Manufacturing processes and product testing are complex concepts and require a structured approach and planning. Since the scale of production of various goods and products is expanding every day, both in quantity and in scale on world markets, a significant part of the organization of these processes is occupied by international standards. The bottom line is that the creation of regulatory legal acts is primarily necessary to regulate the minimum permissible boundaries of product quality. Compliance with these rules will not only protect production and the company from risks, fines and unsuitability of products for international trade, but can also significantly optimize existing processes. Today we will introduce you to some of the most key technical standards.
Metallic materials — Bend test
A feature of some standards is the aspect that they regulate absolutely every stage of business processes. One such step is testing, and one of the standards that governs test methods for metallic materials is ISO / FDIS 7438.
This document specifies a test method for determining the tensile strain hardening exponent of flat products (sheet and strip) made of metallic materials. The method is valid only for that part of the stress-strain curve in the plastic range where the curve is continuous and monotonic. In the case of materials with a serrated stress-strain curve in the work hardening range, the automatic determination is used to give reproducible results. We advise you to draw your attention to the fact that this standard is very narrow in scope and in order to understand whether it is suitable for the scope of your company, contact our company to clarify all the details. Non-destructive testing — Standard test method for determining residual stresses by neutron diffraction ISO 21432:2019
Continuing the topic of test methods, it should be noted that the specificity of a particular standard depends not only on what material the standard describes, but also on what kind of technology is used in production. The next important standard in the field of test methods is ISO 21432: 2019.This document describes the test method for determining residual stresses in polycrystalline materials by neutron diffraction. It is applicable to both homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials including those containing distinct phases. The principles of the neutron diffraction technique are outlined. Suggestions are provided on: — the selection of appropriate diffracting lattice planes on which measurements should be made for different categories of materials, — the specimen directions in which the measurements should be performed, and — the volume of material examined in relation to the material grain size and the envisaged stress state. Procedures are described for accurately positioning and aligning test pieces in a neutron beam and for precisely defining the volume of material sampled for the individual measurements. The precautions needed for calibrating neutron diffraction instruments are described. Techniques for obtaining a stress-free reference are presented.
The methods of making individual measurements by neutron diffraction are described in detail. Procedures for analysing the results and for determining their statistical relevance are presented. Advice is provided on how to determine reliable estimates of residual stresses from the strain data and on how to estimate the uncertainty in the results. If you are interested in this standard, you can follow the link to our website and clarify all the details on this document.
Non-destructive testing — Thermographic testing — Active thermography with laser excitation
New technologies are developing and the use of lasers is being introduced into various business processes more and more often. Since this technology and the rules for its use are also responsible for human health and the prevention of negative consequences, even the test methods are regulated by SIST EN 17501: 2020.
This document determines the guidelines and the specifications for non-destructive testing using active thermography with laser excitation. Active thermography with laser excitation is mainly applicable, but not limited to different materials (e.g. composites, metals, ceramics) and to:
- the detection of surface-breaking discontinuities, particularly cracks;
- the detection of discontinuities located just below the surface or below coatings with an efficiency that diminishes rapidly with a few mm depth;
- the detection of disbonds and delamination parallel to the examined surface;
- the measurement of thermal material properties, like thermal diffusivity;
- the measurement of coating thickness.
The requirements for the equipment, for the verification of the system, for the surface condition of the part to be tested, for the scanning conditions, for the recording, the processing and the interpretation of the results are specified. Acceptance criteria are not defined. Active thermography with laser excitation can be applied in industrial production as well as in maintenance and repair (vehicle parts, engine parts, power plant, aerospace, etc.).
If the field of activity of your company comes into contact with the use of the above technologies, then we recommend that you familiarize yourself in more detail with its detailed parameters on the link to the site.
Energy performance of buildings — Energy requirements for lighting — Part 1: Specifications, Module M9
We have already touched on the importance of using standards in the construction industry. Today we will talk in more detail about the standard, which describes in detail the features of the equipment that is associated with lighting.
SIST EN 15193–1:2017/OPRA 1:2020 specifies the methodology for evaluating the energy performance of lighting systems for providing general illumination in residential and non-residential buildings and for calculating or measuring the amount of energy required or used for lighting in buildings. The method may be applied to new, existing or refurbished buildings. It also provides a methodology (LENI) as the measure of the energy efficiency of the lighting installations in buildings. This standard does not cover lighting requirements, the design of lighting systems, the planning of lighting installations, the characteristics of lighting equipment (lamps, control gear and luminaires) and systems used for display lighting, desk lighting or luminaires built into furniture. This standard does not provide any procedure for the dynamic simulation of lighting scene setting. In CEN ISO/TR 52000–2 the same table can be found, with, for each module, the numbers of the relevant EPB standards and accompanying technical reports that are published or in preparation. The modules represent EPB standards, although one EPB standard may cover more than one module and one module may be covered by more than one EPB standard, for instance a simplified and a detailed method respectively.
Since it is stated above that Part 1 and Part 2 of this standard describe similar equipment, but have their own specific features, we recommend that you contact iTeh managers to clarify the details about which part of the standard is most suitable for your business. Image for post
Safety of machinery — Electro-sensitive protective equipment — Part 2: Particular requirements for equipment using
active opto-electronic protective devices (AOPDs)
Electrical appliances are an integral part in any field of human activity. Safety in their use can protect people from possible consequences, as well as increase the service life of the equipment. To regulate the use of electrical equipment standards are created at the international level.
IEC 61496–2:2020 specifies requirements for the design, construction and testing of electro-sensitive protective equipment (ESPE) designed specifically to detect persons as part of a safety-related system, employing active opto-electronic protective devices (AOPDs) for the sensing function. Special attention is directed to features which ensure that an appropriate safety-related performance is achieved. An ESPE can include optional safety-related functions, the requirements for which are given in Annex A of IEC 61496–1:2020 and of this document.
This document does not specify the dimensions or configurations of the detection zone and its disposition in relation to hazardous parts for any particular application, nor what constitutes a hazardous state of any machine. It is restricted to the functioning of the ESPE and how it interfaces with the machine. Excluded from this document are AOPDs employing radiation at wavelengths outside the range 400 nm to 1 500 nm. This document can be relevant to applications other than those for the protection of persons, for example, the protection of machinery or products from mechanical damage. In those applications, additional requirements can be necessary, for example, when the materials that are to be recognized by the sensing function have different properties from those of persons.
This document does not deal with electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) emission requirements. IEC 61496–2:2020 cancels and replaces the third edition published in 2013. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
If you used a previous version of this standard, we strongly recommend that you update your standards base to comply with the new rules of the international market and for the development of your company.
Which standard is better to choose?
We have already talked about the wide variety of existing standards in the field of manufacturing, equipment and test methods. In fact, in the modern world, one way or another, each company comes into contact with these areas and must follow international rules. The question remains that it is advisable to trust professionals to select the right standard for your company. If you are interested in acquiring international standards to improve the quality of services or products provided, and as a result, to increase profits, you can always contact iTeh. Our standards base is constantly updated with the latest updates and our team will be happy to select the exact document for you that will significantly increase the competitiveness of your business. With iTeh, reaching international markets is possible even for small companies.
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