs in combination with photovoltaic (PV) arrays which characterize potential impacts of PV arrays to an existing fire rating of roofs from an external fire exposure. The performance of roofs without PV to external fire exposure is defined in CEN/TS 1187. The test methods of CLC/prTR 50670 are only applicable to roof added installations. Building integrated PV is not covered by this standard. The test method refers to PV modules as test specimens without a specific mounting system as well as combinations of PV modules with particular mounting systems on tilted roofs and flat roofs.

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IEC 62108:2016 is available as IEC 62108:2016 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition. IEC 62108:2016 specifies the minimum requirements for the design qualification and type approval of concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules and assemblies suitable for long-term operation in general open-air climates as defined in IEC 60721-2-1. The test sequence is partially based on that specified in IEC 61215-1. The object of this test standard is to determine the electrical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of the CPV modules and assemblies and to show that the CPV modules and assemblies are capable of withstanding prolonged exposure in climates described in the scope. This new edition includes the following main technical changes with regard to the previous one: a) changes in outdoor exposure from 1000 h to 500 h; b) changes in current cycling during thermal cycling test; c) added dust ingress test; d) eliminated thermal cycling associated with damp heat test; e) eliminated UV exposure test.

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IEC 61215-1:2016 lays down requirements for the design qualification and type approval of terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules suitable for long-term operation in general open-air climates, as defined in IEC 60721-2-1. This standard is intended to apply to all terrestrial flat plate module materials such as crystalline silicon module types as well as thin-film modules. The objective of this test sequence is to determine the electrical and thermal characteristics of the module and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure in climates described in the scope. This edition of IEC 61215-1 includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the second edition of IEC 61215:2005: new standard series structure consistent with other IEC standards: Part 1 lists general requirements, Part 1-x specifics for each PV technology and Part 2 defines testing. All tests defined in Part 2 are MQTs (module quality tests).

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IEC 62788-1-5:2016 provides a method for measuring the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of encapsulation sheet material in an unrestricted thermal exposure as might or might not be seen during photovoltaic (PV) module fabrication. Data obtained using this method may be used by encapsulation material manufacturers for the purpose of quality control of their encapsulation material as well as for reporting in product datasheets. Data obtained using this method may be used by PV module manufacturers for the purpose of material acceptance, process development, design analysis, or failure analysis.

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IEC 60904-3:2016 is available as IEC 60904-3:2016 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition. IEC 60904-3:2016 describes basic measurement principles for determining the electrical output of PV devices. The principles given in this standard are designed to relate the performance rating of PV devices to a common reference terrestrial solar spectral irradiance distribution. The reference terrestrial solar spectral irradiance distribution is given in this standard in order to classify solar simulators according to the spectral performance requirements contained in IEC 60904-9. The principles contained in this standard cover testing in both natural and simulated sunlight. This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: - the direct beam irradiance corresponding to the global irradiance was included; - the term "Global photon irradiance" was changed to "Global photon flux"; - the titles of some clauses have been changed (others have been added) in accordance with the usual structure of IEC standards.

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IEC 62788-1 2:2016 provides a method and guidelines for measuring the volume resistivity of materials used as encapsulation, edge seals, front-sheets, backsheets, or any other insulating material in a photovoltaic (PV) module. The test is performed on dry, humid or wet preconditioned samples. In the case of frontsheets and backsheets comprised of multiple layers, the measured resistivity is an effective value. This test is designed for room temperature measurement, but can also be utilized at higher temperatures.

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IEC 61215-1-1:2016 lays down requirements for the design qualification and type approval of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in general open air climates, as defined in IEC 60721-2-1. This standard is intended to apply to all crystalline silicon terrestrial flat plate modules. The object of this test sequence is to determine the electrical and thermal characteristics of the module and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure in climates described in the scope. This standard defines PV technology dependent modifications to the testing procedures and requirements per IEC 61215-1:2016 and IEC 61215-2:2016.

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IEC 62446-1:2016 defines the information and documentation required to be handed over to a customer following the installation of a grid connected PV system. It also describes the commissioning tests, inspection criteria and documentation expected to verify the safe installation and correct operation of the system. It is for use by system designers and installers of grid connected solar PV systems as a template to provide effective documentation to a customer. This new edition cancels and replaces IEC 62446 published in 2009 and includes the following significant technical change with respect to IEC 62446:2009: expansion of the scope to include a wider range of system test and inspection regimes to encompass larger and more complex PV systems.

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IEC 61829:2015 specifies procedures for on-site measurement of flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) array characteristics, the accompanying meteorological conditions, and use of these for translating to standard test conditions (STC) or other selected conditions. This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: - it addresses many outdated procedures; - it accommodates commonly used commercial I-V curve tracers; - it provides a more practical approach for addressing field uncertainties; - it removes and replaces procedures with references to other updated and pertinent standards, including the IEC 60904 series, andIEC 60891.

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This document applies to photovoltaic systems that are integrated into buildings with the photovoltaic modules used as construction products. It focuses on the properties of these photovoltaic systems relevant to essential building requirements as specified in the European Construction Product Regulation CPR 89/106/EEC, and the applicable electro-technical requirements as stated in the Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC / or CENELEC standards. This document references international standards, technical reports and guidelines. For some applications in addition national standards (or regulations) for building works may apply in individual countries, which are not explicitly referenced here. The document is addressed to manufacturers, planners, system designers, installers, testing institutes and building authorities. This document does not apply to concentrating or building-attached photovoltaic systems. This document addresses requirements on the BIPV systems in the specific ways they are intended to be mounted but not the BIPV modules as construction products, which is the topic of FprEN 50583-1.

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    29 pages
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This document applies to photovoltaic modules used as construction products. It focuses on the properties of these photovoltaic modules relevant to essential building requirements as specified in the European Construction Product Regulation CPR 305/2011, and the applicable electro-technical requirements as stated in the Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC / or CENELEC standards. This document references international standards, technical reports and guidelines. For some applications in addition national standards (or regulations) for building products may apply in individual countries, which are not explicitly referenced here and for which harmonized European Standards are not yet available. The document is addressed to manufacturers, planners, system designers, installers, testing institutes and building authorities. This document does not apply to concentrating or building-attached photovoltaic modules. This document addresses requirements on the PV modules in the specific ways they are intended to be mounted but not the mounting structure itself, which is within the scope of FprEN 50583- 2.

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IEC 62759-1:2015 describes methods for the simulation of transportation of complete package units of modules and combined subsequent environmental impacts. This standard is designed so that its test sequence can co-ordinate with those of IEC 61215 or IEC 61646, so that a single set of samples may be used to perform both the transportation simulation and performance evaluation of a photovoltaic module design.

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IEC 62670-2:2015 specifies the minimum requirements for determining the energy output and performance ratio for CPV modules, arrays, assemblies and power plants using an on-sun, measurement based method. This International Standard is intended to define testing methods, to establish a standard energy measurement for CPV modules, arrays, assemblies and power plants, and to specify the minimum reporting information.

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IEC 62852:2014 applies to connectors for use in the d.c. circuits of photovoltaic systems according to class II of IEC 61140:2001 with rated voltages up to 1 500 V d.c. and rated currents up to 125 A per contact. It applies to connectors without breaking capacity but which might be engaged and disengaged under voltage.

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