This document specifies general terms and definitions that are used in the context of rotational and oscillatory rheometry. Further terms and definitions can be found in the other parts of the ISOÂ 3219 series where they are used.

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This document specifies the general principles of rotational and oscillatory rheometry. Detailed information is presented in Annex A. Further background information is covered in subsequent parts of the ISO 3219 series, which are currently in preparation.

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This document specifies a method for determining the deposition behaviour of an electro-deposition coating (e-coat) on various substrates and with various pre-treatments. It applies to electro-deposition coatings for automotive industries and other general industrial applications, e.g. chiller units, consumer products, radiators, aerospace, agriculture.

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This document specifies a method for determining the re-solving effect of electro-deposition coatings. It applies to electro-deposition coatings for automotive industries and other general industrial applications, e.g. chiller units, consumer products, radiators, aerospace, agriculture.

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This document specifies a method for determining the fineness of grind of paints, inks and related products by use of a suitable gauge, graduated in micrometres. It is applicable to all types of liquid paints and related products, except products containing pigments in flake form (e.g. glass flakes, micaceous iron oxides, zinc flakes).

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This document specifies a method for determining the electric charge density of an electro-deposition coating (e‑coat) for automotive industries and other general industrial applications, e.g. chiller units, consumer products, radiators, aerospace, agriculture.

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This document specifies procedures for the sampling of paints and varnishes, including coating powders, and raw materials used in their manufacture. Such products include liquids and materials which, without undergoing chemical modification, are capable of being liquefied when heated up, and powdered, granulated and pasty materials. Samples can be taken from containers, for example cans, drums, tanks, tank wagons or ships' tanks, as well as from barrels, sacks, big-bags, silos or silo wagons or conveyor belts. This document does not deal with the sample preparation for testing or reduction of the samples thus taken, which is dealt with in ISO 1513.

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This document specifies a method for determining the volatile-matter content of electro-deposition coatings (e-coats) during stoving (stoving loss) used for automotive industries and other general industrial applications, e.g. chiller units, consumer products, radiators, aerospace, agriculture.

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1 Scope This document specifies a method for determining the wet-film resistivity of an electro-deposition coating (e‑coat) for automotive industries and other general industrial applications, e.g. chiller units, consumer products, radiators, aerospace, agriculture.

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This document specifies a method for assessing the sedimentation of electro-deposition coating materials on horizontal surfaces used for automotive industries and other general industrial applications, e.g. chiller units, consumer products, radiators, aerospace, agriculture.

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This document specifies a method for assessing the bath stability of electro-deposition coatings used for automotive industries and other general industrial applications, e.g. chiller units, consumer products, radiators, aerospace, agriculture.

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This document specifies a method for determining the electrical conductivity and the electrical resistance of coating materials. The conductivity is usually measured for water-borne paints and varnishes, including electrodeposition coating materials, and the resistance is usually measured for solvent-borne paints and varnishes. If required, the resistivity of the coating material is calculated from either of these measurements. The method is applicable to products having a conductivity less than 5 µS/cm, corresponding to a resistivity greater than 200 kΩ⋅cm. The conductivity of coating materials influences their processibility in the presence of an electric field. This is particularly important for electrodeposition paints and coating materials which are processed electrostatically.

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This document specifies a method for determining the non-volatile matter by volume (NVV) of coating materials and related products by measuring the density of a dried coating for any specified temperature range and period of drying or curing. This method determines the non-volatile matter immediately after application. Using the non-volatile matter by volume results obtained in accordance with this document, it is possible to calculate the spreading rate of coating materials. The method specified in this document is the preferred method for air-drying materials. Its use for other materials has not yet been tested. Annex B gives an overview of the existing methods for determination of non-volatile-matter content and volume of non-volatile matter. This document is not applicable to coating materials in which the critical pigment volume concentration is exceeded.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of soiling material, e.g. from previous processes, non-dispersed paint particles and other foreign material in the electro-deposition coating material. It is applicable to electro-deposition coatings for automotive industries and other general industrial applications, e.g. chiller units, consumer products, radiators, aerospace, agriculture. In practice, increased sieve residue can have different causes, such as metal particles, which are introduced together with the object to be coated, or clots.

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This document specifies two methods for the determination of the throwing power of electro-deposition coating materials. It is applicable to electro-deposition coatings for automotive industries and other general industrial applications, e.g. chiller units, consumer products, radiators, aerospace, agriculture.

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This document specifies a method for identifying entry marks, which can occur during electro-deposition coating. Entry marks can often occur in the form of streaks when the workpiece, either set as cathode or anode, is immersed in the electro-deposition tank under applied electric potential (relation of voltage and current). These marks occur parallel to the bath surface on the objects to be coated. It is applicable to electro-deposition coatings for automotive industries and other general industrial applications, e.g. chiller units, consumer products, radiators, aerospace, agriculture.

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The document specifies a method for the determination of the compatibility of electro-deposition coating materials with a reference oil. It is applicable to electro-deposition coatings for automotive industries and other general industrial applications, e.g. chiller units, consumer products, radiators, aerospace, agriculture.

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This document specifies three different methods of electro-deposition coating material contamination with liquid, paste-like and solid foreign materials. It is applicable to electro-deposition coatings for automotive industries and other general industrial applications, e.g. chiller units, consumer products, radiators, aerospace, agriculture.

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This document defines terms for electro-deposition coatings. It is applicable to electro-deposition coatings for automotive industries and other general industrial applications, e.g. chiller units, consumer products, radiators, aerospace, agriculture.

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This document specifies a method for determining the non-volatile matter by volume (NVV) of coating materials by determining the practical dry-film density. This method determines the volume percentage of non-volatile matter in paints, varnishes and related products by measuring the density of a dry coating for any specified temperature range and period of drying or curing. The non-volatile matter content is determined in accordance with ISO 3251. Using the non-volatile matter by volume results obtained in accordance with this document, it is possible to calculate the practical spreading rate of coating materials. This method specifies an additional shape of plate to those described in ISO 3233‑1 and is suitable for all products which can be applied by dipping. This document is not applicable to coating materials which exceed the Critical Pigment Volume Concentration (CPVC). Annex A gives an overview of the existing methods for the determination of non-volatile matter content and of non-volatile matter volume.

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This document specifies reference buffer solutions for the calibration of pH measuring equipment.

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This document specifies requirements for technical buffer solutions. These buffer solutions are preferably used for the calibration and adjustment of technical pH measuring equipment as well as pH measuring installations in laboratories. Measuring methods are given to determine pH values and buffer capacities of such buffer solutions based on pH reference buffer solutions in accordance with ISO 23496. NOTE Annex A gives examples of technical buffer solutions.

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This document specifies a method for determining the flow time of paints, varnishes and related products that can be used to control consistency. Four flow cups of similar dimensions, but having orifice diameters of 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm and 6 mm, are specified. Two methods for checking the flow cups for wear and tear are given (see Annex A). Flow cups with a replaceable jet are not covered by this document as the close tolerances on the supply of the material under test to the jet are not met. Commonly used dipping flow cups are also not covered by this document. NOTE Since the fabrication tolerances for such flow cups are greater than those of the flow cups specified in this document, flow time determinations with dipping flow cups give a precision which is lower than that obtained with the flow cups specified in this document (see Clause 9). The method described in this document is limited to testing materials for which the breakpoint of the flow from the orifice of the flow cup can be determined with certainty. This point is difficult to determine and reproduce for materials with flow times near the upper limit of the measurement range (100 s) due to slowing-down effects.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of non-volatile matter of coatings directly after application or after intermediate or final drying. In practice, the determination of volatile matter is applied particularly in regard to water-thinnable coatings which are re-coated with an additional coating material. Furthermore, the method can be used to compare the efficiency of different application and drying methods. The content of non-volatile or volatile matter of a product after application is no absolute variable but depends on the application and drying conditions applied during the test. Consequently, applying this method gives only relative values and not the real values for the content of non-volatile matter, due to solvent retention, thermal decomposition and evaporation of low-molecular contents.

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This document specifies the properties and requirements for demineralized water used as solvent for paints and varnishes industrial applications, e.g. production of electro-deposition coating materials, water-based coating materials, water-based resins and plastics dispersions. This document is not applicable to water for analytical use. NOTE See ISO 3696.

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This document specifies a method, carried out under standard conditions, for preparing and storing a sample of a multicomponent coating system and subsequently assessing its pot-life by measuring a particular property/ies. Reactive systems curing within a short period of time, e.g. 3 h, will have the end of their pot life so near to the gel point that they will need to be tested for that particular property in accordance with ISO 2535. The method can be carried out either as a pass/fail test by determining the particular property/ies after a specified period of time, or as determination of the pot life by repeating determinations at convenient intervals of time. This document is not intended for in situ control of products during their application. It is intended to determine "pot life" in the laboratory. The value obtained from this test method can be subject to modification by suppliers for practical reasons (e.g. starting temperature) when giving advice to users and should then be called the "practical pot life".

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This document specifies a method for determining the non-volatile-matter content by mass of paints, varnishes, binders for paints and varnishes, polymer dispersions and condensation resins such as phenolic resins (resols, novolak solutions etc.). The method is also applicable to formulated dispersions containing fillers, pigments and other auxiliaries (e.g. thickeners, film-forming agents). NOTE 1 The non-volatile-matter content of a product is not an absolute quantity but depends upon the temperature and period of heating used for the determination. Consequently, when using this method, only relative and not true values for non-volatile-matter content are obtained owing to solvent retention, thermal decomposition and evaporation of low molecular mass constituents. The method is therefore primarily intended for testing different batches of the same type of product. NOTE 2 This method is suitable for synthetic rubber lattices, provided heating for a specific period of time is considered appropriate (ISO 124 specifies heating until the loss in mass of a 2 g test portion following successive periods of heating is less than 0,5 mg). NOTE 3 In-house methods for determining non-volatile matter often include drying with infrared or microwave radiation. Standardization of such methods is not possible, since they are not generally applicable. Several polymer compositions tend to decompose during such treatment and therefore give incorrect results.

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ISO 19396-2:2017 specifies a method for measuring the pH value of dispersions and coating materials using pH electrodes with ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) technology. ISO 19396‑1 specifies a method for measuring the pH value using pH electrodes with a glass membrane.

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ISO 19396-1:2017 specifies a method for laboratory measurement of the pH value of polymer dispersions and coating materials using pH electrodes with a glass membrane. ISO 19396‑2 specifies a method for measuring the pH value using pH electrodes with ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) technology.

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The ISO 19403 series specifies optical test methods - for the measurement of the contact angle, - for the determination of the free surface energy of a solid surface, including the polar and dispersive fractions, - for the determination of the surface tension of liquids, including the polar and dispersive fractions, and - for the checking of the measurement arrangement with reference materials. It can be applied for the characterization of substrates, coatings and coating materials. The applicability can be restricted for liquids with non-Newtonian rheology[1]. ISO 19403-1:2017 specifies terms and definitions and defines the general principles. [1] This term is defined in DIN 1342-1.

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ISO 19403-6:2017 specifies a method to measure the dynamic contact angle with an optical method. The advancing and the receding angles are determined. By means of this defined measurement, the wetting and dewetting properties can be characterized. It can also be concluded on the morphological and chemical homogeneity of interfaces.

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ISO 19403-3:2017 specifies a test method to measure the surface tension of liquids with an optical method using the pendant drop. The method can be applied for the characterization of liquid coating materials. The applicability can be restricted for liquids with non-Newtonian rheology[1]. NOTE For other methods to determine the surface tension, see e.g. EN 14370 and ISO 1409. [1] This term is defined in DIN 1342-1.

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ISO 19403-4:2017 specifies a test method to determine the polar and dispersive fraction of the surface tension of liquids with optical methods. The method can be applied for the characterization of liquid coating materials, especially when drying effects occur during measurement. The applicability can be restricted for liquids with non-Newtonian rheology[1]. ISO 19403-4:2017 assumes that the information of surface tension of the liquid to be tested, as well as at least one suitable reference liquid, is known. [1] This term is defined in DIN 1342-1.

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ISO 19403-2:2017 specifies a test method to measure the contact angle for the determination of the surface free energy of a solid surface. The method can be applied for the characterization of substrates and coatings. NOTE 1 For the determination of the surface free energy of polymers and coatings, either the method in accordance with Owens, Wendt, Rabel and Kaelble or the method in accordance with Wu is used preferably. NOTE 2 The morphological and chemical homogeneity have an influence on the measuring results. NOTE 3 The procedures indicated in ISO 19403-2:2017 are based on the state-of-the-art employing the drop projection method in penumbral shadow. Other methods are not excluded. NOTE 4 Measuring the contact angle on powders is not part of ISO 19403-2:2017. For further information, see the bibliography.

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ISO 19403-5:2017 specifies a test method to determine the polar and dispersive fractions of the surface tension of liquids by optical methods. The method can be applied for the characterization of liquid coating materials. The applicability can be restricted for liquids with non-Newtonian rheology[1]. ISO 19403-5:2017 assumes that the information of surface tension of the liquid to be tested and the surface free energy of the dispersive reference solids is known. [1] This term is defined in DIN 1342-1.

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ISO 19403-7:2017 specifies a method for the dynamic measurement of the roll-off angle of a liquid drop on a solid surface. From the dynamic measurement, the advancing and receding angles of the drop rolling off can also be determined. The roll-off angle plays a role when evaluating, for example, easy-to-clean or anti-adherent surfaces.

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ISO 2811-1:2016 specifies a method for determining the density of paints, varnishes and related products using a metal or Gay-Lussac pycnometer. The method is limited to materials of low or medium viscosity at the temperature of test. The Hubbard pycnometer (see ISO 3507) can be used for highly viscous materials.

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ISO 3233-3:2015 a simple practical method for calculating the non-volatile matter by volume, NVV, of a coating material from the non-volatile-matter content, NV, the density of the coating material, and the density of the solvents. Using the non-volatile matter by volume results and the density obtained in accordance with this part of ISO 3233, it is possible to calculate the theoretical spreading rate of a coating material. ISO 3233-3:2015 is not applicable to coating materials which exceed the critical pigment volume concentration (CPVC).

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ISO 9117-4:2012 specifies a test for determining the times taken to reach various stages of drying of organic coatings, using a mechanical straight-line or circular drying-time recorder. The use of a mechanical recorder is valuable in comparing the drying behaviour of coatings of the same generic type, when one coating might form a gel at a faster rate than another or might resist scratching better than another. The test is intended to simulate the conditions which exist when painted articles are stacked upon each other.

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ISO 9117-5:2012 specifies a method for determining whether coatings, including those produced using multi-coat systems, have reached various stages of drying. Furthermore, it allows the drying speed to be assessed. In the case of plastic coatings, it is only possible to determine to a limited extent whether the later stages of drying have been reached, as the elasto-plastic behaviour of these coatings cannot be evaluated on the basis of a temporary visible change in the coating surface.

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ISO 9117-6:2012 specifies a method for assessing, by means of a simple empirical test, the resistance of a coat of paint, varnish or related product to imprinting by a nylon gauze under a specified force applied for a specified time. The method may be carried out either as a "pass/fail" test by determining whether the print-free state has been reached after a specified period of drying or, in the case of stoving coatings, after stoving and ageing under specified conditions, or by repeating the print-free test at suitable intervals until the print-free time is obtained.

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ISO 2811-3:2011 specifies a method for determining the density of paints, varnishes and related products using an oscillator. The method is suitable for all materials, including paste-like coatings. If a pressure-resistant type of apparatus is used, the method is also applicable to aerosols.

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ISO 2811-4:2011 specifies a method for determining the density of paints, varnishes and related products using a pressure cup. The method is suitable for products which are aerated. Emulsion paints, for example, often trap small air bubbles, and these might still be present when the density is measured. It is not, however, suitable for textured paints which contain coarse particles.

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ISO 2811-2:2011 specifies a method for determining the density of paints, varnishes and related products, using balls or other round bodies as immersion bodies (plummets). The method is limited to materials of low or medium viscosity, and is particularly suitable for production control.

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ISO 9117-2:2010 specifies a test method for determining, under standard conditions, whether a single‑coat film or a multi-coat system of paints or related materials, after a specified drying period, is sufficiently dry to resist damage when two painted surfaces or one painted surface and another surface are placed in contact under pressure. The method is intended to simulate the conditions when painted articles are stacked upon each other.

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ISO 9117-3:2010 specifies a test method for determining the surface-drying characteristics of a coating of a paint or varnish which dries by the action of air or by chemical reaction of its components. The method is not intended to apply to stoving products. The method described may be carried out: as a "go/no go" test, by determining the surface-drying state after a specified time, to assess compliance with a particular requirement; by determining the surface-drying state at suitable intervals until the surface-drying time is obtained.

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ISO 9117-1:2009 specifies a test method for determining under standard conditions whether a single coat or a multi-coat system of paint, varnish or related material has reached the through-dry state after a specified drying period. The test procedure may also be used to determine the time taken to achieve that state.

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ISO 16862:2003 describes test methods for evaluating the sag resistance (resistance to sagging) of paints, varnishes and similar coating materials (coatings) when applied to a substrate and held in a vertical position. Evaluation of the sag resistance can be carried out after the coating has been applied as follows: using a sag index applicator on a horizontally placed test panel which is afterwards put into a vertical position or using a spray gun for application on a substrate in a vertical position. This International Standard is applicable to liquid coatings only.

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ISO 2884-2:2003 specifies a general procedure for determining the viscosity of paints, varnishes and related products with a viscosity of up to 34 pascal seconds. It is applicable mainly during production and thinning.

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