IEC 62975:2021 provides procedures and guidelines that are intended for the use and maintenance of natural ester liquid in sealed transformers and other electrical equipment.
This document is applicable to natural esters, originally supplied conforming to IEC 62770 and other applicable standards (e.g. ASTM D6871) in transformers, switchgear and electrical apparatus where liquid sampling is practical and where the normal operating conditions specified in the equipment specifications apply.
At p...
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IEC 60296:2020 provides specifications and test methods for unused and recycled mineral insulating oils. It applies to mineral oil delivered according to the contractual agreement, intended for use in transformers, switchgear and similar electrical equipment in which oil is required for insulation and heat transfer. Both unused oil and recycled oil under the scope of this document have not been used in, nor been in contact with electrical equipment or other equipment not required for manufacture...view more

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IEC 63012:2019 defines requirements for the characterization of unused modified esters or blends of unused esters used as insulating liquids for electrotechnical applications. It does not cover liquids that contain any proportion of used liquids. The liquids covered by this document are intended mainly for transformer applications.
Unused modified/synthetized esters are derived from a natural or synthetic base, or are blends of both. This document covers a variety of ester liquids not covered b...
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IEC 60480:2019 provides criteria for the re-use of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and its mixtures after recovery and reclaiming from electrical equipment (e.g. for maintenance, at the end-of-life).
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), nitrogen (N2) and carbon tetrafluoride (CF4), are gases commonly used for electrical equipment. Taking into account environmental concerns, particular attention is paid to re-use criteria for SF6 and its mixtures with N2 and CF4 for its use in electrical equipment. Procedures...
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IEC 62961:2018 establishes the measurement of the interfacial tension between insulating liquid and water by means of the Du Noüy ring method close to equilibrium conditions. In order to obtain a value that provides a realistic expression of the real interfacial tension, a measurement after a surface age of approximately 180 s is recorded.

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IEC 60156:2018 is now available as IEC 60156:2018 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60156:2018 specifies the method for determining the dielectric breakdown voltage of insulating liquids at power frequency. The test procedure is performed in a specified apparatus, where the oil sample is subjected to an increasing AC electrical field until breakdown occurs. The method applie...
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IEC 60376:2018 defines the quality for technical grade sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and complementary gases such as nitrogen (N2) and carbon tetra-fluoride (CF4), for use in electrical equipment. Detection techniques, covering both laboratory and in-situ portable instrumentation, applicable to the analysis of SF6, N2 and CF4 gases prior to the introduction of these gases into the electrical equipment are also described in this document.
This document provides some information on sulphur hexafluor...
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IEC TR 62697-2:2018(E) specifies a test method for the quantitative determination of total corrosive sulfur (TCS) in unused and used insulating liquids and solid matrices through the conversion of corrosive sulfur species to metal (copper, silver etc.) sulfides. The sulfides formed are quantitatively converted to sulfates; sulfates are determined through turbidity measurement or with ion chromatography.
The method is applicable with the following matrices:
a) Unused and used insulating liquids...
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IEC TR 62697-3:2018(E) specifies a test method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in used and unused insulating liquids over a 2 mg kg–1 to 400 mg kg–1 concentration range.

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IEC 61125:2018 describes a test method for evaluating the oxidation stability of insulating liquids in the delivered state under accelerated conditions regardless of whether or not antioxidant additives are present. The duration of the test can be different depending on the insulating liquid type and is defined in the corresponding standards (e.g. in IEC 60296, IEC 61099, IEC 62770). The method can be used for measuring the induction period, the test being continued until the volatile acidity si...view more

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IEC 60599:2015 is available as IEC 60599:2015 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60599:2015 describes how the concentrations of dissolved gases or free gases may be interpreted to diagnose the condition of oil-filled electrical equipment in service and suggest future action. This standard is applicable to electrical equipment filled with mineral insulating oil and insulated wi...
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IEC 60836:2015 covers specifications and test methods for unused silicone liquids intended for use in transformers and other electrotechnical equipment. Besides the standard transformer applications there are other applications of silicone liquids, such like cable accessories, capacitors, electrical magnets etc. This edition includes the following major technical changes with regard to the second edition:
a) classification of liquids according to IEC 61039 have been adapted with respect to the ...
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IEC TR 62874:2015 is a Technical Report which provides guidance for the estimation of consumed thermal life of transformers' cellulosic insulators, through the analysis of some compound dissolved in the insulating mineral oil. A comparison between analytical results of 2-furfural (2-FAL) and carbon oxides and their correspondent typical values estimated for different families of equipment gives information on the estimated thermal degradation of papers.

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IEC 62021-3:2014 describes two procedures for the determination of the acidity of unused and used electrical non-mineral insulating oils. Method A is potentiometric titration and Method B is colourimetric titration. The method may be used to indicate relative changes that occur in non-mineral insulating oil during use under oxidizing conditions regardless of the colour or other properties of the resulting non-mineral oil. The acidity can be used in the quality control of unused non-mineral insul...view more

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IEC 62770:2013 describes specifications and test methods for unused natural esters in transformers and similar oil-impregnated electrical equipment in which a liquid is required as an insulating and heat transfer medium. Natural esters with additives are within the scope of this standard. Because of their different chemical composition, natural esters differ from insulating mineral oils and other insulating fluids that have high fire points, such as synthetic esters or silicone fluids. Natural, ...view more

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IEC 60422:2013 gives guidance on the supervision and maintenance of the quality of the insulating oil in electrical equipment. This International Standard is applicable to mineral insulating oils, originally supplied conforming to IEC 60296, in transformers, switchgear and other electrical apparatus where oil sampling is reasonably practicable and where the normal operating conditions specified in the equipment specifications apply. This International Standard is also intended to assist the powe...view more

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IEC 62697-1:2012 specifies a test method for the quantitative determination of corrosive sulfur compounds-dibenzyl disulfide (DBDS) in used and unused insulating liquids over a 5 to 600 mg kg-1 concentration range.

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IEC 61181:2007+A1:2012 Specifies oil-sampling procedures, analysis requirements and procedures, and recommends sensitivity, repeatability and accuracy criteria for the application of dissolved gas analysis (DGA) to factory testing of new power transformers, reactors and instrument transformers filled with mineral insulating oil when DGA testing has been specified. The most effective and useful application of DGA techniques to factory testing is during the performance of long-term tests, typicall...view more

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Applies to capacitors according to IEC 60831-1 and gives the requirements for ageing test, self-healing test and destruction test for these capacitors.

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      5 pages
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IEC 60296:2012 is now available as IEC Standards+ 60296:2012 which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60296:2012 is applicable to specifications and test methods for unused mineral insulating oils. It applies to oil intended for use in transformers, switchgear and similar electrical equipment in which oil is required for insulation and heat transfer. This edition includes the following...
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IEC 60475:2011 is applicable to the procedure to be used for insulating liquids in delivery containers and in electrical equipment such as power and instrument transformers, reactors, bushings, oil-filled cables, oil-filled tank-type capacitors, switchgear and load tap changers. The main changes with respect to the previous edition are as follows:
- withdrawal of askarels;
- addition of recommendations concerning general health, safety and environmental protection;
- additional details regard...
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IEC 60567:2011 deals with the techniques for sampling free gases from gas-collecting relays from power transformers. Three methods of sampling free gases are described. The techniques described take account, on the one hand, of the problems peculiar to analyses associated with acceptance testing in the factory, where gas contents of oil are generally very low and, on the other hand, of the problems imposed by monitoring equipment in the field, where transport of samples may be by un-pressurized ...view more

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IEC 61099:2010 covers the specification and test methods for unused synthetic organic esters. It applies to synthetic organic esters, delivered to the agreed point and time of delivery intended, for use in transformers, switchgear and similar related equipment in which synthetic organic esters are required as an insulant and for heat transfer. The main changes of this new edition with respect to the previous one relate to the aim of giving a more updated specification of synthetic organic esters...view more

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IEC 60666:2010 provides methods concerning the detection and determination of specified additives in unused and used mineral insulating oils. The detection methods may be applied to assess whether or not a mineral insulating oil contains an additive as specified by the supplier. The determination methods are used for the quantitative determination of additives known to be present or previously detected by the appropriate detection method. The main changes with respect to the previous edition are...view more

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IEC 62535:2008 specifies a test method for detection of potentially corrosive sulphur in used and unused mineral insulating oil. Most recent failures due to corrosive sulphur are related to the formation of copper sulphide deposits in and on the surface of winding cellulosic paper. The test method uses a copper conductor, wrapped with one layer of paper, immersed in the oil and heated to evaluate the capability of the oil to yield copper sulphide and transfer it to paper layers. The growth of co...view more

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IEC 61039:2008 establishes the detailed classification of the N family (insulating liquids) that belongs to class L (lubricants, industrial oils and related products) in accordance with ISO 8681 and ISO 6743-99, affecting product categories that include products derived from petroleum processing, synthetic chemical products and synthetic and natural esters. The main change with regard to the previous edition concerns the updating of the classification of insulating liquids, taking into account t...view more

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Describes the sampling procedures and methods for the determination of particle concentration and size distribution. Three methods are specified. One uses an automatic particle size analyser, working on the light interruption principle. The other two use an optical microscope, in either the transmitted light or incident light mode, to count particles collected on the surface of a membrane filter. The optical microscope methods are described in ISO 4407. All three methods are applicable to both u...view more

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Describes a procedure for determination of the acidity of unused and used electrical mineral insulating oils. The method may be used to indicate relative changes that occur in a mineral insulating oil during use under oxidizing conditions that may or may not be shown by other properties of the resulting mineral oil. The acidity can be used in the quality control of unused mineral oil. As a variety of oxidation products present in used mineral oil contribute to acidity and these products vary wid...view more

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To develop a rapid oxidation stability test method based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to assess the oxidation stability of mineral insulating oils

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Describes a test method for the classification of mineral insulating oils as either paraffinic or naphthenic, by means of low-temperature differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For the purpose of this technical report, the typical operating temperature range extends from -100 °C to +100 °C. The temperature range can be extended, depending upon the instrumentation used. The method is applicable to mineral insulating oils obtained from petroleum crudes. It may be also applied to mineral oils con...view more

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Specifies oil-sampling procedures, analysis requirements and procedures, and recommends sensitivity, repeatability and accuracy criteria for the application of dissolved gas analysis (DGA) to factory testing of new power transformers, reactors and instrument transformers filled with mineral insulating oil when DGA testing has been specified. The most effective and useful application of DGA techniques to factory testing is during the performance of long-term tests, typically temperature-rise (hea...view more

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Describes methods for the determination of the dielectric dissipation factor, relative permittivity and d.c. resistivity of any insulating liquid material at the test temperature. The methods are primarily intended for making reference tests on unused liquids. They can also be applied to liquids in service in transformers, cables and other electrical apparatus. However the method is applicable to a single phase liquid only. When it is desired to make routine determinations, simplified procedures...view more

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Describes the procedure for the determination of the acidity of unused and used electrical mineral insulating oils. The method may be used to indicate relative changes that occur in a mineral insulating oil during use under oxidizing conditions regardless of the colour or other properties of the resulting mineral oil. The acidity can be used in the quality control of unused mineral oil. As a variety of oxidation products present in used mineral oil contribute to acidity and these products vary w...view more

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      25 pages
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Describes a method for simultaneous measurement of conductance G and capacitance C enabling the calculation of the dielectric dissipation factor tan delta of insulating liquides. Method applies to both unused insulating liquids and insulating liquids in service in transformers and in other electrical equipment.

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      43 pages
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Specifies a procedure for the determination of the kinematic viscosity of mineral insulating oils, both transparent and opaque, at very low temperatures, after a cold soaking period of at least 20 h, by measuring the time for a volume of liquid to flow under gravity throught a calibrated glass capillary viscometer. Applies at all temperatures to both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids having viscosities of up to 20 000 mm2/s.

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      21 pages
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Describes methods for the determination of water in insulating liquids and in oil-impregnated cellulosic insulation with coulmetrically generated Karl Fischer reagent.

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      43 pages
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Specifies a method for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration in non-halogenated insulating liquids by high-resolution capillary column gas chromatography using an electron capture detector (ECD). Gives total PCB content; especially useful when a detailed analysis of PCB congeners is necessary.

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