DE/RES-08-0304

Radijska oprema in sistemi (RES) - Širokopasovne zvokovne povezave - Tehnične značilnosti in preskušalne metode

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Dec-1995
Technical Committee
Current Stage
12 - Completion
Due Date
31-Dec-1995
Completion Date
19-Dec-1995

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ETS 300 454:1998
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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Radio Equipment and Systems (RES); Wide band audio links; Technical characteristics and test methods33.060.99Druga oprema za radijske komunikacijeOther equipment for radiocommunicationsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:ETS 300 454 Edition 13SIST ETS 300 454:1998en01-DYJXVW-19983SIST ETS 300 454:1998SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST ETS 300 454:1998

EUROPEANETS 300 454TELECOMMUNICATIONDecember 1995STANDARDSource: ETSI TC-RESReference: DE/RES-08-0304ICS:33.020,33.060.20Key words:audio, data, radio mic, testingRadio Equipment and Systems (RES);Wide band audio links;Technical characteristics and test methodsETSIEuropean Telecommunications Standards InstituteETSI SecretariatPostal address: F-06921 Sophia Antipolis CEDEX - FRANCEOffice address: 650 Route des Lucioles - Sophia Antipolis - Valbonne - FRANCEX.400: c=fr, a=atlas, p=etsi, s=secretariat - Internet: secretariat@etsi.frTel.: +33 92 94 42 00 - Fax: +33 93 65 47 16Copyright Notification: No part may be reproduced except as authorized by written permission. The copyright and theforegoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.© European Telecommunications Standards Institute 1995. All rights reserved.SIST ETS 300 454:1998New presentation - see History box

Page 2ETS 300 454: December 1995Whilst every care has been taken in the preparation and publication of this document, errors in content,typographical or otherwise, may occur. If you have comments concerning its accuracy, please write to"ETSI Editing and Committee Support Dept." at the address shown on the title page.SIST ETS 300 454:1998

Page 3ETS 300 454: December 1995ContentsForeword.......................................................................................................................................................7Introduction....................................................................................................................................................71Scope..................................................................................................................................................92Normative references..........................................................................................................................93Definitions, symbols and abbreviations.............................................................................................103.1Definitions..........................................................................................................................103.2Symbols.............................................................................................................................103.3Abbreviations.....................................................................................................................114Functional characteristics..................................................................................................................114.1Wide band audio link descriptions.....................................................................................115General..............................................................................................................................................115.1Presentation of equipment for testing purposes................................................................115.1.1Choice of model for type testing....................................................................125.1.2Definitions of alignment and switching ranges..............................................125.1.3Definition of the categories of the alignment range (AR1 and AR2).............135.1.4Choice of frequencies....................................................................................135.1.5Testing of single channel equipment of category AR1..................................135.1.6Testing of single channel equipment of category AR2..................................135.1.7Testing of two channel equipment of category AR1......................................135.1.8Testing of two channel equipment of category AR2......................................135.1.9Testing of multichannel equipment (more than two channels) of categoryAR1...............................................................................................................145.1.10Testing of multichannel equipment (more than two channels) of categoryAR2 where the switching range is less than the alignment range.................145.1.11Testing of multichannel equipment (more than two channels) of categoryAR2 where the switching range is equal to the alignment range..................145.1.12Testing of equipment without a permanent external RF port........................145.1.12.1Equipment with a permanent internal RF port.....................145.1.12.2Equipment with a temporary RF port...................................155.2Mechanical and electrical design.......................................................................................155.2.1General..........................................................................................................155.2.2Limiting threshold..........................................................................................155.2.3Controls.........................................................................................................155.2.4Integral antenna............................................................................................155.2.5Marking (equipment identification)................................................................165.3Interpretation of the measurement results.........................................................................166Test conditions, power sources and ambient conditions...................................................................166.1Normal and extreme test conditions..................................................................................166.2Test power source.............................................................................................................166.3Normal test conditions.......................................................................................................176.3.1Normal temperature and humidity.................................................................176.3.2Normal test power source voltage.................................................................176.3.2.1Mains voltage.......................................................................176.3.2.2Nickel-Cadmium cells..........................................................176.3.2.3Other power sources...........................................................176.4Extreme Test Conditions...................................................................................................176.4.1Extreme temperatures...................................................................................176.4.1.1 Procedures for tests at extreme temperatures...................176.4.2Extreme test power source voltages.............................................................186.4.2.1Mains voltage.......................................................................18SIST ETS 300 454:1998

Page 4ETS 300 454: December 19956.4.2.2Rechargeable battery power sources.................................186.4.2.3Power sources using other types of batteries.....................186.4.2.4Other power sources...........................................................187General conditions............................................................................................................................187.1Normal test modulation.....................................................................................................187.2Artificial antenna................................................................................................................197.3Test fixture........................................................................................................................207.4Test site and general arrangements for radiated measurements.....................................207.5Modes of operation of the transmitter...............................................................................207.6Arrangement for test signals at the input of the transmitter..............................................207.7Arrangements for test signals applied to the receiver via a test fixture or a test antenna.208Methods of measurement and limits for transmitter parameters......................................................218.1Frequency error.................................................................................................................218.1.1Definition.......................................................................................................218.1.2Method of measurement...............................................................................218.1.3Limit..............................................................................................................218.2Carrier power.....................................................................................................................218.2.1Definition.......................................................................................................218.2.2Method of measurement for equipment without integral antenna................218.2.3Method of measurement for equipment with integral antenna.....................228.2.3.1Method of measurement under normal test conditions.......228.2.3.2Method of measurement under extreme test conditions.....228.2.4Limit..............................................................................................................228.3Channel bandwidth............................................................................................................238.3.1Definition.......................................................................................................238.3.2Measurement of Necessary Bandwidth (BN)................................................238.3.3Limits............................................................................................................248.4Spurious emissions...........................................................................................................248.4.1Definitions.....................................................................................................248.4.2Method of measuring the effective radiated power.......................................248.4.3Limits............................................................................................................258.4.4Measuring receiver.......................................................................................258.5Transient frequency behaviour of the transmitter..............................................................258.5.1Definitions.....................................................................................................258.5.2Method of measurement...............................................................................268.5.3Method of measurement for frequency changing.........................................278.5.4Limits............................................................................................................279Receiver............................................................................................................................................279.1Spurious emissions...........................................................................................................279.1.1Definitions.....................................................................................................279.1.2Method of measuring the power level in a specified load.............................289.1.3Method of measuring the effective radiated power of the enclosure............289.1.4Method of measuring the effective radiated power.......................................299.2Limits.................................................................................................................................2910Measurement uncertainty.................................................................................................................29Annex A (normative):Radiated measurement.....................................................................................30A.1Test sites and general arrangements for measurements involving the use of radiated fields.........30A.1.1Outdoor test site................................................................................................................30A.1.1.1Test support for body worn equipment.........................................................30A.1.1.2Standard position..........................................................................................31A.1.2Test antenna.....................................................................................................................31A.1.3Substitution antenna..........................................................................................................31A.1.4Optional additional indoor site...........................................................................................32A.2Guidance on the use of radiation test sites......................................................................................32A.2.1Measuring distance...........................................................................................................33A.2.2Test antenna.....................................................................................................................33SIST ETS 300 454:1998

Page 5ETS 300 454: December 1995A.2.3Substitution antenna..........................................................................................................33A.2.4Artificial antenna................................................................................................................33A.2.5Auxiliary cables..................................................................................................................33A.3Further optional alternative indoor test site using an anechoic chamber..........................................33A.3.1Example of the construction of a shielded anechoic chamber..........................................33A.3.2Influence of parasitic reflections in anechoic chambers....................................................34A.3.3Calibration of the shielded anechoic chamber...................................................................35Annex B (normative):Measurement of Necessary Bandwidth (BN).....................................................37Annex C (informative):Graphic representation of the selection of equipment and frequencies fortesting of single and multi-frequency equipment................................................38History..........................................................................................................................................................40SIST ETS 300 454:1998

Page 6ETS 300 454: December 1995Blank pageSIST ETS 300 454:1998

Page 7ETS 300 454: December 1995ForewordThis European Telecommunication Standard (ETS) has been produced by the Radio Equipment andSystems (RES) Technical Committee of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI).Every ETS prepared by ETSI is a voluntary standard. This ETS contains text concerning conformancetesting of the equipment to which it relates. This text should be considered only as guidance and does notmake this ETS mandatory.Annex A provides normative specifications concerning radiated measurements.Annex B provides the test method for measurement of Necessary Bandwidth (BN).Transposition datesDate of adoption of this ETS:17 November 1995Date of latest announcement of this ETS (doa):31 March 1996Date of latest publication of new National Standardor endorsement of this ETS (dop/e):30 September 1996Date of withdrawal of any conflicting National Standard (dow):30 September 1996Annex C presents a graphical representation of the equipment and frequencies for the testing of singleand multi-frequency equipment.IntroductionI-ETS 300 422 [1] has been a frame which led to many national prescriptions which differed, sometimessubstantially, between European countries and did not directly refer to wide band audio links. The rapidlyincreasing use of wireless microphones with increased power for bridging longer distances (hereafterreferred to as wide band audio links) in several European countries with different specifications, and theway forward to a Europe without borders, makes it necessary to set up common specifications.This ETS provides the necessary parameters for equipment to obtain common approval throughoutEurope. It should also make it easier for the frequency management authorities to find harmonizedfrequency allocations which, together with common technical specifications, will greatly reduce the presentproblems of multi-national use.In preparing this ETS, much attention has been given to assure a low interference probability, while at thesame time allowing a maximum flexibility and service to the end-user. The close relationship betweenradio microphones and wide band audio links has led to many identical characteristics. Nevertheless itwas found to be better to create a separate ETS due to the higher power and the many extra facilitieswhich were developed during recent years for this special use. This ETS does not include performancecharacteristics that may be required by the user or requirements for interfacing equipment.Type test measurements should be performed in one of the accredited test laboratories, accepted by thevarious National regulatory authorities in order to grant type approval, provided the National regulatoryrequirements are met. This is in compliance with CEPT Recommendation T/R 71-03 [2].In addition, national administrations may accept a "certificate of conformity" based on a type test report. Ifequipment available on the market is required to be checked it should be tested in accordance with themethods of measurement specified in this ETS.SIST ETS 300 454:1998

Page 8ETS 300 454: December 1995Blank pageSIST ETS 300 454:1998

Page 9ETS 300 454: December 19951ScopeThis ETS specifies the minimum performance and the methods of measurement of wide band audio links.This ETS covers the minimum characteristics considered necessary in order to make the best use of theavailable frequencies. It does not necessarily include all the characteristics which may be required by auser, nor does it necessarily represent the optimum performance achievable.This ETS applies to modulation systems operating on radio frequencies between 25 MHz and

3 GHz.Although analogue FM is at present used for the majority of wide band audio links, this ETS does notpreclude any other constant carrier modulation technique, e.g. Gaussian Filtered Minimum Shift Keying(GMSK) or Generalised Tamed Frequency Modulation (GTFM), provided that the modulation spectrum lieswithin the specified spectral mask.This ETS does not cover wide band audio links employing Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA),frequency hopping and spread spectrum or similar forms of modulation.This ETS does not cover radiated emissions below 25 MHz. Specifications related to Electro-MagneticCompatibility (EMC) are contained within prETS 300 445 [3].This ETS has been developed from CEPT Recommendation T/R 20-06 [4].Additional standards or specifications may be required for equipment intended to interface with the PublicSwitched Telephone Network (PSTN). This facility may be submitted to regulatory conditions.This ETS may be used by accredited test laboratories for type testing of the equipment. The performanceof the equipment submitted for type testing should be representative for the performance of thecorresponding production models.This ETS also contains instructions for the presentation of equipment for type testing purposes.The types of equipment covered by this ETS are as follows (see clause 4):-professional wide band audio links for one-way transmission;-professional wide band audio links for two-way transmission;-professional wide band audio links with extra facilities.2Normative referencesThis ETS incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. Thesenormative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listedhereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publicationsapply to this ETS only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latestedition or the publication referred to applies.[1]I-ETS 300 422: "Radio Equipment and Systems (RES); Technicalcharacteristics and test methods for wireless microphones in the 25 MHz to3 GHz frequency range".[2]CEPT Recommendation T/R 71-03: "Procedures for type testing and approvalfor radio equipment intended for non-public systems".[3]Final draft prETS 300 445: "Radio Equipment and Systems (RES);Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC)

standard for wireless microphones andsimilar Radio Frequency (RF) audio link equipment".[4]CEPT Recommendation T/R 20-06: "Transmitters and receivers for low powercordless microphone systems".[5]ITU-R Recommendation 559-2: "Objective measurement of radio-frequencyprotection ratios in LF, MF and HF broadcasting".SIST ETS 300 454:1998

Page 10ETS 300 454: December 1995[6]IEC 244: "Methods of measurement for radio transmitters".[7]ETR 028: "Radio Equipment and Systems (RES); Uncertainties in themeasurement of mobile radio equipment characteristics".3Definitions, symbols and abbreviations3.1DefinitionsFor the purposes of this ETS, the following definitions apply:carrier grid: An evenly spaced raster in a given frequency band for the allocation of carrier frequencies.The minimum distance of two carriers in use is a multiple of the raster dependent on type and usage of theequipment.channel bandwidth: A frequency band of defined width (as a multiple of the carrier grid) including safetymargin for operation on adjacent channels, located symmetrically around a carrier frequency in the carriergrid.conducted measurements: Those measurements which are made using a direct 50 W connection to theequipment under test.integral antenna: An antenna, with or without a connector, designed as, and declared as by themanufacturer, an indispensable part of the equipment.integral microphone: A microphone, designed as, and declared as by the manufacturer, an indispensablefixed part of the equipment.limiter threshold: The audio input (output) level at which the transmitter audio limiter action may be saidto commence. It is specified with any accessible variable gain controls set according to the manufacturer'sinstructions, with a sinusoidal input signal of 500 Hz.occupied bandwidth: That part of the channel bandwidth which is required for the modulated signal.The occupied bandwidth has to be smaller than the channel bandwidth following standardized limits.port: A port is any connection point on or within the Equipment Under Test (EUT) intended for theconnection of cables to or from that equipment.radiated measurements: Those measurements which involve measurement of a radiated field.Radio Frequency (RF) port: An RF port is any connection point on or within EUT intended for theconnection of RF cable. The RF port will be treated as a 50 W connection point unless otherwise specifiedby the manufacturer.wide band audio link: A radio microphone of sufficient power to allow wireless (sometimes referred to aslink radio microphone) connection over greater distances mainly for portable use. It may include in onemechanical unit more transmitting and receiving facilities than only for high quality audio application.3.2SymbolsFor the purposes of this ETS, the following symbols apply:EField strengthEoReference field strength, annex ARDistance, annex ARoReference distance, annex ASIST ETS 300 454:1998

Page 11ETS 300 454: December 19953.3AbbreviationsFor the purposes of this ETS, the following abbreviations apply:AR1Alignment Range category 1 (subclause 5.1.3)AR2Alignment Range category 2 (subclause 5.1.3)Bdeclared channel Bandwidth (see table 1)erpeffective radiated powerEMCElectro-Magnetic CompatibilityEUTEquipment Under TestGMSKGaussian Filtered Minimum Shift KeyingGTFMGeneralised Tamed Frequency ModulationPSTNPublic Switched Telephone NetworkRBWResolution BandWidthRFRadio FrequencyTDMATime Division Multiple AccessTxTransmitterVBWVideo BandWidthmPamicro Pascal4Functional characteristics4.1Wide band audio link descriptionsWide band audio links covered by this ETS are privately owned, and operated, communications systemsfor high quality reproduction of the audio input and/or related data or control signals. The equipmentoperates on a continuous carrier basis and will often be in operation for many hours. A wide band audiolink system will at least consist of one transmitter and the corresponding receiver. The number depends onthe application, e.g. live news contributions from a widespread area of an actual event may make itnecessary to use several systems on separate simultaneous frequencies.The radio part of the transmitter and receiver are made up exclusively from equipment that has beenapproved according to this ETS. When radio equipment or parts covered by other standards are includedin the wide band audio link these shall fulfil the specifications of the applicable standards. As an examplemodular solutions may include, beside the main wide band transmitter, an additional receiver for narrowband communication and/or a monitor receiver for foldback signals. At the receiver end of this link, a wideband receiver, coupled with a narrow band transmitter, would be required.Other equipment that may be connected to it shall fulfil the standards applicable to that equipment (if any).Wide band audio links normally use wide band frequency modulation to achieve the necessary audioperformance. For the majority of applications the modulated transmitter signal covers a bandwidth allowingchannel spacing of 200 kHz. This allows for the use of stereo multiplex encoded signals to transmit withoutthe need for two separate wide band channels.5General5.1Presentation of equipment for testing purposesEach equipment submitted for type testing shall fulfil the requirements of this ETS on all channels overwhich it is intended to operate.The applicant shall complete the appropriate application form when submitting equipment for type testing.SIST ETS 300 454:1998

Page 12ETS 300 454: December 1995Table 1: Channel bandwidth designation (channel allocation within 25 kHz carrier grid)Declared channel bandwidthDesignation50 kHzL75 kHzM100 kHzP150 kHzQ200 kHzRThe applicant shall state:-the channel bandwidth(s) within which the equipment is designed to operate chosen from table 1;and-the audio input limiting threshold (see subclause 5.2.2).The applicant shall also supply all relevant interface information to allow:-dc connection;-RF connection;-audio connection;-the limiting threshold for the transmitter; and-the setting of any input audio - level controls for normal operation, for a sinusoidal input signal of500 Hz. The manufacturer shall specify the settings of any other controls necessary to avoidinvalidating the measurement.The applicant should also supply an operating manual for the device(s).To simplify and harmonise the type testing procedures between the different test laboratories,measurement shall be performed, according to this ETS, on samples of equipment defined insubclauses 5.1.1 to 5.1.12.2.For audio links which are intended to use a variety of audio capsules the manufacturer shall supply the testsample with an audio test fixture to substitute the audio capsule with suitable input and output impedances.These subclauses are intended to give confidence that the requirements set out in this ETS have been metwithout the necessity of performing measurements on all channels.5.1.1Choice of model for type testingThe applicant shall provide one or more production model(s) of the equipment, including all antennaewhich are required to be covered by the type testing.If type approval is given on the basis of tests on a preliminary model, the corresponding production modelsshall be identical in all respects with the preliminary model tested.In the case of wide band audio link equipment without a permanent external RF port, (seesubclause 5.1.12).5.1.2Definitions of alignment and switching rangesThe applicant shall, when submitting equipment for test, state the alignment ranges for the receiver andtransmitter.The alignment range is defined as the frequency range over which the receiver and the transmitter can beprogrammed and/or realigned to operate with a single oscillator frequency multiplication, without anyphysical change of components other than:-programmable read only memories supplied by the manufacturer or the manufacturer's nominee;-crystals;-frequency setting elements (for the receiver and transmitter).SIST ETS 300 454:1998

Page 13ETS 300 454: December 1995The applicant shall also state the switching range of the receiver and the transmitter (which may differ).The switching range is the maximum frequency range over which the receiver or the transmitter can beoperated without reprogramming or realignment.5.1.3Definition of the categories of the alignment range (AR1 and AR2)The alignment range for the receiver and transmitter, which may be different, falls into one of twocategories, (see annex C):AR1this corresponds to a limit of less than or equal to 10 % of the highest frequency of the alignmentrange, which is equal to or less than 500 MHz, or less than 5 % where the highest alignmentfrequency is above 500 MHz; orAR2this corresponds to a limit of greater than or equal to 10 % of the highest f

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ETS 300 454:1998
01-oktober-1998
5DGLMVNDRSUHPDLQVLVWHPL 5(6 âLURNRSDVRYQH]YRNRYQHSRYH]DYH7HKQLþQH
]QDþLOQRVWLLQSUHVNXãDOQHPHWRGH

Radio Equipment and Systems (RES); Wide band audio links; Technical characteristics

and test methods
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ETS 300 454 Edition 1
ICS:
33.060.99 Druga oprema za radijske Other equipment for
komunikacije radiocommunications
SIST ETS 300 454:1998 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST ETS 300 454:1998
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SIST ETS 300 454:1998
EUROPEAN ETS 300 454
TELECOMMUNICATION December 1995
STANDARD
Source: ETSI TC-RES Reference: DE/RES-08-0304
ICS: 33.020,33.060.20
audio, data, radio mic, testing
Key words:
Radio Equipment and Systems (RES);
Wide band audio links;
Technical characteristics and test methods
ETSI
European Telecommunications Standards Institute
ETSI Secretariat
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis CEDEX - FRANCE
Postal address:
650 Route des Lucioles - Sophia Antipolis - Valbonne - FRANCE
Office address:
c=fr, a=atlas, p=etsi, s=secretariat - secretariat@etsi.fr
X.400: Internet:
Tel.: +33 92 94 42 00 - Fax: +33 93 65 47 16

Copyright Notification: No part may be reproduced except as authorized by written permission. The copyright and the

foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© European Telecommunications Standards Institute 1995. All rights reserved.
New presentation - see History box
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ETS 300 454: December 1995

Whilst every care has been taken in the preparation and publication of this document, errors in content,

typographical or otherwise, may occur. If you have comments concerning its accuracy, please write to

"ETSI Editing and Committee Support Dept." at the address shown on the title page.

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SIST ETS 300 454:1998
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ETS 300 454: December 1995
Contents

Foreword .......................................................................................................................................................7

Introduction....................................................................................................................................................7

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................9

2 Normative references..........................................................................................................................9

3 Definitions, symbols and abbreviations.............................................................................................10

3.1 Definitions ..........................................................................................................................10

3.2 Symbols .............................................................................................................................10

3.3 Abbreviations .....................................................................................................................11

4 Functional characteristics..................................................................................................................11

4.1 Wide band audio link descriptions .....................................................................................11

5 General..............................................................................................................................................11

5.1 Presentation of equipment for testing purposes ................................................................11

5.1.1 Choice of model for type testing....................................................................12

5.1.2 Definitions of alignment and switching ranges ..............................................12

5.1.3 Definition of the categories of the alignment range (AR1 and AR2) .............13

5.1.4 Choice of frequencies....................................................................................13

5.1.5 Testing of single channel equipment of category AR1..................................13

5.1.6 Testing of single channel equipment of category AR2..................................13

5.1.7 Testing of two channel equipment of category AR1......................................13

5.1.8 Testing of two channel equipment of category AR2......................................13

5.1.9 Testing of multichannel equipment (more than two channels) of category

AR1 ...............................................................................................................14

5.1.10 Testing of multichannel equipment (more than two channels) of category

AR2 where the switching range is less than the alignment range.................14

5.1.11 Testing of multichannel equipment (more than two channels) of category

AR2 where the switching range is equal to the alignment range ..................14

5.1.12 Testing of equipment without a permanent external RF port ........................14

5.1.12.1 Equipment with a permanent internal RF port .....................14
5.1.12.2 Equipment with a temporary RF port...................................15

5.2 Mechanical and electrical design.......................................................................................15

5.2.1 General..........................................................................................................15

5.2.2 Limiting threshold ..........................................................................................15

5.2.3 Controls .........................................................................................................15

5.2.4 Integral antenna ............................................................................................15

5.2.5 Marking (equipment identification) ................................................................16

5.3 Interpretation of the measurement results.........................................................................16

6 Test conditions, power sources and ambient conditions...................................................................16

6.1 Normal and extreme test conditions ..................................................................................16

6.2 Test power source .............................................................................................................16

6.3 Normal test conditions .......................................................................................................17

6.3.1 Normal temperature and humidity.................................................................17

6.3.2 Normal test power source voltage.................................................................17

6.3.2.1 Mains voltage.......................................................................17

6.3.2.2 Nickel-Cadmium cells..........................................................17

6.3.2.3 Other power sources ...........................................................17

6.4 Extreme Test Conditions ...................................................................................................17

6.4.1 Extreme temperatures...................................................................................17

6.4.1.1 Procedures for tests at extreme temperatures...................17

6.4.2 Extreme test power source voltages .............................................................18

6.4.2.1 Mains voltage.......................................................................18

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ETS 300 454: December 1995
6.4.2.2 Rechargeable battery power sources ................................. 18
6.4.2.3 Power sources using other types of batteries ..................... 18

6.4.2.4 Other power sources........................................................... 18

7 General conditions............................................................................................................................ 18

7.1 Normal test modulation ..................................................................................................... 18

7.2 Artificial antenna................................................................................................................ 19

7.3 Test fixture ........................................................................................................................ 20

7.4 Test site and general arrangements for radiated measurements ..................................... 20

7.5 Modes of operation of the transmitter ............................................................................... 20

7.6 Arrangement for test signals at the input of the transmitter .............................................. 20

7.7 Arrangements for test signals applied to the receiver via a test fixture or a test antenna. 20

8 Methods of measurement and limits for transmitter parameters...................................................... 21

8.1 Frequency error................................................................................................................. 21

8.1.1 Definition....................................................................................................... 21

8.1.2 Method of measurement............................................................................... 21

8.1.3 Limit .............................................................................................................. 21

8.2 Carrier power..................................................................................................................... 21

8.2.1 Definition....................................................................................................... 21

8.2.2 Method of measurement for equipment without integral antenna ................ 21

8.2.3 Method of measurement for equipment with integral antenna ..................... 22

8.2.3.1 Method of measurement under normal test conditions....... 22
8.2.3.2 Method of measurement under extreme test conditions..... 22

8.2.4 Limit .............................................................................................................. 22

8.3 Channel bandwidth............................................................................................................23

8.3.1 Definition....................................................................................................... 23

8.3.2 Measurement of Necessary Bandwidth (BN)................................................ 23

8.3.3 Limits ............................................................................................................ 24

8.4 Spurious emissions ...........................................................................................................24

8.4.1 Definitions ..................................................................................................... 24

8.4.2 Method of measuring the effective radiated power....................................... 24

8.4.3 Limits ............................................................................................................ 25

8.4.4 Measuring receiver ....................................................................................... 25

8.5 Transient frequency behaviour of the transmitter.............................................................. 25

8.5.1 Definitions ..................................................................................................... 25

8.5.2 Method of measurement............................................................................... 26

8.5.3 Method of measurement for frequency changing......................................... 27

8.5.4 Limits ............................................................................................................ 27

9 Receiver............................................................................................................................................ 27

9.1 Spurious emissions ...........................................................................................................27

9.1.1 Definitions ..................................................................................................... 27

9.1.2 Method of measuring the power level in a specified load............................. 28

9.1.3 Method of measuring the effective radiated power of the enclosure............ 28

9.1.4 Method of measuring the effective radiated power....................................... 29

9.2 Limits................................................................................................................................. 29

10 Measurement uncertainty ................................................................................................................. 29

Annex A (normative): Radiated measurement ..................................................................................... 30

A.1 Test sites and general arrangements for measurements involving the use of radiated fields ......... 30

A.1.1 Outdoor test site................................................................................................................ 30

A.1.1.1 Test support for body worn equipment ......................................................... 30

A.1.1.2 Standard position.......................................................................................... 31

A.1.2 Test antenna ..................................................................................................................... 31

A.1.3 Substitution antenna.......................................................................................................... 31

A.1.4 Optional additional indoor site ........................................................................................... 32

A.2 Guidance on the use of radiation test sites ...................................................................................... 32

A.2.1 Measuring distance ........................................................................................................... 33

A.2.2 Test antenna ..................................................................................................................... 33

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ETS 300 454: December 1995

A.2.3 Substitution antenna ..........................................................................................................33

A.2.4 Artificial antenna ................................................................................................................33

A.2.5 Auxiliary cables ..................................................................................................................33

A.3 Further optional alternative indoor test site using an anechoic chamber ..........................................33

A.3.1 Example of the construction of a shielded anechoic chamber ..........................................33

A.3.2 Influence of parasitic reflections in anechoic chambers ....................................................34

A.3.3 Calibration of the shielded anechoic chamber...................................................................35

Annex B (normative): Measurement of Necessary Bandwidth (BN) .....................................................37

Annex C (informative): Graphic representation of the selection of equipment and frequencies for

testing of single and multi-frequency equipment ................................................38

History..........................................................................................................................................................40

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ETS 300 454: December 1995
Foreword

This European Telecommunication Standard (ETS) has been produced by the Radio Equipment and

Systems (RES) Technical Committee of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI).

Every ETS prepared by ETSI is a voluntary standard. This ETS contains text concerning conformance

testing of the equipment to which it relates. This text should be considered only as guidance and does not

make this ETS mandatory.
Annex A provides normative specifications concerning radiated measurements.
Annex B provides the test method for measurement of Necessary Bandwidth (BN).
Transposition dates
Date of adoption of this ETS: 17 November 1995
Date of latest announcement of this ETS (doa): 31 March 1996
Date of latest publication of new National Standard
or endorsement of this ETS (dop/e): 30 September 1996
Date of withdrawal of any conflicting National Standard (dow): 30 September 1996

Annex C presents a graphical representation of the equipment and frequencies for the testing of single

and multi-frequency equipment.
Introduction

I-ETS 300 422 [1] has been a frame which led to many national prescriptions which differed, sometimes

substantially, between European countries and did not directly refer to wide band audio links. The rapidly

increasing use of wireless microphones with increased power for bridging longer distances (hereafter

referred to as wide band audio links) in several European countries with different specifications, and the

way forward to a Europe without borders, makes it necessary to set up common specifications.

This ETS provides the necessary parameters for equipment to obtain common approval throughout

Europe. It should also make it easier for the frequency management authorities to find harmonized

frequency allocations which, together with common technical specifications, will greatly reduce the present

problems of multi-national use.

In preparing this ETS, much attention has been given to assure a low interference probability, while at the

same time allowing a maximum flexibility and service to the end-user. The close relationship between

radio microphones and wide band audio links has led to many identical characteristics. Nevertheless it

was found to be better to create a separate ETS due to the higher power and the many extra facilities

which were developed during recent years for this special use. This ETS does not include performance

characteristics that may be required by the user or requirements for interfacing equipment.

Type test measurements should be performed in one of the accredited test laboratories, accepted by the

various National regulatory authorities in order to grant type approval, provided the National regulatory

requirements are met. This is in compliance with CEPT Recommendation T/R 71-03 [2].

In addition, national administrations may accept a "certificate of conformity" based on a type test report. If

equipment available on the market is required to be checked it should be tested in accordance with the

methods of measurement specified in this ETS.
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1 Scope

This ETS specifies the minimum performance and the methods of measurement of wide band audio links.

This ETS covers the minimum characteristics considered necessary in order to make the best use of the

available frequencies. It does not necessarily include all the characteristics which may be required by a

user, nor does it necessarily represent the optimum performance achievable.

This ETS applies to modulation systems operating on radio frequencies between 25 MHz and 3 GHz.

Although analogue FM is at present used for the majority of wide band audio links, this ETS does not

preclude any other constant carrier modulation technique, e.g. Gaussian Filtered Minimum Shift Keying

(GMSK) or Generalised Tamed Frequency Modulation (GTFM), provided that the modulation spectrum lies

within the specified spectral mask.

This ETS does not cover wide band audio links employing Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA),

frequency hopping and spread spectrum or similar forms of modulation.

This ETS does not cover radiated emissions below 25 MHz. Specifications related to Electro-Magnetic

Compatibility (EMC) are contained within prETS 300 445 [3].
This ETS has been developed from CEPT Recommendation T/R 20-06 [4].

Additional standards or specifications may be required for equipment intended to interface with the Public

Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). This facility may be submitted to regulatory conditions.

This ETS may be used by accredited test laboratories for type testing of the equipment. The performance

of the equipment submitted for type testing should be representative for the performance of the

corresponding production models.

This ETS also contains instructions for the presentation of equipment for type testing purposes.

The types of equipment covered by this ETS are as follows (see clause 4):
- professional wide band audio links for one-way transmission;
- professional wide band audio links for two-way transmission;
- professional wide band audio links with extra facilities.
2 Normative references

This ETS incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These

normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed

hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications

apply to this ETS only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest

edition or the publication referred to applies.
[1] I-ETS 300 422: "Radio Equipment and Systems (RES); Technical
characteristics and test methods for wireless microphones in the 25 MHz to
3 GHz frequency range".
[2] CEPT Recommendation T/R 71-03: "Procedures for type testing and approval
for radio equipment intended for non-public systems".
[3] Final draft prETS 300 445: "Radio Equipment and Systems (RES);
Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) standard for wireless microphones and
similar Radio Frequency (RF) audio link equipment".
[4] CEPT Recommendation T/R 20-06: "Transmitters and receivers for low power
cordless microphone systems".
[5] ITU-R Recommendation 559-2: "Objective measurement of radio-frequency
protection ratios in LF, MF and HF broadcasting".
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[6] IEC 244: "Methods of measurement for radio transmitters".
[7] ETR 028: "Radio Equipment and Systems (RES); Uncertainties in the
measurement of mobile radio equipment characteristics".
3 Definitions, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Definitions
For the purposes of this ETS, the following definitions apply:

carrier grid: An evenly spaced raster in a given frequency band for the allocation of carrier frequencies.

The minimum distance of two carriers in use is a multiple of the raster dependent on type and usage of the

equipment.

channel bandwidth: A frequency band of defined width (as a multiple of the carrier grid) including safety

margin for operation on adjacent channels, located symmetrically around a carrier frequency in the carrier

grid.

conducted measurements: Those measurements which are made using a direct 50 Ω connection to the

equipment under test.

integral antenna: An antenna, with or without a connector, designed as, and declared as by the

manufacturer, an indispensable part of the equipment.

integral microphone: A microphone, designed as, and declared as by the manufacturer, an indispensable

fixed part of the equipment.

limiter threshold: The audio input (output) level at which the transmitter audio limiter action may be said

to commence. It is specified with any accessible variable gain controls set according to the manufacturer's

instructions, with a sinusoidal input signal of 500 Hz.

occupied bandwidth: That part of the channel bandwidth which is required for the modulated signal.

The occupied bandwidth has to be smaller than the channel bandwidth following standardized limits.

port: A port is any connection point on or within the Equipment Under Test (EUT) intended for the

connection of cables to or from that equipment.

radiated measurements: Those measurements which involve measurement of a radiated field.

Radio Frequency (RF) port: An RF port is any connection point on or within EUT intended for the

connection of RF cable. The RF port will be treated as a 50 Ω connection point unless otherwise specified

by the manufacturer.

wide band audio link: A radio microphone of sufficient power to allow wireless (sometimes referred to as

link radio microphone) connection over greater distances mainly for portable use. It may include in one

mechanical unit more transmitting and receiving facilities than only for high quality audio application.

3.2 Symbols
For the purposes of this ETS, the following symbols apply:
E Field strength
Eo Reference field strength, annex A
R Distance, annex A
Ro Reference distance, annex A
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3.3 Abbreviations
For the purposes of this ETS, the following abbreviations apply:
AR1 Alignment Range category 1 (subclause 5.1.3)
AR2 Alignment Range category 2 (subclause 5.1.3)
B declared channel Bandwidth (see table 1)
erp effective radiated power
EMC Electro-Magnetic Compatibility
EUT Equipment Under Test
GMSK Gaussian Filtered Minimum Shift Keying
GTFM Generalised Tamed Frequency Modulation
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
RBW Resolution BandWidth
RF Radio Frequency
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
Tx Transmitter
VBW Video BandWidth
μPa micro Pascal
4 Functional characteristics
4.1 Wide band audio link descriptions

Wide band audio links covered by this ETS are privately owned, and operated, communications systems

for high quality reproduction of the audio input and/or related data or control signals. The equipment

operates on a continuous carrier basis and will often be in operation for many hours. A wide band audio

link system will at least consist of one transmitter and the corresponding receiver. The number depends on

the application, e.g. live news contributions from a widespread area of an actual event may make it

necessary to use several systems on separate simultaneous frequencies.

The radio part of the transmitter and receiver are made up exclusively from equipment that has been

approved according to this ETS. When radio equipment or parts covered by other standards are included

in the wide band audio link these shall fulfil the specifications of the applicable standards. As an example

modular solutions may include, beside the main wide band transmitter, an additional receiver for narrow

band communication and/or a monitor receiver for foldback signals. At the receiver end of this link, a wide

band receiver, coupled with a narrow band transmitter, would be required.

Other equipment that may be connected to it shall fulfil the standards applicable to that equipment (if any).

Wide band audio links normally use wide band frequency modulation to achieve the necessary audio

performance. For the majority of applications the modulated transmitter signal covers a bandwidth allowing

channel spacing of 200 kHz. This allows for the use of stereo multiplex encoded signals to transmit without

the need for two separate wide band channels.
5 General
5.1 Presentation of equipment for testing purposes

Each equipment submitted for type testing shall fulfil the requirements of this ETS on all channels over

which it is intended to operate.

The applicant shall complete the appropriate application form when submitting equipment for type testing.

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Table 1: Channel bandwidth designation (channel allocation within 25 kHz carrier grid)

Declared channel bandwidth Designation
50 kHz L
75 kHz M
100 kHz P
150 kHz Q
200 kHz R
The applicant shall state:

- the channel bandwidth(s) within which the equipment is designed to operate chosen from table 1;

and
- the audio input limiting threshold (see subclause 5.2.2).
The applicant shall also supply all relevant interface information to allow:
- dc connection;
- RF connection;
- audio connection;
- the limiting threshold for the transmitter; and

- the setting of any input audio - level controls for normal operation, for a sinusoidal input signal of

500 Hz. The manufacturer shall specify the settings of any other controls necessary to avoid

invalidating the measurement.
The applicant should also supply an operating manual for the device(s).

To simplify and harmonise the type testing procedures between the different test laboratories,

measurement shall be performed, according to this ETS, on samples of equipment defined in

subclauses 5.1.1 to 5.1.12.2.

For audio links which are intended to use a variety of audio capsules the manufacturer shall supply the test

sample with an audio test fixture to substitute the audio capsule with suitable input and output impedances.

These subclauses are intended to give confidence that the requirements set out in this ETS have been met

without the necessity of performing measurements on all channels.
5.1.1 Choice of model for type testing

The applicant shall provide one or more production model(s) of the equipment, including all antennae

which are required to be covered by the type testing.

If type approval is given on the basis of tests on a preliminary model, the corresponding production models

shall be identical in
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