IEC 61000-2-10:2021 defines the high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) conducted environment that is one of the consequences of a high-altitude nuclear explosion.Those dealing with this subject consider two cases:
high-altitude nuclear explosions;
low-altitude nuclear explosions.  For civil systems the most important case is the high-altitude nuclear explosion. In this case, the other effects of the nuclear explosion such as blast, ground shock, thermal and nuclear ionizing radiation are not present at the ground level. However, the electromagnetic pulse associated with the explosion can cause disruption of, and damage to, communication, electronic and electric power systems thereby upsetting the stability of modern society. The object of this document is to establish a common reference for the conducted HEMP environment in order to select realistic stresses to apply to victim equipment to evaluate their performance. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1998. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:  
a new Annex E has been added to describe the time waveform characteristics of the response of simple linear antennas to aid in the development of test methods;
technical support for this waveform is provided in Annex E.
a procedure to use the waveforms presented in Annex E along with the peak values previously provided in Annex C is provided.

  • Standard
    47 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

IEC 61000-4-36:2020 is available as IEC 61000-4-36:2020 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 61000-4-36:2020 provides methods to determine test levels for the assessment of the immunity of equipment and systems to intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) sources. It introduces the general IEMI problem, IEMI source parameters, derivation of test limits and summarises practical test methods. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2014. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- addition of a hyperband and mesoband radiated transients immunity test method in
- Annex H;
- addition of a calibration method of sensors for radiated hyperband and mesoband transient fields and measurement uncertainty in Annex I.

  • Standard
    108 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

IEC TS 61000-5-10:2017(E) provides guidelines to protect commercial facilities from the high-power electromagnetic disturbances of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) and intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI).
This document is applicable to both existing facilities and new buildings when the customer has decided that protection of critical electronics from HEMP and IEMI is important to the function of the facility.
IEC TS 61000-5-10:2017 has the status of a basic EMC publication in accordance with IEC Guide 107.

  • Technical specification
    54 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

IEC 61000-4-23:2016(E) provides a protective devices test method for HEMP and other radiated disturbances. It is primarily intended for HEMP testing but can be applied to other externally generated radiated disturbances where appropriate. It provides a brief description of the most important concepts for testing of shielding elements. For each test, the following basic information is provided:
- theoretical foundation of the test (the test concepts);
- test set-up including outside-to-in and inside-to-out measurements;
- required equipment;
- test procedures;
- data processing.
This international standard does not provide information on requirements for specific levels for testing. Due to the available space, a transmitting antenna position outside the barrier has mainly been suggested. However, nowadays, many EMP protection facilities in practical use do not actually have enough space available outside the electromagnetic barrier due to physical constraints such as concrete walls or soil to allow the method described in IEC 61000-4-23:2000 (edition 1) to be applied correctly. From experience many facilities have available space for a 1 m separation or less only. Therefore, in many practical cases it is not possible to measure shielding effectiveness according to the test method of previous documents. The constructors for EMP protection facilities are also unwilling to build facilities with extra space for measurements with the transmitting antenna outside the barrier due to the great expense and inefficiency of the operational working area for new or existing buildings. This document provides additionally a method that allows the transmitting antenna to be placed inside the enclosure and the receiving antenna outside the barrier ('inside-to-out' method). Annex F includes test set-up and procedure examples. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2000. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) updates to the shielding effectiveness (SE) test method in Clause 5;
b) a new Annex F describing methods for testing 'inside-to-out' has been added.

  • Standard
    104 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

IEC 61000-4-24:2015 deals with methods for testing protective devices for HEMP conducted disturbance. It includes two-terminal elements, such as gas discharge tubes, varistors, and two-port SPDs, such as HEMP combination filters. It covers testing of voltage breakdown and voltage-limiting characteristics but also methods to measure the residual voltage and/or the residual current, peak rate of rise and root action for the case of very fast changes of voltage and current as a function of time. It has the status of a basic EMC publication in accordance with IEC Guide 107. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1997. This edition constitutes a technical revision.

  • Standard
    83 pages
    English and French language
    sale 15% off

IEC 61000-4-25:2001+A1:2012 describe immunity test levels and related test methods for electrical and electronic equipment and systems exposed to high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) environments. Specifications for test equipment and instrumentation test set-up, test procedures, pass/fail criteria, and test documentation requirements are also defined by this standard. These tests are intended to demonstrate the immunity of electrical and electronic equipment when subjected to HEMP radiated and conducted electromagnetic disturbances. The objective of this part of IEC 61000 is to establish a common and reproducible basis for evaluating the performance of electrical and electronic equipment, when subjected to HEMP radiated environments and the associated conducted transients on power, antenna, and input/output (I/O) signal and control lines. The amendment 1 introduces the damped sinusoidal wave standard recently published IEC 61000-4-18. This consolidated version consists of the first edition (2001) and its amendment 1 (2012). Therefore, no need to order amendment in addition to this publication.

  • Standard
    96 pages
    English and French language
    sale 15% off

IEC/TS 61000-5-8:2009(E) provides guidance on how to protect the distributed infrastructure (power, telecommunications, transportation and pipeline networks, etc.) from the threat of a high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP). In order to accomplish this goal, it is necessary to describe the special aspects of the HEMP threat to electrical/electronic systems that are connected and distributed in nature. In particular a nuclear burst at a typical altitude of 100 km will illuminate the Earth to a ground radius from the point directly under the burst to a range of 1 100 km. This means that any distributed and connected infrastructure such as power or telecommunications will observe disturbances simultaneously over a wide area. This type of situation is not normally considered in the EMC or HEMP protection of facilities that are part of a distributed network as the impact of a local disturbance is usually evaluated only locally. IEC/TS 61000-5-8:2009 provides general information concerning the disturbance levels and protection methods for all types of distributed infrastructures. Due to its importance to all other parts of the infrastructure, the distributed electric power system (power substations, generation plants and control centres) and its protection are described in more detail. While the telecommunication system is also critical to most of the other distributed infrastructures, the protection of the telecommunication network from HEMP and other electromagnetic threats is covered by the work done by ITU-T. This technical specification forms Part 5-8 of IEC 61000. It has the status of a basic EMC publication in accordance with IEC Guide 107.

  • Technical specification
    27 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

IEC/TR 61000-4-35:2009(E) provides information about extant system-level High-Power Electromagnetic (HPEM) simulators and their applicability as test facilities and validation tools for immunity test requirements in accordance with the IEC 61000 series of standards. HPEM simulators with the capability of conducted susceptibility or immunity testing will be included in a further stage of the project. In the sense of this report the group of HPEM simulators consists of narrow band microwave test facilities and wideband simulators for radiated high power electromagnetic fields. IEC 61000-2-13 defines high power electromagnetic (HPEM) radiated environments as those with a peak power density that exceeds 26 W/m2 (100 V/m or 0,27 A/m). This part of IEC 61000 focuses on a sub-set of HPEM simulators capable of achieving much higher fields. Therefore, the HPEM radiated environments used in this document are characterized by a peak power density exceeding 663 W/m2 (500 V/m or 1,33 A/m). The intention of this report is to provide the first detailed listing of both narrowband (hypoband) and wideband (mesoband, sub-hyperband and hyperband) simulators throughout the world. HEMP simulators are the subject of a separate compendium (IEC 61000-4-32) and thus are outside the scope of this Technical Report. After an introduction, a general description of HPEM simulators, as listed in this Technical Report, is presented. A database has been created by collecting information from simulator owners and operators and this data is presented for the technical characterization of the test facilities. In addition, some important commercial aspects, such as availability and operational status, are also addressed.

  • Technical report
    81 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

IEC/TS 61000-5-9:2009(E) is to present a methodology to assess the impact of High-altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) and High Power Electromagnetic (HPEM) environments on electronic systems. In this context a system refers to a collection of sub-systems, equipment and components brought together to perform a function. The techniques associated with this methodology and their advantages and disadvantages will be presented along with examples of how the techniques can be applied to evaluate the susceptibility of electronic systems such as those found in installations. This work is closely related to the evaluation of EMC system level susceptibility. The purpose of IEC/TS 61000-5-9:2009 is to provide information on available methods for the assessment of system-level susceptibility as a result of HEMP and HPEM environments. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods will be discussed along with examples of how the techniques should be employed. Typical systems have external connections, wired or wireless, and the assessment of these are included within this specification. IEC/TS 61000-5-9:2009 gives general guidance. It does not cover safety issues nor does it conflict with ITU-T efforts concerning the protection of telecommunications equipment. IEC/TS 61000-5-9:2009 has the status of a basic EMC publication in accordance with IEC Guide 107.

  • Technical specification
    66 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

Provides a basic description of the methods and means (e.g., instrumentation) for measuring responses arising from high-power transient electromagnetic parameters. These responses can include: - the electric (E) and/or magnetic (H) fields (e.g., incident fields or incident plus scattered fields within a system under test); - the current I (e.g., induced by a transient field or within a system under test); - the voltage V (e.g., induced by a transient field or within a system under test); - the charge Q induced on a cable or other conductor. These measured quantities are generally complicated time-dependent waveforms, which can be described approximately by several scalar parameters, or "observables". These parameters include: - the peak amplitude of the response, - the waveform rise-time, - the pulse width, and - mathematically defined norms obtained from the waveform. This International Standard provides information on the measurement of these waveforms and on the mathematical determination of the characterizing parameters. It does not provide information on specific level requirements for testing. It has the status of a basic EMC publication in accordance with IEC Guide 107.

  • Standard
    69 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

IEC 61000-2-13:2005 defines a set of typical radiated and conducted HPEM environment waveforms that may be encountered in civil facilities. Such threat environments can produce damaging effects on electrical and electronic equipment in the civilian sector, as described in IEC 61000-1-5. It is necessary to define the radiated and conducted environments, in order to develop protection methods. For the purposes of this standard, high-power conditions are achieved when the peak electric field exceeds 100 V/m, corresponding to a plane-wave free-space power density of 26,5 W/m2. This criterion is intended to define the application of this standard to EM radiated and conducted environments that are substantially higher than those considered for "normal" EMC applications, which are covered by the standards produced by IEC SC 77B.

  • Standard
    40 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

This part of IEC 61000 is a technical report that provides background material describing the motivation for developing IEC standards on the effects of high power electromagnetic (HPEM) fields, currents and voltages on civil systems. In the light of newly emerging transient antenna technology and the increasing use of digital electronics, the possibility of equipment being upset or damaged by these environments is of concern. This document begins with a general introduction to this subject and a listing of the pertinent definitions used. Following these clauses, the HPEM environments that are of concern are described and a discussion of the various effects that these environments can induce in civil systems is presented. Finally, techniques used to protect systems against these environments are summarised. More detailed information will be provided in separate documents in this 61000 series.

  • Technical report
    43 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

This part of IEC 61000 sets high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) immunity requirements for electrical and electronic equipment intended for use indoors. The indoor HEMP environment depends on the electromagnetic shielding quality of a facility and the level of protection against the conducted environment. This standard is intended for all facility types including residential, commercial, light industrial, hospitals, heavy industrial, power substations and power generation facilities. This standard includes indoor equipment intended to be connected to a low-voltage (1 kV or less) power network, to the telecom network and/or to external antennas. Immunity test values are based on the 90 % severity levels in IEC 61000-4-25. All telecom lines are assumed to have gas-tube protectors at the point where they enter the building and insulation flashover on low-voltage lines are assumed at three times that of lightning. For signal ports connected to internal cables, severity test levels are based on cables that have a total length of 10 m and a procedure is provided for longer cables. This part of IEC 61000 does not specify safety requirements for equipment, such as protection against shock, insulation coordination, and related dielectric tests. Nevertheless, the immunity tests described in this part of IEC 61000 involve hazardous voltages. High-voltage precautions are necessary to protect the health and safety of test personnel.

  • Standard
    39 pages
    English and French language
    sale 15% off

Provides information about extant system-level high-altitude EMP (HEMP) simulators and their applicability as test facilities and validation tools for immunity test requirements. This report provides the first detailed listing of HEMP simulators throughout the worldand is the preliminary summary of this effort. It should be updated on a regular basis as the status of test facilities change. The main body of the report is a collection of datasheets describing 42 EMP simulators in 14 countries that are still operational or could be made available for use by the international community.

  • Technical report
    108 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

The purpose of this Technical Report is to describe the effects that have occurred during actual and simulated electromagnetic pulse testing throughout the world. These effects include those observed during the high-altitude nuclear tests conducted by the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962, and the HEMP simulator tests conducted by many countries during the years after atmospheric testing ended. In addition to direct effects, this technical report also contains information on HEMP coupling to "long lines" as it is important to verify that particular levels of currents and voltages can be induced by HEMP on these lines; this provides a basis for direct injection testing of electronic equipment. It should be noted that, in most cases, the electrical equipment tested or exposed did not contain the sensitive electronics in use today. Also it should be emphasized that all tests and exposures did not produce failure of the equipment; factors such as the geometry of the HEMP interaction and the electromagnetic shielding of the equipment are variables that can produce differing results. The description of these effects is intended to illustrate the seriousness of the possible effects of HEMP on modern electronic systems.

  • Technical report
    46 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

This Technical Report covers guidelines for the mitigation of external electromagnetic influences impinging upon a facility, aimed at ensuring electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) among electrical and electronic apparatus or systems. These influences include lightning, RF transmitters, power-line and telecom transients, high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) and other high-power electromagnetic transients. More particularly, this technical report is concerned with the arrangement of shielding and screening against radiated disturbances, and with mitigation of conducted disturbances. These arrangements include appropriate electromagnetic barriers for industrial, commercial, and residential installations. Is intended for use by installers, manufacturers and users of sensitive electrical or electronic installations or systems, and of equipment with emission levels that could degrade the overall electromagnetic (EM) environment. It applies primarily to new installations but, where economically feasible, it may be applied to extensions or modifications to existing facilities.

  • Technical report
    45 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

Describes the immunity test levels and related test methods for electrical and electronic equipment and systems exposed to high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) environments. Specifications for test equipment and instrumentation test set-up, test procedures, pass/fail criteria, and test documentation requirements are also defined by this standard. These tests are intended to demonstrate the immunity of electrical and electronic equipment when subjected to HEMP radiated and conducted electromagnetic disturbances. The objective of this part of IEC 61000 is to establish a common and reproducible basis for evaluating the performance of electrical and electronic equipment, when subjected to HEMP radiated environments and the associated conducted transients on power, antenna, and input/output (I/O) signal and control lines.

  • Standard
    95 pages
    English and French language
    sale 15% off

Describes performance requirements, test methods and classification procedures for degrees of protection provided by empty enclosures against electromagnetic disturbances for frequencies between 10 kHz and 40 GHz. The shielding protection is measured for the purpose of demonstrating that the enclosure provides adequate shielding of electromagnetic energy to support acceptable performance of the complete assembled units when tested to applicable IEC standards. The purpose of this standard is to provide a repeatable means for evaluating the electromagnetic shielding performance of empty mechanical enclosures, including cabinets and subracks, and to specify a marking code to allow a manufacturer to select an enclosure with a known capability for attenuating electromagnetic fields. The requirements for immunity to various types of electromagnetic disturbances, including lightning and high-altitude electro-magnetic pulse (HEMP) will need to be considered by manufacturers when determining the need for application of this standard for specific equipment and applications, and for the specific enclosure shielding requirements which are necessary as a function of frequency.

  • Standard
    51 pages
    English and French language
    sale 15% off

The purpose of this publication is to help specify the immunity requirements of an item (e.g. equipment or subsystem) containing electrical or electronic parts to ensure that it will operate during and/or after exposure to a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) waveform. It provides basic guidance for the selection of immunity test levels for any component, device, equipment, subsystem or system which contains electrical circuits that may be disturbed by electromagnetic signals.

  • Standard
    31 pages
    English and French language
    sale 15% off

This technical report provides elements for: - the design of an adequate protection for civil facilities against the electromagnetic pulse due to a high altitude nuclear explosion, denoted in what follows by HEMP; - the evaluation of already existing protections with respect to stresses imposed by HEMP; - to compare the requirements of HEMP and lightning protection in order to show if they can be combined at low cost; - to emphasise the differences between the requirements of HEMP and lightning protections in order to permit the evaluation of the consequences of HEMP when no additional measures are taken except existing lightning protection.

  • Technical report
    81 pages
    English and French language
    sale 15% off

Defines the high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) conducted environment that is one of the consequences of a high-altitude nuclear explosion. Establishes a common reference for this environment in order to select realistic stresses to apply to victim equipment for evaluating their performance. Presents the conducted HEMP environment induced on metallic lines, such as cables or power lines, external and internal to installations, and external antennas.

  • Standard
    85 pages
    English and French language
    sale 15% off

This technical report provides elements for:[
]- the design of an adequate protection for civil facilities against the electromagnetic pulse due to a high altitude nuclear explosion, denoted in what follows by HEMP;[
]- the evaluation of already existing protections with respect to stresses imposed by HEMP;[
]- to compare the requirements of HEMP and lightning protection in order to show if they can be combined at low cost;[
]- to emphasise the differences between the requirements of HEMP and lightning protections in order to permit the evaluation of the consequences of HEMP when no additional measures are taken except existing lightning protection.

  • Technical report
    41 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This Technical Report covers guidelines for the mitigation of external electromagnetic influences impinging upon a facility, aimed at ensuring electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) among electrical and electronic apparatus or systems. These influences include lightning, RF transmitters, power-line and telecom transients, high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) and other high-power electromagnetic transients. More particularly, this technical report is concerned with the arrangement of shielding and screening against radiated disturbances, and with mitigation of conducted disturbances. These arrangements include appropriate electromagnetic barriers for industrial, commercial, and residential installations.[
]Is intended for use by installers, manufacturers and users of sensitive electrical or electronic installations or systems, and of equipment with emission levels that could degrade the overall electromagnetic (EM) environment. It applies primarily to new installations but, where economically feasible, it may be applied to extensions or modifications to existing facilities.

  • Technical report
    45 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

The purpose of this Technical Report is to describe the effects that have occurred during actual and simulated electromagnetic pulse testing throughout the world. These effects include those observed during the high-altitude nuclear tests conducted by the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962, and the HEMP simulator tests conducted by many countries during the years after atmospheric testing ended. In addition to direct effects, this technical report also contains information on HEMP coupling to 'long lines' as it is important to verify that particular levels of currents and voltages can be induced by HEMP on these lines; this provides a basis for direct injection testing of electronic equipment. It should be noted that, in most cases, the electrical equipment tested or exposed did not contain the sensitive electronics in use today. Also it should be emphasized that all tests and exposures did not produce failure of the equipment; factors such as the geometry of the HEMP interaction and the electromagnetic shielding of the equipment are variables that can produce differing results. The description of these effects is intended to illustrate the seriousness of the possible effects of HEMP on modern electronic systems.

  • Technical report
    46 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day