This document specifies: —   physical and material parameters of virtual or real objects expressed to support comprehensive haptic rendering methods, such as stiffness, friction and micro-textures; —   a flexible specification of the haptic rendering algorithm itself. It supplements other standards that describe scene or content description and information models for virtual and mixed reality, such as ISO/IEC 19775 and ISO/IEC 3721-1.

  • Technical specification
    10 pages
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This document analyses visualization elements that are key components of the interface between the physical asset and the avatar (digital replica of the physical asset).

  • Technical report
    19 pages
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  • Draft
    19 pages
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This document defines the framework and information reference model for representing sensor-based 3D mixed-reality worlds. It defines concepts, an information model, architecture, system functions, and how to integrate 3D virtual worlds and physical sensors in order to provide mixed-reality applications with physical sensor interfaces. It defines an exchange format necessary for transferring and storing data between physical sensor-based mixed-reality applications. This document specifies the following functionalities: a) representation of physical sensors in a 3D scene; b) definition of physical sensors in a 3D scene; c) representation of functionalities of each physical sensor in a 3D scene; d) representation of physical properties of each physical sensor in a 3D scene; e) management of physical sensors in a 3D scene; f) interface with physical sensor information in a 3D scene. This document defines a reference model for physical sensor-based mixed-reality applications to represent and to exchange functions of physical sensors in 3D scenes. It does not define specific physical interfaces necessary for manipulating physical devices, but rather defines common functional interfaces that can be used interchangeably between applications. This document does not define how specific applications are implemented with specific physical sensor devices. It does not include computer generated sensor information using computer input/output devices such as a mouse or a keyboard. The sensors in this document represent physical sensor devices in the real world.

  • Standard
    61 pages
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This document defines a reference model and base components for representing and controlling a single LAE or multiple LAEs in an MAR scene. It defines concepts, a reference model, system framework, functions and how to integrate a 2D/3D virtual world and LAEs, and their interfaces, in order to provide MAR applications with interfaces of LAEs. It also defines an exchange format necessary for transferring and storing LAE-related data between LAE-based MAR applications. This document specifies the following functionalities: a) definitions for an LAE in MAR; b) representation of an LAE; c) representation of properties of an LAE; d) sensing of an LAE in a physical world; e) integration of an LAE into a 2D/3D virtual scene; f) interaction between an LAE and objects in a 2D/3D virtual scene; g) transmission of information related to an LAE in an MAR scene. This document defines a reference model for LAE representation-based MAR applications to represent and to exchange data related to LAEs in a 2D/3D virtual scene in an MAR scene. It does not define specific physical interfaces necessary for manipulating LAEs, that is, it does not define how specific applications need to implement a specific LAE in an MAR scene, but rather defines common functional interfaces for representing LAEs that can be used interchangeably between MAR applications.

  • Standard
    39 pages
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This document defines the scope and key concepts of mixed and augmented reality, the relevant terms and their definitions and a generalized system architecture that together serve as a reference model for mixed and augmented reality (MAR) applications, components, systems, services and specifications. This architectural reference model establishes the set of required sub-modules and their minimum functions, the associated information content and the information models to be provided and/or supported by a compliant MAR system. The reference model is intended for use by current and future developers of MAR applications, components, systems, services or specifications to describe, compare, contrast and communicate their architectural design and implementation. The MAR reference model is designed to apply to MAR systems independent of specific algorithms, implementation methods, computational platforms, display systems and sensors or devices used. This document does not specify how a particular MAR application, component, system, service or specification is designed, developed or implemented. It does not specify the bindings of those designs and concepts to programming languages or the encoding of MAR information through any coding technique or interchange format. This document contains a list of representative system classes and use cases with respect to the reference model.

  • Standard
    61 pages
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This document identifies the reference framework for the benchmarking of vision-based spatial registration and tracking (vSRT) methods for mixed and augmented reality (MAR). The framework provides typical benchmarking processes, benchmark indicators and trial set elements that are necessary to successfully identify, define, design, select and apply benchmarking of vSRT methods for MAR. It also provides definitions for terms on benchmarking of vSRT methods for MAR. In addition, this document provides a conformance checklist as a tool to clarify how each benchmarking activity conforms to this document in a compact form by declaring which benchmarking processes and benchmark indicators are included and what types of trial sets are used in each benchmarking activity.

  • Standard
    61 pages
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ISO/IEC 18025:2014 provides mechanisms to specify unambiguously objects used to model environmental concepts. To accomplish this, a collection of nine EDCS dictionaries of environmental concepts are specified: classifications: specify the type of environmental objects; attributes: specify the state of environmental objects; attribute value characteristics: specify information concerning the values of attributes; attribute enumerants: specify the allowable values for the state of an enumerated attribute; units: specify quantitative measures of the state of some environmental objects; unit scales: allow a wide range of numerical values to be stated; unit equivalence classes: specify sets of units that are mutually comparable; organizational schemas: useful for locating classifications and attributes sharing a common context; and groups: into which concepts sharing a common context are collected. A functional interface is also specified. As denoting and encoding a concept requires a standard way of identifying the concept, ISO/IEC 18025:2014 specifies labels and codes in the dictionaries. ISO/IEC 18025:2014 specifies environmental phenomena in categories that include, but are not limited to, the following: abstract concepts (e.g., absolute latitude accuracy, geodetic azimuth); airborne particulates and aerosols (e.g., cloud, dust, fog, snow); animals (e.g., civilian, fish, human, whale pod); atmosphere and atmospheric conditions (e.g., air temperature, humidity, rain rate, sensible and latent heat, wind speed and direction); bathymetric physiography (e.g., bar, channel, continental shelf, guyot, reef, seamount, waterbody floor region); electromagnetic and acoustic phenomena (e.g., acoustic noise, frequency, polarization, sound speed profile, surface reflectivity); equipment (e.g., aircraft, spacecraft, tent, train, vessel); extraterrestrial phenomena (e.g., asteroid, comet, planet); hydrology (e.g., lake, rapids, river, swamp); ice (e.g., iceberg, ice field, ice peak, ice shelf, glacier); man-made structures and their interiors (e.g., bridge, building, hallway, road, room, tower); ocean and littoral surface phenomena (e.g., beach profile, current, surf, tide, wave); ocean floor (e.g., coral, rock, sand); oceanographic conditions (e.g., luminescence, salinity, specific gravity, turbidity, water current speed); physiography (e.g., cliff, gorge, island, mountain, reef, strait, valley region); space (e.g., charged particle species, ionospheric scintillation, magnetic field, particle density, solar flares); surface materials (e.g., concrete, metal, paint, soil); and vegetation (e.g., crop land, forest, grass land, kelp bed, tree).

  • Standard
    130 pages
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ISO/IEC 19775, X3D, defines a software system that integrates network-enabled 3D graphics and multimedia. Conceptually, each X3D application is a 3D time-based space that contains graphic and aural objects that can be dynamically modified through a variety of mechanisms. ISO/IEC 19775-1:2013 defines the architecture and base components of X3D. The semantics of X3D describe an abstract functional behaviour of time-based, interactive 3D, multimedia information. ISO/IEC 19775-1:2013 does not define physical devices or any other implementation-dependent concepts (e.g. screen resolution and input devices). It is intended for a wide variety of devices and applications, and provides wide latitude in interpretation and implementation of the functionality. For example, it does not assume the existence of a mouse or 2D display device. Each X3D application: implicitly establishes a world coordinate space for all objects defined, as well as all objects included by the application; explicitly defines and composes a set of 3D and multimedia objects; can specify hyperlinks to other files and applications; can define programmatic or data-driven object behaviours; can connect to external modules or applications via programming and scripting languages; explicitly declares its functional requirements by specifying a profile; can declare additional functional requirements by specifying components.

  • Standard
    50 pages
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ISO/IEC 9973:2013 specifies procedures to be followed in preparing, maintaining and publishing the International Register of Items for any standard whose classes of items are applicable to this register. The items that may be registered fall into several broad categories including: computer graphics concepts, data structures used by relevant standards, spatial and environmental concepts, and profiles of relevant standards.

  • Standard
    29 pages
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  • Standard
    3 pages
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ISO/IEC 18026:2009 specifies the Spatial Reference Model (SRM) defining relevant aspects of spatial positioning and related information processing. The SRM allows precise and unambiguous specification of geometric properties such as position (location), direction, and distance. The SRM addresses the needs of a broad community of users, who have a range of accuracy and performance requirements in computationally intensive applications. Aspects of ISO/IEC 18026:2009 apply to, but are not limited to: mapping, charting, geodesy, and imagery; topography; location-based services; oceanography; meteorology and climatology; interplanetary and planetary sciences; embedded systems; and modelling and simulation. The application program interface supports more than 30 forms of position representation. To ensure that spatial operations are performed consistently, the application program interface specifies conversion operations with functionality defined to ensure high precision transformation between alternative representations of geometric properties. ISO/IEC 18026:2009 is not intended to replace the standards and specifications developed by ISO/TC 211, ISO/TC 184, the International Astronomical Union (IAU), and the International Association of Geodesy (IAG). It is applicable to applications whose spatial information requirements overlap two or more of the application areas that are the scope of the work of ISO/TC 211, ISO/TC 184, the IAU, and the IAG.

  • Standard
    519 pages
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For integration into a programming language, the X3D abstract interfaces are embedded in a language-dependent layer obeying the particular conventions of that language. ISO/IEC 19777-1:2006 specifies such a language dependent layer for the ECMAScript language. ISO/IEC 19775-2 specifies a language-independent application programmer interface (API) to a set of services and functions.

  • Standard
    3 pages
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The Extensible 3D (X3D) specification, ISO/IEC 19775, specifies a language-independent application programmer interface (API) to a set of services and functions. For integration into a programming language, the X3D abstract interfaces are embedded in a language dependent layer obeying the particular conventions of that language. ISO/IEC 19777-2:2006 specifies such a language-dependent layer for the Java programming language.

  • Standard
    3 pages
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ISO/IEC 15948:2004 specifies a datastream and an associated file format, Portable Network Graphics (PNG, pronounced "ping"), for a lossless, portable, compressed individual computer graphics image transmitted across the Internet. Indexed-colour, greyscale, and truecolour images are supported, with optional transparency. Sample depths range from 1 to 16 bits. PNG is fully streamable with a progressive display option. It is robust, providing both full file integrity checking and simple detection of common transmission errors. PNG can store gamma and chromaticity data as well as a full ICC colour profile for accurate colour matching on heterogenous platforms. ISO/IEC 15948:2004 defines the Internet Media type "image/png". The datastream and associated file format have value outside of the main design goal.

  • Standard
    80 pages
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This part of ISO/IEC 8632 specifies a binary encoding of the Computer Graphics Metafile. For each of the elements specified in ISO/IEC 8632-1, this part specifies an encoding in terms of data types. For each of these data types, an explicit representation in terms of bits, octets and words is specified. For some data types, the exact representation is a function of the precisions being used in the metafile, as recorded in the Metafile Descriptor. This encoding of the Computer Graphics Metafile will, in many circumstances, minimize the effort required to generate and interpret the metafile.

  • Standard
    68 pages
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ISO/IEC 8632 provides a file format suitable for the storage and retrieval of picture description information. The file format consists of an ordered set of elements that may be used to describe pictures in a way that is compatible between systems of different architectures, compatible with devices of differing capabilities and design, and meaningful to application constituencies. This picture description includes the capability for describing static images. The elements specified provide for the representation of a wide range of pictures on a wide range of graphical devices. The elements are organized into groups that delimit major structures (metafiles, pictures, and application structures), that specify the representations used within the metafile, that control the display of the picture, that perform basic drawing actions, that control the attributes of the basic drawing actions, that allow application-specific structuring to be overlaid on the graphical content, and that provide access to non-standard device capabilities. The metafile is defined in such a way that, in addition to sequential access to the whole metafile, random access to individual pictures and individual context-independent application structures is well-defined. Applications which require random access to pictures and/or context-independent application structures within pictures may, within the metafile, define directories to these pictures and/or context-independent application structures. The metafile may then be opened and randomly accessed without interpreting the entire metafile. In addition to a functional specification, two standard encodings of the metafile syntax are specified. These encodings address the needs of applications that require small metafile size plus minimum effort to generate and interpret, and maximum flexibility for a human reader or editor of the metafile. This part of ISO/IEC 8632 describes the format using an abstract syntax. The remaining parts of ISO 8632 specify standardized encodings that conform to this syntax: ISO/IEC 8632-3 specifies a binary encoding; ISO/IEC 8632-4 specifies a clear text encoding.

  • Standard
    449 pages
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  • Standard
    449 pages
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This part of ISO/IEC 8632 specifies a clear text encoding of the Computer Graphics Metafile. For each of the elements specified in ISO/IEC 8632-1, a clear text encoding is specified. Allowed abbreviations are specified. The overall format of the metafile and the means by which comments may be interspersed in the metafile is specified. This encoding of the CGM allows metafiles to be created and maintained in a form which is simple to type, easy to edit and convenient to read.

  • Standard
    50 pages
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This part of ISO/IEC 7942 provides a file format for capturing the sequence of GKS functions and their parameters invoked by an application, for subsequent playback.Â

  • Standard
    38 pages
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ISO/IEC 14478 specifies techniques for supporting interactive Single, and multiple media applications which recognize and emphasize the interrelationships among user interfaces, multimedia applications, and multimedia information interchange. ISO/IEC 14478 defines a flexible environment to encompass modular functionality and is extensible through the creation of future components, both within and outside of Standards committees. It supports a wide range of multimedia applications in a consistent way, from simple drawings up to full motion Video, Sound, and virtual reality environments. ISO/IEC 14478 is independent of any particular implementation language, development environment, or execution environment. For integration into a programming environment, the Standard shall be embedded in a System dependent interface following the particular conventions of that environment. ISO/IEC 14478 provides versatile packaging techniques beyond the capabilities of monolithic Single-media Systems. This allows rearranging and extending functionality to satisfy requirements specific to particular application areas. ISO/IEC 14478 is developed incrementally with Parts 1 through 4 initially available. Other components are expected to be standardized by ISO/IEC JTC 1 SC24 or other subcommittees. ISO/IEC 14478 provides a framework within which application-defined ways of interacting with the environment tan be integrated. Methods for the definition, presentation, and manipulation of both input and output objects are described. Applicationsupplied structuring of objects is also allowed and tan, for example, be used as a basis for the development of toolkits for the creation of, presentation of, and interaction with multimedia and hyper-media documents and product model data. ISO/IEC 14478 is able to support construction, presentation, and interaction with multiple simultaneous inputs and Outputs using multiple media. Several such activities may occur simultaneously, and the application program tan adapt its behaviour to make best use of the capabilities of its environment. ISO/IEC 14478 includes interfaces for external storage, retrieval and interchange of multimedia objects.

  • Standard
    36 pages
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This part of ISO/IEC 14478 defines a standard set of multimedia system services that can be used by multimedia application de­velopers in a variety of computing environments. The focus is on enabling multimedia applications in a heterogeneous, distrib­uted computing environment. Throughout this part of ISO/IEC 14478, this component will also be referred to as "Multimedia Systems Services", and abbreviated as MSS. The Multimedia Systems Services constitutes a framework of "middleware" - system software components lying in the region between the generic operating system and specific applications. As middleware, the Multimedia Systems Services marshals low­er-level system resources to the task of supporting multimedia processing, providing a set of common services which can be used by multimedia application developers. The Multimedia Systems Services encompasses the following characteristics: a) provision of an abstract type for a media processing node, extensible through subtyping to support abstractions of real media processing hardware or software; b) provision of an abstract type for the data flow path or the connection between media processing nodes, encapsulating low-level connection and transport semantics; c) grouping of multiple processing nodes and connections into a single unit for purposes of resource reservation and stream control; d) provision or a media dataflow abstraction. with support for a variety of position, time and/or synchronization capabili­ties; e) separation of the media format abstractions from the dataflow abstraction; f) synchronous exceptions and asynchronous events; g) application visible characterization of object capabilities; h) registration of objects in a distributed environment by location and capabilities; i) retrieval of objects in a distributed environment by location and constraints; j) definition of a Media Stream Protocol to support media independent transport and synchronization. The Multimedia Systems Services rely on the object model of ISO/IEC 14478-1 (Fundamentals of PREMO) and the object types and non-object data types defined in TSO/IEC 14478-2 (PREMO Foundation Component).

  • Standard
    74 pages
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This part of ISO/IEC 14478 describes a set of Object types and non-Object types to provide the construction of, presentation of, and the interaction with Multimedia information. The multimedia information tan be graphics, Video, audio, or other types of presentable media. This information tan be enhanced by time aspects. Throughout this document this part of ISO/IEC 14478 will also be referred to as "Modelling, Rendering and Interaction", and abbreviated as MRI. The Modelling, Rendering and Interaction Component constitutes a framework of ?Middleware', System Software components lying between the generic operating System and computing environment, and a specific application operating as a client of the Services and type definitions provided by this component. It provides a framework over the foundation objects and multimedia Systems Services defined in other Parts of the international Standard for the development of a distributed and heterogeneous network of devices for creating multimedia models, rendering these models, and interacting with this process. The Modelling, Rendering and Interaction Component encompasses the following characteristics: a) Provision of a hierarchy of multimedia primitives as an abstract framework for describing the capabilities of modelling and rendering devices, and for enabling their interoperation; b) within the primitive hierarchy, specific Provision for describing the temporal structure of multimedia data through the stepwise construction of structured primitives from component data; c) Provision of abstract types for modelers, renderers and other supporting devices, enabling the integration of such devices or any future subtypes representing real Software or hardware, into a processing network of such devices; d) provision of an Object type to map synchronization requirements expressed within multimedia primitives into control of the stream and synchronization mechanisms provided by ISO/IEC 14478-2 and ISO/IEC 14478-3. The Modelling, Rendering and Interaction Component relies on the Object types and Services defined in PREMO Part 2: Foundation Components (ISO/IEC 1447%2), and PREMO Part 3: Multimedia Systems Services (ISO/IEC 14478-3).

  • Standard
    71 pages
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Adds a lot of new clauses and subclauses and replaces the wording of some clauses and subclauses of ISO/IEC 12087 3:1995.

  • Standard
    78 pages
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Le système graphique GKS, ISO 7942:1994, spécifie un noyau graphique indépendant du langage. Pour être intégré dans un langage de programmation, GKS est inclus dans une couche dépendante du langage et obéissant aux conventions particulières de ce langage. La présente partie de l'ISO/CEI 8651 spécifie une couche dépendante du langage pour le langage C.

  • Standard
    339 pages
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Specifies a language independent nucleus of a graphics system. Describes the FORTRAN language dependent layer.

  • Standard
    149 pages
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Concerns with the manipulation, processing, and interchange of all types of digital images. Defines a generic, unifying imaging architecture. Also defines those specializations or delineations of the generic imaging architecture that are required to support IPI-PIKS and IPI-IIF.

  • Standard
    69 pages
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The computer graphics interface (CGI) (ISO/IEC 9636) specifies a language independent standard interface between device-independent and device-dependent parts of a graphics system. For integration in a programming language, CGI is embedded in a language dependent layer obeying the particular conventions of that language. Specifies such a language dependent layer for the Ada programming language.

  • Standard
    361 pages
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Cancels and replaces the first edition (1985). Specifies a set of functions for computer graphics programming, the graphical kernel system. Provides functions for two dimensional graphical output, the storage and dynamic modification of pictures, and operator input. Applicabe to a wide range of applications that produce two dimensional pictures on vector or raster graphical devices in monochrome or colour.

  • Standard
    164 pages
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Establishes the specification of the application program interface (API), called the Programmer's Imaging Kernel System (PIKS). PIKS is intended to provide a rich set of both low-level and high-level services on image and image-derived data objects. These services can be used as building blocks for a broad range of common imaging applications. Lists are included containing a summary of technological capabilities provided by PIKS and not provided by PIKS. It should be noted that PIKS functionality may be useful as a pre-processor or co-processor for many of the technologies in the "Not provided by PIKS" list.

  • Standard
    865 pages
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Amends clauses 2, subclauses 3.1, 4.1.1, 4.1.2, 4.3.1, 4.3.2, annex B, replaces clause 1, annex A, adds clauses 6 (Tables for PHIGS PLUS), 7 (Functions in the Ada binding of PHIGS PLUS), C.6 (Example program 6: DODECAHEDRON), C.7 (Example program 7: TRIMMED SURFACE), annex E (Index).

  • Standard
    333 pages
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Amends Introduction, clauses 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, subclauses 3.1, 3.11.3, 3.12.2, 3.13, 4.2 (table 1), 4.3.1 (table 2), 4.3.2 (table 3), A.1, A.2, A.3, B.6, C.1, E.1, E.2, adds clauses 8 (C PHIGS PLUS type definitions) (8.1 to 8.4), 9 (C PHIGS PLUS macro definitions) (9.1 to 9.3), 10 (C PHIGS PLUS functions) (10.1 to 10.3).

  • Standard
    157 pages
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Specifies a character encoding of the computer graphics interface. For each of the functions specified in ISO/IEC 9636 an encoding is specified. The encoding provides a highly compact representation of the data, suitable for applications that require the data to be of minimum size and suitable for transmission with character-oriented transmission services.

  • Standard
    63 pages
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Specifies a general framework addressing the following six components: conformance in the standard itself; test requirements document (defining what shall be tested for a computer graphics standard); test specifications document (addressing the test technique and the content of each test); test method (defining the implementation of the test specification document, including the test software); test procedures (defining the application of the test software, which consists of the procedures to be used in conformance testing); the establishment of test services. Is applicable to all standards within the scope of the ISO/IEC JTC1 subcommittee responsible for computer graphics and image processing.

  • Standard
    27 pages
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For each of the function syntaxes in clauses 5 and 6 of ISO/IEC 9636-2 to 9636-6, an encoding is specified in terms of an opcode and a sequence of parameters of specified data types. For each of these data types, an explicit representation in terms of bits, 8-bit and 16-bit entities is specified. This binary encoding will, in many circumstances, reduce the effort required to generate and interpret the data stream as compared to other encodings.

  • Standard
    71 pages
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Defines a set of concepts and their inter-relationships which should be applicable to the complete range of future computer graphics standard. May be applied to verify and refine requirements for computer graphics; to identify needs for computer graphics standards and external interfaces; to develop models based on requirements for computer graphics; to define the architecture of new computer graphics standards; compare computer graphics standards.

  • Standard
    35 pages
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Describes those functions of the interface concerned with virtual device management, coordinate space control, and error control. Annexes A and B form an integral part of this standard. Annex C is for information only.

  • Standard
    44 pages
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Describes those functions of the interface concerned with output primitives and associated attributes and controls for creating graphical pictures. Annexes A and B form an integral part of this standard. Annexes C, D, E, F, G and H are for information only.

  • Standard
    149 pages
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Defines those functions of the interface concerned with the creation, modification, and manipulation of graphic pictures using segments. Annexes A and B form an integral part of this standard. Annexes C and D are for information only.

  • Standard
    41 pages
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Includes a reference model, the relationship to other standards, and profiles. Establishes the framework for all the parts of ISO/IEC 9636. Does not contain functional descriptions.

  • Standard
    81 pages
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