This document provides both general and specific ergonomic requirements and recommendations for accessible tactile/haptic interactive systems, including accessible tactile/haptic interactions. This document provides guidance for increasing the accessibility of interactive systems making use of tactile/haptic input/output modalities such as gestures, vibration, and force feedback. The guidance provided also supports alternative input modalities and the use of different output representations. This document provides guidance for tactile/haptic interactions that is applicable to a variety of interactive systems, including assistive technologies (AT).

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This document describes the different parts of the ISO 11064 series. The overall content of each of the parts is presented, the most likely users of that part and the relevance of each part to different stages in the control room design process.

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This document addresses: — physically embodied RIA systems, such as robots and autonomous vehicles with which users will physically interact; — systems embedded within the physical environment with which users do not consciously interact, but which collect data and/or modify the environment within which people live or work such as smart building and, mood-detection; — intelligent software tools and agents with which users actively interact through some form of user interface; — intelligent software agents which act without active user input to modify or tailor the systems to the user's behaviour, task or some other purpose, including providing context specific content/information, tailoring adverts to a user based on information about them, user interfaces that adapt to the cognitive or physiological state, "ambient intelligence"; — the effect on users resulting from the combined interaction of several RIA systems such as conflicting behaviours between the RIA systems under the same circumstances; — the complex system-of-systems and sociotechnical impacts of the use of RIA systems, particularly on society and government. This document is not an exploration of the philosophical, ethical or political issues surrounding robotics, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and intelligent machines or environments. For matters of ethics and political issues, see standards such as BS 8611 and IEC P7000. However, this document does identify where and why ethical issues need to be taken into account for a wide range of systems and contexts, and as such it provides information relevant to the broader debate regarding RIA systems. This document has a broader focus than much of the early work on autonomy that relates to the automation of control tasks and mechanization of repetitive physical or cognitive tasks, and centres on levels of automation. Although this document addresses a wide range of technology applications, and sector and stakeholder views on the issues, the treatment of each can be incomplete due to the diverse and increasingly varied applications of RIA systems.

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This document is intended to provide guidance in the use of anthropometric data within the ISO 9241-500 series.

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This document describes principles for interaction between a user and a system that are formulated in general terms (i.e. independent of situations of use, application, environment or technology). This document provides a framework for applying those interaction principles and the general design recommendations for interactive systems. While this document is applicable to all types of interactive systems, it does not cover the specifics of every application domain (e.g. safety critical systems, collaborative work, artificial intelligence features). It is intended for the following audiences: — analysts of requirements (including market requirements, user requirements, and system requirements); — designers of user interface development tools and style guides to be used by user interface designers and developers; — designers of user interfaces who will apply the guidance during the design activities (either directly, based on training, or by using tools and style guides which incorporate the guidance); — developers who will apply the guidance during the development process; — evaluators who are responsible for ensuring that products meet the general design recommendations contained in this document; — buyers who will reference this document in contracts during product procurement. This document focuses on interaction principles related to the design of interactions between user and interactive system. ISO 9241-112 provides further guidance on the presentation of information. This document does not consider any other aspect of design such as marketing, aesthetics and corporate identity.

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This document establishes the requirements and recommendations for image contents and electronic display systems to reduce visually induced motion sickness (VIMS), while viewing images on electronic displays. This document is applicable to electronic display systems, including flat panel displays, projectors with a screen, and virtual reality (VR) type of head mounted displays (HMDs), but not including HMDs that present electronic images on/with real-world scenes. NOTE 1 This document assumes the images are viewed under appropriate defined conditions. See Annex B for the appropriate viewing conditions. NOTE 2 This document is useful for the design, development, and supply of image contents, as well as electronic displays for reducing VIMS. NOTE 3 ISO 9241‑392[3] provides guidelines for stereoscopic 3D displays, of which the methods are also used in HMDs. NOTE 4 The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) generally sets the standards for broadcasting.

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This document gives the scientific summaries of visually induced motion sickness resulting from images presented visually on or by electronic display devices. Electronic displays include flat panel displays, electronic projections on a flat screen, and head-mounted displays. Different aspects of human-system interaction are covered in other parts of the ISO 9241 series (see Annex A).

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This document specifies the methods to improve accessibility of the visual display on small consumer products in order to minimize inconveniences that a variety of users including people with disabilities and the elderly can experience while using those products. In particular, this document focusses on how to present information on small visual displays to make the product more accessible for older people and people with low vision or colour deficiency. The provision of different modalities or alternative ways of displaying information to make the product more accessible is not covered in this document. This document only covers accessibility with regard to visual presentation of information, not audio or tactile-based display methods. NOTE 1 Accessibility of a product can be enhanced by adopting alternative means to the visual presentation of the information, which is not covered in this document. For information about alternative forms of presentation, ISO/IEC Guide 71, ISO 9241‑112 and ISO 9241‑171 can be useful. NOTE 2 A comprehensive catalogue of accessibility needs and strategies for accommodation for all users (not only those with visual impairments) is out of scope for this document. Readers interested in this regard can refer to ISO/IEC 29138‑1. This document applies to various consumer products equipped with digital displays, in which the information about operation of the product is visually presented. The products are usually equipped with built-in display panels. The consumer products include those hand-held products that can be easily carried by the user or those that are not portable but equipped with small displays, though the size of the product or the display is not specified in this document. NOTE 3 This document focusses on the accessibility of small displays, regardless of the size of the consumer product. NOTE 4 Examples include, but are not limited to, electronic thermometers, digital cameras, air-conditioning systems, remote controllers. This document is not applicable to those products with high flexibility or adjustability in presenting information on the display. Some examples are web- or application-based displays of ICT devices such as smart phones, smart TVs, and tablet PCs. It is not applicable to touch-based displays that have both the functions of display and control. Some examples are touch interfaces of smart watches or digital cameras. Finally, accessibility issues relating to indicating lamps/lights used for simple alerts or alarm are covered in ISO 24550 and are not considered in this document. NOTE 5 There are many accessibility issues in the touch interface related to information presentation as well as control function and they need to be dealt with together. It is possible that some guidance of this document is not applicable to some products, such as oral or ear thermometers, which have extremely small in-built displays.

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This document defines design principles of accessibility for controls of consumer products, so that users from a population with the widest range of user needs, characteristics and capabilities are able to use controls to operate and control consumer products in the same manner and ease as users without disabilities. This document is applicable to all kinds and types of consumer products. This document is applicable to the controls for common main operations of consumer products such as initiation, termination, and cancellation of operation, as well as for specified functions necessary for more detailed operations and fine adjustment. This document does not deal with controls for some specialized devices intended only for specified user populations and tasks, e.g. assistive and medical devices. Each design consideration in this document is based on ergonomic principles that are necessary for making the controls of consumer products accessible to a wider range of users.

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This document provides an overview of recent research on readability of electrophoretic displays. It also provides information for evaluating readability of electrophoretic displays and defining the context of their use.

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This document provides guidance for the auditory presentation of information controlled by software, irrespective of the device. It includes specific properties such as the syntactic or semantic aspects of information, e.g. coding techniques, and gives provisions for the organization of information taking account of human perception and memory capabilities. This document does not address the hardware issues of the transmission and the production of auditory information. NOTE 1 Volume is dependent on hardware and thus cannot always be absolutely controlled by software. Environmental conditions can also affect the ability for sounds to be perceived, which can be beyond the ability of the software to take into account. This document does not apply to auditory alarms, warnings or other safety-related uses of auditory information. NOTE 2 Safety-related uses of auditory presentation of information are covered in various domain specific standards, such as ISO 7731:2003 which deals with auditory danger signals for public and work areas, and IEC 60601-1-8:2006 which provides very specific requirements for auditory alarms for medical devices. While this document applies to the presentation of all non-safety-related information, it does not include application domain specific guidance (e.g., audio instructions for consumer products). This document can be utilized throughout the design process (e.g. as specification and guidance for designers during design or as a basis for heuristic evaluation). Its provisions for the presentation of information depend on the auditory design approach, the task, the user, the environment and the single or multiple technologies that can be used for presenting the information. Consequently, this document cannot be applied without knowledge of the context of use. It is not intended to be used as a prescriptive set of rules to be applied in its entirety but rather assumes that the designer has proper information available concerning task and user requirements and understands the use of available technology. This document does not address visual or tactile/haptic presentation of information or modality shifting for the presentation of auditory information in other modalities. NOTE 3 ISO 9241-112 provides high-level ergonomic guidance that applies to all modalities.

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This document specifies design requirements and recommendations for indicator lights, mainly LED sourced, on consumer products for use by older people and people with visual disabilities. It does not consider the needs of persons who are blind. Indicator lights include those that inform users visually about the conditions, changes in functional status and settings, and malfunction of products. They convey information by light on/off, time-modulated intensity, blinking, colour, luminance level, and layout. This document addresses household and home appliances. It excludes electronic displays presenting characters and graphics, machinery, and appliances in special use for professional, technical, and industrial applications.

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This document specifies ergonomic requirements and recommendations for consumer product spoken instructions that are provided to guide users in the operation of a product and/or as a means of providing feedback to users about the status/state of a product. Such instructions can be used by persons with or without visual impairments, and are useful for users who have difficulty reading and/or cognitive impairments. The applicability of the requirements and recommendations described in this document does not depend on the language of the instructions or whether the instructions are provided via recorded human speech or synthesized speech from text. The requirements and recommendations in this document are applicable to conventional, stand-alone consumer products in general, whose function is limited by characteristics that prevent a user from attaching, installing or using assistive technology in order to use the product. They are not applicable to machines and equipment used for professional work. This document does not apply to products for which the instructional content and/or the means of presentation are specified in other standards (e.g. medical devices, fire alarms). It also does not provide recommendations or requirements for spoken instructions of Interactive Voice Response (IVR) systems or digital assistants on personal computers or similar devices. NOTE ISO 9241‑154 provides recommendations or requirements for IVR systems. This document does not specify voice sounds of text-to-speech systems or narrative speech used in place of printed instruction manuals and independently from the product.

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This document provides a method for estimating minimum legible font size for single characters, but not for words or sentences, in self-luminous or reflected mode, used in documents, products labels, signs, and displays for people at any age and in any viewing condition in which viewing distance, luminance and contrast are varied. This document applies designing and evaluating legibility of single characters for people at any age who have no pathological disorders in their eyes, but not for people with visual impairments such as low vision. The application is specifically directed to, but not limited to, the cases of printed materials where fixed font size is used. Applicability of the method to other languages is given in Annex F.

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This document provides requirements and recommendations for human-centred design principles and activities throughout the life cycle of computer-based interactive systems. It is intended to be used by those managing design processes, and is concerned with ways in which both hardware and software components of interactive systems can enhance human?system interaction. NOTE Computer-based interactive systems vary in scale and complexity. Examples include off-the-shelf (shrink-wrap) software products, custom office systems, process control systems, automated banking systems, Web sites and applications, and consumer products such as vending machines, mobile phones and digital television. Throughout this document, such systems are generally referred to as products, systems or services although, for simplicity, sometimes only one term is used. This document provides an overview of human-centred design activities. It does not provide detailed coverage of the methods and techniques required for human-centred design, nor does it address health or safety aspects in detail. Although it addresses the planning and management of human-centred design, it does not address all aspects of project management. The information in this document is intended for use by those responsible for planning and managing projects that design and develop interactive systems. It therefore addresses technical human factors and ergonomics issues only to the extent necessary to allow such individuals to understand their relevance and importance in the design process as a whole. It also provides a framework for human factors and usability professionals involved in human-centred design. Detailed human factors/ergonomics, usability and accessibility issues are dealt with more fully in a number of standards including other parts of ISO 9241 (see Annex A) and ISO 6385, which sets out the broad principles of ergonomics. The requirements and recommendations in this document can benefit all parties involved in human-centred design and development. Annex B provides a checklist that can be used to support claims of conformance with this document.

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This document provides a framework and consistent terminology for specifying user requirements. It specifies the common industry format (CIF) for a user requirement specification including the content elements and the format for stating those requirements. NOTE 1 A user requirements specification is the formal documentation of a set of user requirements, which aids in the development and evaluation of usable interactive systems. In this document, user requirements refers to: a) user-system interaction requirements for achieving intended outcomes (including requirements for system outputs and their attributes); b) use-related quality requirements that specify the quality criteria associated with the outcomes of users interacting with the interactive system and can be used as criteria for system acceptance. NOTE 2 ISO/IEC 25030 introduces the concept of quality requirements. The use-related quality requirements in this document are a particular type of quality requirement. The content elements of a user requirements specification are intended to be used as part of documentation resulting from the activities specified in ISO 9241-210, and from human centred design processes, such as those in ISO 9241-220. This document is intended to be used by requirements engineers, business analysts, product managers, product owners, and people acquiring systems from third parties. The CIF series of standards addresses usability-related information (as described in ISO 9241-11 and ISO/IEC TR 25060). NOTE 3 In addition to usability, user requirements can include other perspectives, such as human-centred quality introduced in ISO 9241-220, and other quality perspectives presented in ISO/IEC 25010, ISO/IEC TS 25011, and ISO/IEC 25030. NOTE 4 While this document was developed for interactive systems, the guidance can also be applied in other domains. This document does not prescribe any kind of method, lifecycle or process. The content elements of a user requirements specification can be used in iterative development which includes the elaboration and evolution of requirements (e.g. as in agile development).

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This document describes the processes and specifies the outcomes by which human-centred design (HCD) is carried out within organizations. Human-centred design aims to meet requirements for human-centred quality (see Annex E) throughout the life cycle of interactive systems. The processes are described from the viewpoint of those responsible for the analysis, design and evaluation of the human use of interactive systems. The process descriptions include the purpose, benefits, outcomes, typical activities and work products for each process, and are for use in the specification, implementation, assessment and improvement of the activities used for human-centred design and operation in any type of system life cycle. They can also provide the basis for professional development and certification. The processes are associated with the domains of ergonomics/human factors, human?computer interaction, usability and user experience. This document does not include specific methods for human-centred design, nor does it describe processes for organizational redesign. The scope of this document does not include other aspects of ergonomics, which include the design of organizations as well as systems for human use, and which extend beyond the domain of design; for example in the forensic analysis of the causes of accidents and in the generation of data and methods of measurement. NOTE 1 ISO/TS 18152 is a related standard with a broader scope than this document. It includes the organizational processes for the identification and handling of issues related to both users and other stakeholders. The intended application of this document is computer-based interactive systems. While the processes apply to interactive systems that deliver services, they do not cover the design of those services. The relevant aspects of the processes can also be applied to simple or non-computer?based interactive systems. NOTE 2 Human-centred design concentrates on the human-centred aspects of design and not on other aspects of design such as mechanical construction, programming or the basic design of services. The process descriptions in this document provide the basis for a rigorous assessment of an enterprise's capability to carry out human-centred processes in compliance with the ISO/IEC 33000 family of standards. This document is intended for use by organizations that want to address and improve their treatment of human-centred design of either their internal systems or the products and services they provide, and the procurement of systems and parts of systems. The processes can be applied by small- and medium-sized enterprises as well as by large organizations. Copyright release for the process descriptions Users of this document may freely reproduce the process descriptions contained in Clause 9 as part of any process assessment model, or as part of any demonstration of compatibility with this document, so that it can be used for its intended purpose.

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This document provides design guidelines and requirements for tactile symbols and characters used for information and marking for people who need non-visual or non-auditory information. It is applicable to products, facilities and equipment in housing and transportation, services and packaging, where tactile symbols and characters may be used. This document specifies the physical characteristics of tactile symbols and characters for ease of legibility by touch taking into account human abilities of tactile sense and their aging effect. It does not specify semantic characteristics of tactile symbols and characters. This document is applicable to tactile symbols and characters of convex-type touched by fingers. It is not applicable to specifically coded tactile symbols or characters such as those of Braille, nor to those with vibratory or temporal changes.

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This document specifies ergonomic principles which apply to the user requirements, design, and procurement of the physical equipment and environment, which contribute to the context of use of interactive systems. It provides requirements, recommendations and explanations related to these principles. In particular, the general principles and requirements specified in this document apply to the standards specifying functional design of furniture and equipment constituting the environment. The principles specified in this document utilize ergonomic knowledge (from the disciplines anthropometry, acoustics, vision, thermal environments, indoor air quality, mechanical vibrations, etc.) to design and evaluate environments that enhance usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction), accessibility, performance and well-being for organized and non-organized use of interactive systems. The intended users of this document include: — developers of systems, products and services; — public and corporate purchasers; — occupational health and safety professionals; — architects and interior designers; — human resource professionals; — usability/ergonomics/human factors professionals.

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This document establishes optical, geometrical and visual inspection methods for the assessment of a display in various contexts of use according to ISO 9241‑303.

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ISO 9241-11:2018 provides a framework for understanding the concept of usability and applying it to situations where people use interactive systems, and other types of systems (including built environments), and products (including industrial and consumer products) and services (including technical and personal services). NOTE In this document, the phrase "object of interest" refers to the system, product or service for which usability is being considered (see 8.1). ISO 9241-11:2018: - explains that usability is an outcome of use; - defines key terms and concepts; - identifies the fundamentals of usability; and - explains the application of the concept of usability. ISO 9241-11:2018 does not describe specific processes or methods for taking account of usability in design development or evaluation. The intended users of this document include: - usability/ergonomics/human factors professionals; - designers and developers of systems, products and services; - quality assurance personnel; - public and corporate purchasers; and - consumer organizations. The most common applications of this document are in design and evaluation.

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ISO 9241-940:2017 - describes the types of methods that can be used for the evaluation of haptic devices and of systems that include haptic devices, - specifies a procedure for the evaluation of haptic interactions by a usability walkthrough or usability test (see Annex J), and - provides guidance on the types of methods that are appropriate for the evaluation of specific attributes of haptic systems, cross-referenced to the guidance in the relevant clauses of other International Standards (see Annexes A, B, C, D, E, F and G). It applies to the following types of interaction: - augmented reality - information overlaid on a real scene, e.g. vibrating belt indicating distance; - gesture control of a device or a virtual scenario; - unidirectional interaction such as a vibrating phone or a vibrating belt; - virtual environment - virtual space with which a user can interact with the aid of a haptic device. ISO 9241-940:2017 applies to the following types of devices: - gesture sensor, e.g. video that discerns 3D hand movements, touch screens that sense 2D touches; - kinaesthetic haptic device, e.g. desktop haptic interface; - tactile display, e.g. vibrating phone. ISO 9241-940:2017 is not applicable to standard input devices such as keyboards, mice or track balls. NOTE ISO 9241‑400 covers standard input devices, and ISO 9241‑411 applies to the evaluation of input devices such as keyboards and mice. ISO 9241-940:2017 can be used to identify the types of methods and measures for - establishing benchmarks, - establishing requirements for haptic interaction, - identifying problems with haptic interaction (formative evaluation), and - use of the criteria to establish whether a haptic system meets requirements (summative evaluation).

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ISO 9241-960:2017 gives guidance on the selection or creation of the gestures to be used in a gesture interface. It addresses the usability of gestures and provides information on their design, the design process and relevant parameters that are to be considered. In addition, it provides guidance on how gestures should be documented. This document is concerned with gestures expressed by a human and not with the system response generated when users are performing these gestures. NOTE 1 Specific gestures are standardized within ISO/IEC 14754 and the ISO/IEC 30113 series. NOTE 2 Input devices such as tablets or spatial gesture recognition devices can capture gestures in 2D or 3D. All human gestures are 3D.

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ISO 9241-125:2017 provides guidance for the visual presentation of information controlled by software, irrespective of the device. It includes specific properties such as the syntactic or semantic aspects of information, e.g. coding techniques, and gives provisions for the organization of information taking account of human perception and memory capabilities. Those of its provisions that do not apply to specific types of visual interfaces clearly indicate any limitations to their applicability. It does not address specific details of charts, graphs or information visualization. ISO 9241-125:2017 can be utilized throughout the design process (e.g. as specification and guidance for designers during design or as a basis for heuristic evaluation). Its provisions for the presentation of information depend upon the visual design approach, the task, the user, the environment and the single or multiple technologies that might be used for presenting the information. Consequently, this document cannot be applied without knowledge of the context of use. It is not intended to be used as a prescriptive set of rules to be applied in its entirety but rather assumes that the designer has proper information available concerning task and user requirements and understands the use of available technology. Some of the provisions of this document are based on Latin-based language usage and might not apply, or might need to be modified, for use with languages that use other alphabets. In applying those that assume a specific language base (e.g. alphabetic ordering of coding information, items in a list), it is important that care is taken to follow its intent of the standard when translation is required to a different language. ISO 9241-125:2017 does not address auditory or tactile/haptic presentation of information or modality shifting for the presentation of visual information in other modalities. NOTE ISO 9241‑112 provides high-level ergonomic guidance that applies to all modalities.

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ISO 9241-333:2017 specifies ergonomic requirements for stereoscopic displays using glasses designed to produce or facilitate binocular parallax. These requirements are stated as performance specifications, aimed at ensuring effective and comfortable viewing conditions for users, and at reducing visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic images on stereoscopic display using glasses. Test methods and metrology, yielding conformance measurements and criteria, are provided for design evaluation. See Annex B for measurement procedures. ISO 9241-333:2017 is applicable to temporally or spatially interlaced types of display. These are implemented by flat-panel displays, projection displays, etc. Stereoscopic displays using glasses can be applied to many contexts of use. However, this document focuses on business and home leisure applications (i.e. observing moving images, games, etc.). Only dark environments are specified in this document. For technical explanation of display technologies, see Annex C.

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ISO 9241-112:2017 establishes ergonomic design principles for interactive systems related to the software-controlled presentation of information by user interfaces. It applies to the three main modalities (visual, auditory, tactile/haptic) typically used in information and communication technology. These principles apply to the perception and understanding of presented information. These principles are applicable in the analysis, design, and evaluation of interactive systems. This document also provides recommendations corresponding to the principles. The recommendations for each of the principles are not exhaustive and are not necessarily independent from one another. While this document is applicable to all types of interactive systems, it does not cover the specifics of particular application domains. This document also applies to outputs from interactive systems (such as printed documents, e.g. invoices). The guidance in this document for presenting information is aimed at helping the user to accomplish tasks. This guidance is not aimed at the presentation of information for other reasons (e.g. corporate branding or advertising). It is intended for the following types of users: - user interface designers, who will apply the guidance during the development process; - developers, who will apply the guidance during design and implementation of system functionality; - evaluators, who are responsible for ensuring that products meet the recommendations; - designers of user interface development tools and style guides to be used by user interface designers; - project managers, who are responsible for managing development processes; - buyers, who will reference this document during product procurement.

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ISO 9241-161:2016 describes visual user-interface elements presented by software and provides requirements and recommendations on when and how to use them. This part of ISO 9241 is concerned with software components of interactive systems to make human-system interaction usable as far as the basic interaction aspects are concerned. ISO 9241-161:2016 provides a comprehensive list of generic visual user-interface elements, regardless of a specific input method, visualization, and platform or implementation technology. The guidance given in this part of ISO 9241 is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 9241 guidance on dialogue techniques. It recognizes that additional elements can evolve. It also addresses derivates, compositions (assemblies) and states of user-interface elements. It gives requirements and recommendations on selection, usage and dependencies of user-interface elements and their application. It is applicable regardless of a fixed, portable or mobile interactive system. It does not provide detailed coverage of the methods and techniques required for design of user-interface elements. This part of ISO 9241 does not address implementation (e.g. graphical design of elements) and interaction details for specific input methods or technologies. It does not cover decorative user-interface elements that are intended to address solely aesthetic (hedonic) qualities in the user interface, e.g. background images. The information in this part of ISO 9241 is intended for use by those responsible for the selection and implementation of visual user-interface elements in interactive systems and for evaluating user interfaces. It is intended for use by those planning and managing platform specific aspects of user interface screen design. It also provides guidance for human factors/ergonomics and usability professionals involved in human-centred design. It addresses technical issues only to the extent necessary to allow users of this part of ISO 9241 to understand the relevance and importance of a consistent interface element usage and selection in the design process as a whole. Annex A provides a guide to selection of different visual user interface elements depending of their appropriate application.

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ISO 9241-391:2016 provides requirements and recommendations for reducing photosensitive seizures (PSS), while viewing images on electronic displays. The requirements and recommendations in this part of ISO 9241 are designed to be applied to image contents. By image contents, reference is made to the images independent of the device or environment in which they are displayed. The requirements and recommendations in this part of ISO 9241 are for the protection of the vulnerable individuals in the viewing population who are photosensitive and who are therefore liable to seizures triggered by flashing lights and regular patterns, including certain repetitive images. NOTE 1 ITU considers the image safety issues in relation to broadcasting. Some of these are described in ITU-R BT.1702.[2] NOTE 2 There are some related recommendations in ISO/IEC 40500:2012, W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0, for web contents accessibility. NOTE 3 Photosensitive seizures and photosensitive epilepsy, that is, chronic conditions characterized by those repeated seizures are medical conditions. Clinical aspects of photosensitivity appear in Annex C. Visually induced seizures are equivalent to PSS.

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ISO/TR 20278:2015 provides users a summary of the existing knowledge about ergonomics requirements for unwanted reflections on electronic displays. The document furthermore provides some guidance on specification of unwanted reflections. NOTE ISO 9241 contains normative requirements related to unwanted reflections. It is possible that the information contained in this Technical Report will be used for a future update of ISO 9241.

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ISO 9241-392:2015 establishes recommendations for reducing the potential visual discomfort and visual fatigue experienced during viewing of stereoscopic images under defined viewing conditions. Visual fatigue and discomfort might be produced by the stereoscopic optical stimulus of disparate images that were presented binocularly. ISO 9241-392:2015 is also applicable to the final products of stereoscopic presentations which depend on stereoscopic image content and stereoscopic displays when viewed under appropriate defined conditions. Therefore, the recommendations are intended for people responsible for the design, development, and supply of stereoscopic image content as well as stereoscopic displays. NOTE 1 See Annex B for appropriate viewing conditions. The recommendations in this part of ISO 9241 are applicable to stereoscopic displays such as those with glasses and two-view autostereoscopic displays, stereoscopic head-mounted displays, and stereoscopic projectors. Moreover, they are applicable to stereoscopic image content intended to be presented on the above-mentioned stereoscopic displays and stereoscopic presentations that are realized by the combinations of these images and displays. NOTE 2 Annex C presents numerical criteria as an informative reference. NOTE 3 Other guidance might need to be established by referring to this part of ISO 9241 when requirements and recommendations specific to each type of stereoscopic image content or stereoscopic display become necessary. NOTE 4 ITU generally sets the standards for broadcasting. NOTE 5 ISO 9241‑303:2011, Annex E provides guidelines for virtual displays which are intended for stereoscopic head-mounted displays.

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ISO 11064-4:2013 specifies ergonomic principles, recommendations and requirements for the design of workstations found in control centres. It covers control workstation design with particular emphasis on layout and dimensions. It is applicable primarily to seated, visual-display-based workstations, although control workstations at which operators stand are also addressed. These different types of control workstation are to be found in applications such as transportation control, process control and security installations. Most of these workstations now incorporate flat-display screens for the presentation of information.

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ISO/TS 20282:2013 specifies a user-based summative test method for the measurement of the usability and/or accessibility of consumer products and products for public use (including walk-up-and-use products) for one or more specific user groups. This test method treats accessibility as a special case of usability where the users taking part in the test represent the extremes of the range of characteristics and capabilities within the general user population. When the test method refers to usability, the method can also be used to test accessibility (unless otherwise specified).

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ISO 9241-154:2013 gives guidance on, and requirements for, the user interface design of interactive voice response (IVR) applications. It covers both IVR systems that employ touchtone input and those using automated speech recognition (ASR) as the input mechanism. It is equally applicable to cases in which the caller or the IVR system itself (e.g. in some telemarketing applications) initiates the call. It is intended to be used together with ISO/IEC 13714.

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1 Scope This part of ISO 9241 specifies evaluation methods for the design of physical input devices for interactive systems. It provides guidance for the laboratory assessment of conformance with ISO 9241-410 for keyboards, mice, pucks, joysticks, trackballs, touch pads, tablets/overlays, touch-sensitive screens, and styli/light pens. Its provisions apply only to keyboards identified as "full-size" or "compact" by the manufacturer, but nevertheless could provide useful guidance in the design of other keyboards. It is not applicable to those of the requirements of ISO 9241-410 that relate to gesture- and voice-input systems.

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ISO/TR 9241-331:2012 establishes an ergonomic point of view for the optical properties of autostereoscopic displays (ASDs), with the aim of reducing visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic images on those displays. It gives terminology, performance characteristics and optical measurement methods for ASDs. It is applicable to spatially interlaced autostereoscopic displays (two-view, multi-view and integral displays) of the transmissive and emissive types. These can be implemented by flat-panel displays, projection displays, etc.

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ISO 9241-143:2012 provides requirements and recommendations for the design and evaluation of forms, in which the user fills-in, selects entries for or modifies labelled fields on a "form" or dialogue box presented by the system. Often the system then creates or updates the data associated with the form. Form-based entries typically are in the form of typed input (abbreviations, or full names) or selections from available option lists. ISO 9241-143:2012 is applicable to forms regardless of the modality in which they are rendered (visual, spatial, vocal); much of its guidance is based on a model of visual and spatial relationship. In addition, it specifies the use of non-text methods for providing forms entries (e.g. list boxes) and pertains to dialogue boxes which utilize form techniques. Guidance is provided on the selection and design of those user-interface elements relevant to forms. While it covers lists used to enter forms data, menus which are similar to lists are outside its scope (see ISO 9241‑14). It is not applicable to the hardware aspects of forms. The requirements and recommendations in ISO 9241-143:2012 are applicable throughout the development process (for example, as guidance for designers during design, as a basis for heuristic evaluation, as guidance for usability testing) and in the procurement process.

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ISO 9241-303:2011 establishes image-quality requirements, as well as providing guidelines, for electronic visual displays. These are given in the form of generic (independent of technology, task and environment) performance specifications and recommendations that will ensure effective and comfortable viewing conditions for users with normal or adjusted-to-normal eyesight.

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ISO 9241-420:2011 provides guidance for the selection of input devices for interactive systems, based on ergonomic factors, considering the limitations and capabilities of users and the specific tasks and context of use. It describes methods for selecting a device or a combination of devices for the task at hand. It can also be used for evaluating the acceptability of trade-offs under the existing conditions. The target users of ISO 9241-420:2011 are user organizations and systems integrators who tailor systems for a given context of use. It is applicable to the following input devices: keyboards, mice, pucks, joysticks, trackballs, trackpads, tablets and overlays, touch-sensitive screens, styli and light pens. It does not specify design requirements or give recommendations for those devices.

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ISO 9241-910:2011 provides a framework for understanding and communicating various aspects of tactile/haptic interaction. It defines terms, describes structures and models, and gives explanations related to the other parts of the ISO 9241 "900" subseries. It also provides guidance on how various forms of interaction can be applied to a variety of user tasks. It is applicable to all types of interactive systems making use of tactile/haptic devices and interactions. It does not address purely kinaesthetic interactions, such as gestures, although it might be useful for understanding such interactions.

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ISO 24503:2011 specifies requirements for the design of tactile dots and tactile bars for use on consumer products to improve accessibility for everyone, including older persons and persons with disabilities. ISO 24503:2011 is applicable to consumer products used by persons with visual disabilities, and in cases where visual information is not the primary sense used for accomplishing the task. Alternative tactile methods, such as texture and vibration, and other tactile symbols, such as triangles and squares, are not covered in ISO 24503:2011. Alternative feedback methods, such as in acoustic and visual modalities, are not covered in ISO 24503:2011.

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ISO 9241-129:2010 provides ergonomics guidance on individualization within interactive systems, including recommendations on where individualization might be appropriate or inappropriate and how to apply individualization. It focuses on individualization of the software user interface to support the needs of users as individuals or as members of a defined group. It does not recommend specific implementations of individualization mechanisms. It provides guidance on how the various aspects of individualization are made usable and accessible, but does not specify which individualizations are to be included within a system. (Individualizations depend on the specific context of use for which an interactive system is to be designed and/or used, and need to be developed for that specific context of use.) ISO 9241-129:2010 is not intended to be used in isolation. It deals only with individualization within the context of designing a complete software system. It is intended to be used with ISO 9241-110 and any other parts in the ISO 9241 series applicable to the design of the intended system. Some of its guidance can also be applied to hardware user interfaces and user interfaces that combine software and hardware.

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ISO/TR 9241-310:2010 provides a summary of existing knowledge on ergonomics requirements for pixel defects in electronic displays at the time of its publication. It also gives guidance on the specification of pixel defects, visibility thresholds and aesthetic requirements for pixel defects. It does not itself give requirements related to pixel defects, but it is envisaged that its information could be used in the revision of other parts in the ISO 9241 series.

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ISO/TS 18152:2010 presents a human-systems (HS) model for use in ISO/IEC 15504-conformant assessment of the maturity of an organization in performing the processes that make a system usable, healthy and safe. It describes processes that address human-system issues and the outcomes of these processes. It details the practices and work products associated with achieving the outcomes of each process.

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ISO 9241-100:2010 enables users of standards related to software ergonomics to identify ergonomics standards particularly relevant to software development, gain an overview on the content of software-ergonomics standards, understand the role of software-ergonomics standards in specifying user requirements as well as designing and evaluating user interfaces and understand the relationship between the various standards. The software-ergonomics standards are applicable to all those software components of an interactive system affecting usability, including application software (including web-based applications), operating systems, embedded software, software development tools and assistive technologies.

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ISO 9241-920:2009 gives recommendations for tactile and haptic hardware and software interactions. It provides guidance on the design and evaluation of hardware, software, and combinations of hardware and software interactions, including: the design/use of tactile/haptic inputs, outputs, and/or combinations of inputs and outputs, with general guidance on their design/use as well as on designing/using combinations of tactile and haptic interactions for use in combination with other modalities or as the exclusive mode of interaction; the tactile/haptic encoding of information, including textual data, graphical data and controls; the design of tactile/haptic objects, the layout of tactile/haptic space; interaction techniques. It does not provide recommendations specific to Braille, but can apply to interactions that make use of Braille. The recommendations given in ISO 9241-920:2009 are applicable to at least the controls of a virtual workspace, but they can also be applied to an entire virtual environment — consistent, in as far as possible, with the simulation requirements. NOTE It is recognized that some interactive scenarios might be constrained by the limitation that a real workspace is to be modelled in a virtual environment. Objects can be in suboptimal positions or conditions for haptic interaction by virtue of the situation being modelled.

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ISO/TR 9241-309:2008 gives guidelines for organic light‑emitting diode (OLED) displays.

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ISO/TR 9241-308:2007 gives guidelines for surface-conduction electron-emitter displays (SED).

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ISO 9241-300:2008 provides an introduction to the other parts in the ISO 9241 “300” subseries, and explains its modular structure. The ISO 9241 “300” subseries establishes requirements for the ergonomic design of electronic visual displays. These requirements are stated as performance specifications, aimed at ensuring effective and comfortable viewing conditions for users with normal or adjusted‑to‑normal eyesight. Test methods and metrology, yielding conformance measurements and criteria, are provided for design evaluation. The ISO 9241 “300” subseries is applicable to the visual ergonomics design of electronic visual displays for a diversity of tasks in a wide variety of work environments.

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ISO 9241-304:2008 provides guidance for assessing the visual ergonomics of display technologies with user performance test methods (as opposed to the optical test methods given in ISO 9241-305). Its use will help to ensure that, for a given context of use, a display meets minimum visual ergonomics requirements. It covers only visual attributes and does not address the ergonomics or usability of the whole product that houses a visual display. The main users of ISO 9241-304:2008 will be those who procure displays or who need to measure display performance during product development. Its application assumes a background in behavioural science.

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